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275 pattanaik

  1. 1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH MAHUA OIL METHYL ESTER USING ADDITIVE Swarup Kumar Nayak, Bhabani Prasanna Pattanaik* School of Mechanical Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha Presented at the 4th International Conference on “Advances in Energy Research (ICAER – 2013)” 10– 12 December 2013, IIT Bombay
  2. 2. OUT LINE OF THE PRESENTATION  OBJECTIVE  INTRODUCTION  REASON FOR BIOFUELS PROMOTION  BIODIESEL AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL  PREPARATION OF BIO-DIESEL  EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND EXPERIMENTATION  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  CONCLUSION  SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK  REFERENCES 1
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES  Production of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) from neat Mahua oil via base catalyzed transesterification process.  Characterization of fuel properties for neat Mahua oil, Mahua oil methyl ester and comparison with diesel.  Preparation of test fuels in the form of biodiesel blends (biodiesel+additive).  Application of the test fuels to a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine.  Estimation of various engine performance and emission parameters using different test fuels and comparison of those with diesel. 2
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  Biodiesel is a chemically derived renewable fuel.  It is chemically known as mono-alkyl ester (methyl ester) of vegetable oil.  It is non-toxic and biodegradable in nature.  It is being approved by EPA (Environmental protection agency) and CARB (California air resource board).  Biodiesel is produced from straight vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, and waste cooking oil via base catalyzed transesterification.  Biodiesel can be used in the engine in pure form or blended with diesel. 3
  5. 5. REASONS FOR BIOFUEL PROMOTION  It is made from renewable resources.  It possesses almost similar fuel properties as diesel.  Biodiesel combustion produces less emissions as compared to diesel.  It is relatively less inflammable compared to the normal diesel.  It can be mixed with diesel in any volumetric proportion.  It requires very little or no engine modifications.  It contains no sulphur, the element responsible for acid rain.  There are no extra costs for the conversion of engines in comparison to other biological fuels. 4
  6. 6. BIODIESEL AS ALTERNATIVE FUEL  Biodiesel is made entirely from edible and non edible sources; it does not contain any sulphur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals or crude resources.  Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, emissions of carbon monoxide and soot reduces.  The occupational safety and health administration classifies biodiesel as a non flammable liquid.  The use of biodiesel can be extending the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel.  Biodiesel is produced from renewable edible and non edible oils and hence improves the fuel or energy security and economy independence. 5
  7. 7. MAHUA -A MAJOR SOURCE FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA  The two major species of genus Madhuca found in India are Madhuca Indica (latifolia) and Madhuca Longifolia (Longifolia).  The seed potential of this tree in India is 500,000 tons and oil content is 180,000 tons.  Madhuca latifolia is a medium sized to large deciduous tree, distributed in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.  Madhuca Longifolia, a large evergreen tree found in South India, and evergreen forests of the Western Ghats from Konkan Southwards. The tree is planted and most part of India, propagating either by itself or sown seeds.  It attains a height up to 70ft.  The tree matures from 8 to 15 years, and fruits up to 60 years.  The kernels are 70% of seed by weight. kernels, having 25 mmx17.5 mm in size.  Oil content in latifolia is 46% and 52% in Longifolia. Seed contains two 6
  8. 8. PHOTOGRAPH OF MAHUA TREE & FLOWER 7
  9. 9. THE TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION 8
  10. 10. EXPERIMENTAL FLOW CHART FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION 9
  11. 11. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A SMALL BIODIESEL REACTOR 10
  12. 12. PROCESS PARAMETERS SELECTED FOR TRANSESTERIFICATION Sl. No. Process Parameters Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Process selected Reaction temperature Sample oil used Methanol used Catalyst used(KOH) Reaction time Settling time Water wash Stirring speed Alkali catalyzed transesterification 55-600C 1000ml waste cooking oil 120ml/kg of oil 0.5-1% per kg of oil 1.5-2 hours 8-12 hours 3-4 times 500-600 rpm 11
  13. 13. BIODIESEL PREPARATION & GLYCEROL SEPARATION Initial heating of oil in Acid Treatment Stirring action in Acid Treatment 12
  14. 14. Settlement of glycerin after Acid Treatment Settlement of glycerin after Base Treatment 13
  15. 15. Soap obtained in water washing process Clear water in water washing 14
  16. 16. Final biodiesel (M.O.M.E) 15
  17. 17. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUEL PROPERTIES Properties of Diesel & Biodiesel (MOME) Fuel property Unit Kinematic viscosity at 40◦C cSt. Density at 25◦C Kg/m³ Flash point ◦C Fire point ◦C Pour point Calorific value ◦C KJ/kg-K Diesel Bio-Diesel 2.56 5.11 860 881.2 66 160 78 186 −18 4 42850 42293 16
  18. 18. ADDITIVE  Additives are chemicals that can be added to fuels and are used to enhance certain performance characteristics. Some are designed to help eliminate carbon build-up inside the engine. There are also additives that are used to improve the lubricant properties of new low sulphur diesel fuels. PROPERTIES OF ADDITIVES: Improves ignition quality.  Improves low-temperature starting.  Reduces cranking time.  Reduces emissions and smoke.  Increases efficiency. 17
