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283 keith

  2. 2. 2 Multi Time Zone System India MATAM MANJUNATH KEITH PERES DA COSTA
  3. 3. 3 “We must use time wisely and forever realize that the time is always ripe to do right.” ----- NELSON MANDELA
  4. 4. 4 Introduction  The Indian landmass has a longitudinal span ranging from 68°7' east to 97°25' east. This accounts for a 2 hours difference in time between the easternmost and westernmost boundaries.  India currently adheres to a single time zone policy for whole country, the time along 82.5° east longitude is set as the Indian Standard Time (IST), 5 and a half hours ahead of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
  5. 5. 5 Drawbacks Of the Current Approach  A shortcoming with the current IST system is evident considering the North-Eastern states. If the Sun were to rise at 5:30 am (IST) in the summer, it would be actually be rising almost an hour earlier in the NorthEastern states, this would lead to a loss of one precious hour of sunlight and increase in the usage of artificial lighting in the evenings.  Having one Time Zone, also means that the peak demand for energy across various parts of the country occurs simultaneously, pressurizing the power station bus bars. This policy, without the use of Daylight Savings Time (DST) is responsible for consumption of a considerable amount of energy, which otherwise could have been saved.
  6. 6. 6 Policies Adopted By Other Nations  Russia has eleven time zones, the USA and Canada each have six, Brazil has four and Australia has three. These countries advance their clocks during the summer, so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.  The per capita average annual domestic electricity consumption in India as of 2009 was 96 KWh in rural areas and 288KWh in urban areas. This is highly in contrast to the worldwide per capita annual average of 260 KWh and 6200KWh in the European Union. Thus it is evident that in India people are still highly dependent on natural light i.e. sunlight and hence a Multi Time Zone System in India, would be much more effective in energy saving as compared to that in highly developed Nations.
  7. 7. 7 Related Proposals And Their Drawbacks  Daylight Savings Time (DST) : The practice of shifting the time ahead during the summer and back again in the winter in order to utilize the maximum amount of sunlight is Daylight Savings Time (DST).  India is a tropical country, with the Tropic of Cancer dividing the landmass in roughly two equal parts; the variation of sunlight is not very drastic.  Implementation of DST would be quite difficult in India; as setting clocks forward and backwards two times annually would be a daunting task in a country with a massive population, having the largest illiterate population.
  8. 8. 8  Shifting IST ahead by 30 minutes : Shifting Indian Standard Time permanently to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) +6.  Western parts of the country would experience sunrise at later times, raising demands for artificial lighting especially during the winter. In comparison to the North-Eastern states, the power consumption which is in direct proportion to the population is considerably higher in the Western States, rendering this proposal not very energy saving.  As per the TERI survey conducted the net energy savings from implementing this proposal was estimated to be in the range of 1.02 to 1.10 billion units which is a mere 0.14-0.15 %.
  9. 9. 9 Methodology The methodology adopted in the MTZS is on two fronts:  Grid peak load shedding due to time shift.  Reduced energy units consumption due to maximized utilization of daylight time.
  10. 10. 10 Load Curves Analysis  Domestic and irrigation sector demand curves are dependent on day light, traditional activities.  Rural and semi urban regular activities also tend to follow day light based movement .  Urban regular activities tend to follow time base. The MTZS in this front aims to :  Encourage rural and semi urban activities to sync with day light in order to obtain reduced electricity consumption  To attain a near unity grid diversity factor in Urban areas i.e. similar demand at all operating points.
  11. 11. 11 Illustration  Consider two places i.e. place A and place B, both receiving power from the same dispatch.  Assume that place A is 1 hour ahead of place B in time.
