EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON PERFORMANCE
AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIESEL
ENGINE FUELLED WITH MAHUA OIL METHYL ESTER
Swarup Kumar Nayak, Bhabani Prasanna Pattanaik*
School of Mechanical Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Presented at the 4th International Conference on “Advances in Energy Research (ICAER – 2013)”
10– 12 December 2013, IIT Bombay
OUT LINE OF THE PRESENTATION
REASON FOR BIOFUELS PROMOTION
BIODIESEL AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL
PREPARATION OF BIO-DIESEL
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND EXPERIMENTATION
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
Production of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) from neat Mahua oil
via base catalyzed transesterification process.
Characterization of fuel properties for neat Mahua oil, Mahua oil methyl
ester and comparison with diesel.
Application of the test fuels to a single cylinder direct injection diesel
Estimation of various engine performance and emission parameters using
different test fuels and comparison of those with diesel.
Biodiesel is a chemically derived renewable fuel.
It is chemically known as mono-alkyl ester (methyl ester) of vegetable oil.
It is non-toxic and biodegradable in nature.
It is being approved by EPA (Environmental protection agency)
CARB (California air resource board).
Biodiesel is produced from straight vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, and
waste cooking oil via base catalyzed transesterification.
Biodiesel can be used in the engine in pure form or blended with diesel.
REASONS FOR BIOFUEL PROMOTION
It is made from renewable resources.
It possesses almost similar fuel properties as diesel.
Biodiesel combustion produces less emissions as compared to diesel.
It is relatively less inflammable compared to the normal diesel.
It can be mixed with diesel in any volumetric proportion.
It requires very little or no engine modifications.
It contains no sulphur, the element responsible for acid rain.
There are no extra costs for the conversion of engines in comparison to
other biological fuels.
BIODIESEL AS ALTERNATIVE FUEL
Biodiesel is made entirely from edible and non edible sources; it does not
contain any sulphur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals or crude resources.
Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, emissions of carbon monoxide and soot
The occupational safety and health administration classifies biodiesel as a
non flammable liquid.
The use of biodiesel can be extending the life of diesel engines because it
is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel.
Biodiesel is produced from renewable edible and non edible oils and
hence improves the fuel or energy security and economy independence.
MAHUA -A MAJOR SOURCE FOR
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA
The two major species of genus Madhuca found in India are Madhuca
Indica (latifolia) and Madhuca Longifolia (Longifolia).
The seed potential of this tree in India is 500,000 tons and oil content is
Madhuca latifolia is a medium sized to large deciduous tree, distributed in
Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar and Uttar
Madhuca Longifolia, a large evergreen tree found in South India, and
evergreen forests of the Western Ghats from Konkan Southwards. The tree
is planted and most part of India, propagating either by itself or sown
It attains a height up to 70ft.
The tree matures from 8 to 15 years, and fruits up to 60 years.
The kernels are 70% of seed by weight.
kernels, having 25 mmx17.5 mm in size.
Oil content in latifolia is 46% and 52% in Longifolia.
Seed contains two
FLOW CHART FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A SMALL
PROCESS PARAMETERS SELECTED
Sample oil used
Alkali catalyzed transesterification
1000ml waste cooking oil
120ml/kg of oil
0.5-1% per kg of oil
BIODIESEL PREPARATION & GLYCEROL SEPARATION
Initial heating of oil in Acid Treatment
Stirring action in Acid Treatment
Settlement of glycerin after Acid Treatment
Settlement of glycerin after Base Treatment
Soap obtained in water
Clear water in water
CHARACTERIZATION OF FUEL PROPERTIES
Properties of Diesel & Biodiesel (MOME)
Kinematic viscosity at 40◦C
Density at 25◦C
Additives are chemicals that can be added to fuels and are used to enhance
certain performance characteristics. Some are designed to help eliminate
carbon build-up inside the engine. There are also additives that are used to
improve the lubricant properties of new low sulphur diesel fuels.
PROPERTIES OF ADDITIVES:
Improves ignition quality.
Improves low-temperature starting.
Reduces cranking time.
Reduces emissions and smoke.
PROPERTIES OF DIMETHYL CARBONATE
Dimethyl Carbonate is a colorless, transparent liquid under normal temperature.
1.069 - 1.073 g/ml, liquid
2 - 4 °C (275 - 277 K)
TEST ENGINE SPECIFICATION
Single cylinder, 4-stroke. vertical water
cooled diesel engine
Eddy Current type
The brake power, brake thermal efficiency and mechanical
efficiency increases with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel
and it is lower in case of pure biodiesel.
Brake specific fuel consumption is highest for pure biodiesel and
decreases with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel.
Exhaust gas temperature is found highest for pure biodiesel and
tends to decrease with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel.
CO and HC emission are found highest for diesel and decrease with
increase in additive percentage in biodiesel.
Smoke and NOx emissions are found highest for pure biodiesel and
decrease with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel.
Hence it may be concluded that with increase in additive percentage
in Mahua biodiesel engine performance gets better with lower
Biodiesel being more viscous than diesel may require frequent
cleaning of engine components. Use of preheated biodiesel blends
in engines may be studied.
Biodiesel if used for longer time in engines causes corrosive effects.
Studies on engine wear and corrosion due to the use of biodiesel
must be carried out.
Biodiesel combustion causes higher combustion and exhaust
temperatures. Studies must be carried out for suitable engine
modifications resulting in low temperature biodiesel combustion.
Higher NOx emission due to biodiesel combustion is a great matter
of environmental concern. Investigation must be undertaken for
reduction of the same using newer methods like exhaust gas
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