Co-pyrolysis of Simulated Municipal Paper Wastes
and solid Wastes of Mustard Oil Mills – Optimization
of Energy Yield of L...
Arrangement of the Lecture
• Background of the research study
• Objectives of the study
• Materials and methods
• Product ...
Pyrolysis
 Direct thermal
decomposition of organic
matrix in an inert
atmosphere
 Temperature range is
300˚C - 1000˚C
 ...
Feed stock
MSW of Kolkata (Generation rate:2653 t/d)
1.Food and Garden wastes 40%,
2.Textile 6%
3.Paper wastes 27%
4.Plast...
Objectives of the study
• Investigation on the performance of a laboratory scale semi-batch pyrolyser
for co-pyrolysis of ...
Proximate and Ultimate Analyses of Feed
stocks

PW

Materials and Methods
Lab-scale Pyrolysis Experimental Set-Up

Materials and Methods
Product Yield
Statistical Modeling and Optimization through RSM

Pyrolysis temperature(K)

Percentage of energy yield of bio-oil

Energy...
LCA of 100 t/d pyrolysis plant operated at Maximum
Energy Yield Condition (T:812K; PW:MPC:: 8.8:1.0

Phases of LCA
Goal and Scope

Goal and scope of LCAGo
System boundary of pyrolysis plant

system bou=System Boundaries for LCA
Unit Process and Inventory Analysis
Plant construction and dismantling and transportation of waste
Materials required for ...
Pretreatment of simulated waste

Edrying = M *[Ww{(cpw * ∆ T1 ) + ∆ HV } + (1 − Ww ) * cps * ∆ T1 ]

CO2 dying = Edrying ,...
Slow Pyrolysis

E py = M (1 − Ww )C ps (Tpy − Tds ) + M (1 − w)∆ H

LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant

(3)
Utilization of Pyro-Char, Pyro-Oil and Pyro-Gas
Utilization of pyro-oil in power plant

LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant
E pyro −Char / pyro −oil = M *W pyro −char / pyro −oil
* GCV pyro −char / pyro −oil * E f
CO2 pyro −char / pyro −oil = M *...
3.6 Incineration

E feedstock = M * GCV feedstock * E f

(8)

CO2 = M / MW feedstock * C N * 44

(9)

LCA analysis of pyro...
Results and Discussions
Energy input and GHG emission of two
pyrolysis options
Unit phase
(input)

Energy used
(GJ)

GHG e...
Life Cycle Efficiency
Upstream

Life cycle efficiency =

E − Eu
*100
Eb

Incineration

(10)

Life cycle efficiency =

Eg
E...
Net Energy Ratio
Net energy ratio estimated by using the following equation,

Net energy ratio =

E
E ff

(12)