  12. 12. 12 Load curves without MTZS Without MTZS 8 7 Load (MW) 6 5 Place A 4 Place B 3 Net 2 1 0 5-6 pm 6-7 pm 7-8 pm 8-9 pm 9-10 pm 10-11 pm 11-12pm
  13. 13. 13 With MTZS With MTZS 6 Load (MW) 5 4 Place A 3 Place B Net 2 1 0 6-9 am 9-12 am 12-3 pm 3-6 pm 6-9 pm 9-12 pm 12-3 am
  14. 14. State Boundary Longitudes Length of time falling under area due to UTC (in minutes) State boundary stretch (in minutes) wrt IST(Indian Standard Time) West Side of IST East Side of IST Majority area falling wrt IST Andhra Pradesh 76045’36.3636” 84047’42.8166” 32 24 8 West Karnataka 76045’36.3636” 7409’42.6054” 8 24 - West Kerala 74053’42.6192” 77014’16.8246” 12 20 - West Tamil Nadu 80020’20.0326” 76015’46.6914” 16 8 - West Uttar Pradesh 84037’0.1158” 7707’41.3142” 32 20 5 West Haryana 77034’23.1234” 74033’46.2096” 12 20 - West Delhi 77019’57.9496” 76051’32.3202” 4 20 - West Jammu & Kashmir 80023’33.9390” 72054’10.1952” 32 8 - West Rajasthan 78013’57.2658” 69032’47.4324” 36 16 - West Indian States, longitudinal span and time slot either side of IST 14
  15. 15. 15 India Population density Map State Wise Energy Consumption during 2011-2012
  16. 16. 16 Possible Alternative  A two time zone system approach could be adopted, wherein places East of the IST longitude have a time of UTC +6 and those to the West have a time of UTC +5. This would to a great extent help in the North Eastern states in maximizing the utilization of daylight hours and also in Western states during the winter. Implementation would be difficult as the IST longitude passes through a region of large population and shifting clocks by an hour would cause significant confusion at the border between the two zones. The trade and travel schedules would have to be drastically changed. The risk of accidents, especially rail accidents would drastically increase. Thus this approach although seemingly power saving, has major drawbacks.
  17. 17. 17 Proposed Solution  The best alternative would be to have a two Time Zone System using the 90° East longitude as reference. This proposal is unlike the permanent shift of IST by 30 minutes. Regions of the country west of diving 90° East longitude line should continue to follow the IST system without any changes. Regions of the country East to the dividing line should adopt a new Time Zone 30 minutes ahead of the IST system i.e. UTC +6.
  18. 18. 18  Advantages :  The 90° East Longitude does not pass through a significant landmass and also is not a very highly populated region. Thus advancing clocks at boundary between two Time Zones would not be very difficult to achieve. North-Eastern states will benefit from advancement in 30 minutes resulting in maximum utilization of daylight hours thereby reducing need for artificial lighting. Most North-Eastern states rely solely on Air travel to connect with the rest of the Country, thus only the Air schedules into and out of the region would have to be altered. Rail schedules would not be greatly affected.
  19. 19. 19  Adopting such a system would help in encouraging further tapping into the potential of renewable and alternate sources of energy in the North-Eastern states particularly hydro-power. Four such generation projects totaling 495MW in the Kameng basin have been given connectivity recently. A total of 19 generation project developers have applied for connectivity.  It will result in an estimated 11,500 MW reduction in the present supply to the North-Eastern regions.  The Indian carbon emissions can be reduced to levels lower than the estimated 2.3GtCo2 by the year 2050.
  20. 20. 20 Implementation  Institutional arrangement: Incorporating necessary changes to domestic sector digital energy meters so as to record consumer demand profile with respect to time. At the end of month, electricity bill collector recovers this data through the automated bill machine to generate that month bill.  Tariff Policy: At present, electricity consumers are charged solely based on units of consumption. New Tariff policy, like Time of Day (TOD) tariff for industry, could charge customers as per MTZS where high tariff to those units consumed during maximum sunlight availability.
  21. 21. 21 Conclusion  In order to achieve the desired 1800 KWh annual per capita consumption, India needs to increase its installed generating capacity as well as adopt innovative and energy saving policies.  A Multiple Time Zone system would help encourage maximum sunlight utilization thus reducing consumption of domestic sector which accounts 22% of India net energy consumption during a year.  With development and investments in solar technologies on the rise, such a proposal would be highly advantageous.  No major capital investment would be required to implement such a proposal and it would be beneficial to all stake holders and end consumer in particular.
  22. 22. 22 For an feedback/suggestions/criticism drop me a mail at keith93@gmail.com Thank You
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