• Like
293 bb
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
208
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • `

Transcript

  • 1. Energy and Exergy analysis of a dual fuelled diesel engine run on biogas ICAER, 2013 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai-400076, India Bhaskor Jyoti Bora PhD Student 12/11/2013 Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, India 1
  • 2. Outline of Presentation  Introduction  Literature Review  Problem Identification  Experimental set-up Thermodynamic Analysis  Results and Discussion  Conclusion 12/11/2013 2
  • 3. Introduction Energy sources Non-renewable 12/11/2013 Renewable 3
  • 4. Wood Pellets Briquettes Biomass Energy Producer gas 12/11/2013 Alcohol Bio gas Bio-diesel Bio-oil 4
  • 5. Biogas Methane Content (Vol.-%) 50-75 Carbon dioxide 25-45 Water vapor 2 (20°C) -7 (40°C) Oxygen <2 Nitrogen <2 Facts: Ammonia <1     Hydrogen <1 Hydrogen Sulphide <1     Compound environmentally friendly, clean, cheap gaseous fuel mainly mixture of methane and Carbon dioxide anaerobic digestion of biomass calorific value vary from 19 to 25 MJ/m 3 Avogadro identified methane in marsh gases in 1821 17% of vehicle Fuel in UK Germany is the Europe’s biggest producer of biogas 3% of North America’s Electricity Applications     Cooking Lighting Automobile Power production 12/11/2013 Biogas powered train, Sweden 5
  • 6. IC Engines and Biogas  Octane rating=130  Extremely suitable for engines with high CR Biogas  Derating of Power [Walsh et al. (1989), Bari (1996),Henham and Makkar (2002),Bedoya (2012)]  Rough engine operation for methane < 23% [Jawurek et al. (1987)]  Engine performance deterioration [Huang and Crookes (1998)] SI Engine  Drop in Efficiency [Sahoo (2011), Yoon (2011)]  CO emission is higher[Sahoo (2011)] 12/11/2013 CI engine 6
  • 7. Reasons for Low efficiency in CI engine Diesel     Every Fuel has certain chemical composition Based on chemical composition , operating parameters vary Diesel engine settings is standardized for diesel fuel Diesel engine settings need to be standardized for Biogas fuel Operating parameters  Compression ratio  Injection Timing  Injection Pressure  Inlet manifold Design 12/11/2013 Biogas 7
  • 8. Dual Fuel Diesel Engine  Dual Fuel diesel engine is a diesel engine, fitted with an additional device called “Gas mixer”  Dual Fuel engine requires some amount of diesel for ignition of the gas fuel  The gaseous fuel is called primary fuel as the engine runs mainly on it  Diesel is called pilot fuel which acts as the ignition medium for gaseous fuel Advantages Disadvantages        Cannot operate without pilot fuel  Lower engine output  Higher CO emission Reduces diesel consumption Flexibility of operation in diesel or dual mode Localization of fuel Use of carbon neutral fuel variations in fuel source Reduction of exhaust emissions: NOX ,CO2 and particulates 8
  • 9. Thermodynamic Analysis Energy Analysis Exergy Analysis 12/11/2013 9
  • 10. Energy Analysis  Fuel energy supplied  Shaft power  Heat taken away by cooling water  Heat taken away by exhaust gases  Unaccounted heat loss due to radiation 12/11/2013 Exergy Analysis  Fuel Availability  Shaft availability  Cooling water availability  Exhaust gas availability  Availability destroyed 10
  • 11. Objectives Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Dual Fuelled Diesel Engine Run on Biogas PARAMETER UNDER STUDY COMPRESSION RATIO PRIMARY FUEL BIOGAS PILOT FUEL DIESEL ANALYSIS 12/11/2013 ENERGY EXERGY 11
  • 12. Original Set-up Parameter Engine type General details Rated output Bore and stroke Capacity Compression ratio Injection timing Dynamometer 12/11/2013 Specifications Research engine test setup 1 Cylinder, 4 stroke, VCR, water cooled diesel engine 3.5 kW at 1500 rpm 87.5 mm×110 mm 661cc 17.5 (Range 12–18) 23oBTDC (range 0–35oBTDC) Eddy current type, 0–12 kg, 185mm radius 12