  19. 19. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADDITIVES  Dimethyl Carbonate, C3H6O3  Diethyl Carbonate, OC(OCH2CH3)2  Tetrafloroethane, CH2FCF3  Dimethyl ether, C2H6O  Diethyl Ether, (C2H5)2O 18
  20. 20. PROPERTIES OF DIMETHYL CARBONATE DIMETHYL CARBONATE: Dimethyl Carbonate is a colorless, transparent liquid under normal temperature. IUPAC name Dimethyl carbonate PROPERTIES: Molecular formula C3H6O3 Molar mass 90.08 g/mol Appearance Clear liquid Density 1.069 - 1.073 g/ml, liquid Melting point 2 - 4 °C (275 - 277 K) 19
  21. 21. PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL BLENDS  B-85 (85% Biodiesel + 15% Additive)  B-90 (90% Biodiesel + 10% Additive)  B-95 (95% Biodiesel + 5% Additive)  B100 (100% Biodiesel) 20
  22. 22. PHOTOGRAPH OF THE TEST ENGINE 21
  23. 23. TEST ENGINE SPECIFICATION Sl.No (1) Particulars Engine type Description Single cylinder, 4-stroke. vertical water cooled diesel engine (2) Bore diameter 80 mm (3) Stroke length 110 mm (4) Compression 16.5:1 ratio (5) Rated power 3.67 KW (6) Rated speed 1500 rpm (7) Dynamometer Eddy Current type 22
  24. 24. PHOTOGRAPH OF AVL SMOKE METER 23
  25. 25. RESULTS & DISCUSSSION Engine Performance Analysis 1. Brake power 4 Brake Power (kW) 3.5 3 2.5 Diesel 2 B100 B95 1.5 B90 1 B85 0.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Load (%) 24
  26. 26. 2. Brake Thermal Efficiency 35 Brake thermal efficiency (%) 30 25 Diesel 20 B100 B95 15 B90 B85 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 Load (%) 80 100 25
  27. 27. 3. Mechanical Efficiency 35 Mechanical efficiency(%) 30 25 20 Diesel B100 15 B95 B90 10 B85 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Load (%) 26
  28. 28. 4. Brake Specific Energy Consumption 0.9 0.8 bsfc (kg/kWh) 0.7 0.6 Diesel 0.5 B100 0.4 B95 0.3 B90 B85 0.2 0.1 0 0 20 40 60 Load(%) 80 100 27
  29. 29. 5. Exhaust Gas Temperature Exhaust gas temperature (ᵒC) 600 500 400 Diesel B100 300 B95 B90 200 B85 100 0 0 20 40 60 Load (%) 80 100 28
  30. 30. Engine Emission Analysis 6. CO Emission 1 0.9 0.8 CO (%) 0.7 Diesel 0.6 B100 0.5 B95 0.4 B90 0.3 B85 0.2 0.1 0 0 20 40 Load (%) 60 80 100 29
  31. 31. 7. HC Emission 60 50 HC (ppm) 40 Diesel B100 30 B95 B90 20 B85 10 0 0 20 40 60 Load (%) 80 100 30
  32. 32. 8. Smoke Emission 18 16 Smoke Opacity (%) 14 Diesel 12 B100 10 B95 8 B90 6 B85 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Load (%) 80 100 31
  33. 33. 9. NOX Emission 1200 1000 NOx (ppm) 800 Diesel B100 600 B95 400 B90 B85 200 0 0 20 40 60 Load (%) 80 100 32
  34. 34. CONCLUSIONS  The brake power, brake thermal efficiency and mechanical      efficiency increases with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel and it is lower in case of pure biodiesel. Brake specific fuel consumption is highest for pure biodiesel and decreases with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel. Exhaust gas temperature is found highest for pure biodiesel and tends to decrease with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel. CO and HC emission are found highest for diesel and decrease with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel. Smoke and NOx emissions are found highest for pure biodiesel and decrease with increase in additive percentage in biodiesel. Hence it may be concluded that with increase in additive percentage in Mahua biodiesel engine performance gets better with lower emissions. 33
  35. 35. FUTURE SCOPE  Biodiesel being more viscous than diesel may require frequent cleaning of engine components. Use of preheated biodiesel blends in engines may be studied.  Biodiesel if used for longer time in engines causes corrosive effects. Studies on engine wear and corrosion due to the use of biodiesel must be carried out.  Biodiesel combustion causes higher combustion and exhaust temperatures. Studies must be carried out for suitable engine modifications resulting in low temperature biodiesel combustion.  Higher NOx emission due to biodiesel combustion is a great matter of environmental concern. Investigation must be undertaken for reduction of the same using newer methods like exhaust gas recirculation. 34
  36. 36. REFERENCES           Van Gerpen, J. (2005) Biodiesel processing and production, Fuel Processing Technology, 86, pp. 1097–1107. Barnwal, B.K. and Sharma, M.P. (2005) Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetables oils in India, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9, pp. 363–378. Ramadhas, A.S., Jayaraj, S. and Muraleedharan, C. (2004) Use of vegetable oils as I.C. engine fuels—a review, Renewable Energy, 29, pp. 727–742. MaF and Hanna, M.A. (1999) Biodiesel production: a review, Bio resource Technology, 70, pp. 1–15. Forson, F.K., Oduro, E.K. and Donkoh, E.H. (2004) Performance of Jatropha oil in a diesel engine, Renewable Energy, 29, pp. 1135-1145. Canakci, M., Erdil, A. and Arcaklioglu, E. (2006) Performance and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel engine. Applied Energy, 83, pp. 594–605. Meher, L.C., VidyaSagar, D. and Naik, S.N. (2006) Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 10, pp. 248–268. Kandpal, J.B. and Madan, M. (1995) Jatropha curcas—a renewable source of energy for meeting future energy needs, Renewable Energy, 6, pp. 159–160. Pramanik, K. (2003). Properties and use of Jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine, Renewable Energy, 29, pp. 239-248. Ramdhas, A.S., Jayaraj, S. and Muraleedharan, C. ( 2005) Characterization and effect of using rubber seed oil as fuel in the compression ignition engines, Renewable Energy, 30, pp. 795-803. 35
  37. 37. THANK YOU 37

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