Results an...
Comparison of two pyrolysis options with
incineration method

GHG emission avoided in two pyrolysis options and incinerati...
Conclusion
 Maximum Energy yield of 56.5%, based on bio-oil, is obtained at pyrolysis
temperature of 812 K and PW:MPC:: 8...
Thank You
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  1. 1. Co-pyrolysis of Simulated Municipal Paper Wastes and solid Wastes of Mustard Oil Mills – Optimization of Energy Yield of Lab-Scale Pyrolyser through RSM (Response Surface Methodology) and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of 100 t/d Plants Aparna Sarkar, Prof. Ranjana Chowdhury Chemical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University Kolkata 700 032 Presented by, Aparna Sarkar
  2. 2. Arrangement of the Lecture • Background of the research study • Objectives of the study • Materials and methods • Product yield of PW and MPC • RSM • Introduction of LCA methodology • LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant • Results and discussions • Conclusion
  3. 3. Pyrolysis  Direct thermal decomposition of organic matrix in an inert atmosphere  Temperature range is 300˚C - 1000˚C  The product yield may be maximized by adjusting the operating conditions. Mechanism of pyrolysis of feed stock Background of the research study
  4. 4. Feed stock MSW of Kolkata (Generation rate:2653 t/d) 1.Food and Garden wastes 40%, 2.Textile 6% 3.Paper wastes 27% 4.Plastic wastes 4%, 5.Metals 3%, 6.Glass and ceramic 5%, 7.Inert 15% (CPHEEO manual on MSW management, 2005) Pyrolysis Feedstock: Paper Waste and Mustard Press Cake Packing paper (60%) Newspaper Printing Paper (30%) (10%) Paper Waste Mustard Press Cake Background of the research study
  5. 5. Objectives of the study • Investigation on the performance of a laboratory scale semi-batch pyrolyser for co-pyrolysis of Paper waste (PW) and mustard press cake (MPC) using the reactor temperature and the ratio of PW to MPC as parameters • Development of a statistical model to predict the energy yield with respect to bio-oil as a function of temperature and the ratio of PW to MPC using RSM technique. • Determination of the condition corresponding to maximum energy yield through Optimization. • Life cycle analysis of a 100 tpd Co-pyrolysis plant for PW and MPC mixture at the maximum energy yield condition • Comparison of the energy analysis and GHG emission data of the pyrolysis plant with those of conventional incineration plant for power generation
  6. 6. Proximate and Ultimate Analyses of Feed stocks PW Materials and Methods
  7. 7. Lab-scale Pyrolysis Experimental Set-Up Materials and Methods
  8. 8. Product Yield
  9. 9. Statistical Modeling and Optimization through RSM Pyrolysis temperature(K) Percentage of energy yield of bio-oil Energy Yield = + 51.72 + 0.77 * A – 10.21 * B – 0.88 * A * B + 2.50 * A 2 – 15.40 * B2 Maximum energy yield: 56.5% (A: 8.8:1.0, B: 812 K) Py ro ly si s Ratio of PW to MPC te m pe r at ur e (K ) io Rat PC to M W of P
  10. 10. LCA of 100 t/d pyrolysis plant operated at Maximum Energy Yield Condition (T:812K; PW:MPC:: 8.8:1.0 Phases of LCA
  11. 11. Goal and Scope Goal and scope of LCAGo
  12. 12. System boundary of pyrolysis plant system bou=System Boundaries for LCA
  13. 13. Unit Process and Inventory Analysis Plant construction and dismantling and transportation of waste Materials required for plant construction and dismantling and fuel required for transportation Sl No Materials and diesel required Amount required (tonne) 1. Concrete 390.0 2. Steel 190.50 3. Aluminium 1.90 4. Diesel 5.24 LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant
  14. 14. Pretreatment of simulated waste Edrying = M *[Ww{(cpw * ∆ T1 ) + ∆ HV } + (1 − Ww ) * cps * ∆ T1 ] CO2 dying = Edrying , actual *[1 /( PPE * DE * GCVC )] * (1 / MWc ) * CN c * 44.0 LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant (1) ( 2)
  15. 15. Slow Pyrolysis E py = M (1 − Ww )C ps (Tpy − Tds ) + M (1 − w)∆ H LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant (3)
  16. 16. Utilization of Pyro-Char, Pyro-Oil and Pyro-Gas Utilization of pyro-oil in power plant LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant
  17. 17. E pyro −Char / pyro −oil = M *W pyro −char / pyro −oil * GCV pyro −char / pyro −oil * E f CO2 pyro −char / pyro −oil = M * [ ( 4) W pyro −char / pyro −oil MW pyro −char / pyro −oil * CN pyro −char / pyro −oil ] * 44.0 (5) EGas =[( M *WGas * ( X CO * GCVCO + X CH 4 * GCVCH 4 )]* E f CO2 Gas ( 6) M *WGas = * ( X CO + X CH 4 ) * 44.0 MWGas (7) LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant
  18. 18. 3.6 Incineration E feedstock = M * GCV feedstock * E f (8) CO2 = M / MW feedstock * C N * 44 (9) LCA analysis of pyrolysis plant
  19. 19. Results and Discussions Energy input and GHG emission of two pyrolysis options Unit phase (input) Energy used (GJ) GHG emission (t CO2eq) Plant construction 0.021 1.66 Transportation of waste sample 8.064 0.056 Drying 39.90 14.57 Pyrolysis 75.096 27.42 Pyro-oil transport (only for option 2) Transportation of waste to power plant (incineration 5.0176 0.112 8.064 0.056 Energy output of two pyrolysis options Unit phase (output) Energy generated (GJ) Pyro-char and pyrogas used for CHP steam generation (both for option 1 and 2) 480.65 Pyro-oil used in DG plant (option 1) 476.14 Pyro-oil used in power plant (option 2) 349.25 Waste used directly (incineration) in power plant 510 Results and discussions
  20. 20. Life Cycle Efficiency Upstream Life cycle efficiency = E − Eu *100 Eb Incineration (10) Life cycle efficiency = Eg Eb *100 Results and discussions (11)
  21. 21. Net Energy Ratio Net energy ratio estimated by using the following equation, Net energy ratio = E E ff (12) Results and discussion
  22. 22. Comparison of two pyrolysis options with incineration method GHG emission avoided in two pyrolysis options and incineration method Results and discussions
  23. 23. Conclusion  Maximum Energy yield of 56.5%, based on bio-oil, is obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 812 K and PW:MPC:: 8.8:1.0  The energy analysis and GHG emission data of two alternative processes have been interpreted and compared with the conventional option of incineration.  GHG performances of both pyrolysis schemes are better than the direct incineration process for power generation.  Although the life cycle efficiency of pyrolysis option (1) is the best among the three options the GHG emission avoided is the highest in case of pyrolysis option 2.  More analysis on parametric sensitivity will reveal the best option for the most practicable operation of the plant.
  24. 24. Thank You
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