  • 13. Modified set up Venturi gas mixer Fuel control mechanism 12/11/2013 Experimental set-up Y-connector 13
  • 14. Fuel Properties Properties Diesel Biogas Chemical Composition C12H26 59%CH4,41% CO2 (volume) Density(kg/m3) 840 1.2 Lower calorific value (MJ/kg) 42 17.8 Cetane number 45-55 - Auto-ignition Temperature (K) 553 1087 [6] Stoichiometric air fuel ratio 14.92 10 [6] Experimental Matrix Mode Fuel used Load(%) Diesel Fuel: 100% Diesel Compression timing ratio 20, 40, 60, Dual 12/11/2013 Injection Primary Fuel: Biogas 80, 100, 110 17.5 23oBTDC 18, 17.5, 17, 16 Pilot Fuel: Diesel 14
  • 15. Results and Discussion Diesel,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=18 Biogas,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=17 Biogas,CR=16 30 20 Fuel Energy (kW) Brake Thermal Effiency (%) 40 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 Engine Load (%) 100 120 Diesel,17.5 Biogas,CR=18 Biogas,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=17 Biogas,CR=16 0 Fig. 2 Variation of Brake thermal efficiency with load 20 40 60 80 Engine Load(%) 100 120 Fig. 3 Variation of fuel energy with load 80 650 Diesel,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=18 Biogas,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=17 Biogas,CR=16 600 550 Pilot Fuel Replacement(%) Exhaust Gas Temperature (K) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 500 450 70 60 Biogas,CR=18 Biogas,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=17 Biogas,CR=16 50 40 30 400 0 20 40 60 80 Engine Load(%) 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 Engine Load (%) 100 120 Fig. 4 Variation of exhaust gas temperature with load Fig. 5 Variation of pilot fuel substitution with load 12/11/2013 15
  • 16. 20 Biogas,CR=18 Biogas,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=17 Biogas,CR=16 2.5 BSEC (kJ/s/kw) Biogas Flow Rate(m3/hr) 3 2 1.5 1 0 20 40 60 80 Engine Load(%) 100 10 5 120 0 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 30 Diesel,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=18 Biogas,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=17 Biogas,CR=16 20 40 60 80 Engine Load(%) 100 120 Fig. 7 Variation of fuel BSEC with load Fuel Exergy (kW) Exergetic Efficiency (%) 15 0 Fig. 6 Variation of biogas flow rate with load Biogas,CR=18 Biogas,CR=17.5 Biogas,CR=17 Biogas,CR=16 Diesel,17.5 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 Engine Load (%) 100 120 Fig. 8 Variation of fuel exergetic efficiency with load 12/11/2013 BSEC,CR=18 BSEC,CR=17.5 BSEC, CR= 17 BSEC,CR=16 0 20 40 60 80 Engine Load (%) 100 120 Fig. 9 Variation of fuel exergy with load 16
  • 17. Fig. 10 Effect of compression ratio on energy distribution Fig .11 Effect of compression ratio on exergy distribution 12/11/2013 17
  • 18. Conclusion The maximum brake thermal efficiency for dual fuel mode are found to be 22.56%, 21.34%, 19.94% and 18.63% at CR 18, 17.5, 17 and 16 respectively at 80% load as compared to 31.78% for diesel mode at 100% load. The maximum exergetic efficiency for dual fuel mode are found were found to be 27.91%, 24.33%, 22.81% and 19.01% at CR 18, 17.5, 17 and 16 respectively at 80% load as compared to 38.87% for diesel mode at 100% load. The maximum substitution of diesel that is obtained in dual fuel mode for CRs 18, 17.5, 17 and 16 are 73.33%, 73.80%, 73.18% and 71% respectively at 110% load. 12/11/2013 18
  • 19. Main Findings of This Research Work  Standardization of Operating Parameters for Biogas Run Diesel Engine is a must for attainment for higher efficiency  Higher Compression Ratio results in Higher efficiency 12/11/2013 19
  • 20. 12/11/2013 20