209 n.k gurusala

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209 n.k gurusala

  1. 1. Effects of Alumina Nanoparticles in Waste Chicken Fat Biodiesel on the Operating Characteristics of a CI Engine Nareshkumar Gurusala, Arul Mozhi Selvan V Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology:Tiruchirpalli, INDIA
  2. 2. Introduction  The use of bio-fuels is an alternate to fossil fuels because; it is renewable, non-toxic, biological origin and its green properties. It contains no aromatics, no-sulphur content and oxygen content of 1012% by weight.  The biodiesel is produced mainly from vegetable oils such as castor oil, sunflower oil, olive oil, pomace oil, soybean oil, cotton oil, hazelnut oil, rubber seed oil, mahua oil, jojoba oil, tobacco seed oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil, tall oil and waste cooking oil etc. Major Cost of the Cost of the Biodiesel Depends on the Biodiesel Depends on Feedstock the Feedstock Cost http://www.everythingbiodiesel.blogspot.in/
  3. 3. Introduction Low Cost Feed Stocks Waste Oils  Used Oils  Refined Animal Fat Algae Oil Sugar Cane Oil Crude oil prices have a strong relationship with global economic activity since 2000 http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/crude-oil-prices-to-continue-governing-indian-economy-growth/1/189387.html
  4. 4. Waste Chicken  As per the Government of India statistics, approximately 700,000 ton of chicken meat is consumed every year.  The feather meat contains fat which varies from 2% to 12%  Hence, about 77,000 ton of chicken fat is available The poultry industry in India
  5. 5. Poultry Meat Turns into Valuable Bio-Diesel Source Dr. John Abraham, a research scholar in the Veterinary College and Research Institute (VC&RI), here has developed processes that can extract bio-diesel from poultry carcases in a cost-effective manner. The project for his Ph.D. Won four gold medals. According to statistics available with the Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, the daily average mortality rate of egg laying chicken is 0.03 per cent. “On an average about 4,000 birds die everyday. About 90 per cent of them are disposed of under unhygienic conditions (thrown in the open),” Dr. Abraham noted. Unscientific methods of disposal of carcases leads to pollution of ground and surface water, obnoxious odour and health hazards through indiscriminate breeding of micro organisms and house flies. There are many incidents of conflicts between the poultry farmers and residents over open disposal of dead birds. Calculating the annual mortality rate at 12 lakh birds in this district, he realised the opportunity in the form of extracting fat of dead birds and producing bio-diesel from two different methods. While each bird weighs about 1.5 kg, fat constitutes 14.5 per cent of the bird’s weight. “Of the two methods, solvent extraction method makes it possible to extract 97 per cent of the bird’s fat and needs six birds for extracting a litre of diesel. Sixty-three per cent fat extraction is possible through centrifugal method and requires 16 birds for producing the same quantity of diesel,” he noted. “The cost of producing a litre of diesel using centrifugal method is Rs. 35.68 per litre, against the solvent extraction method where it is only Rs. 22 per litre. Every year, two lakh litres of bio-diesel could be produced with layer birds that die in poultry farms in Namakkal through solvent extraction. Establishing a solvent extraction plant costs Rs. 2.5 crore, which is more than establishing a centrifugal plant,” he said. Dr. Abraham added that the bio-diesel could be used as a low-cost blend with diesel at 20 per cent with 80 per cent of diesel, which has been successfully tested and put to use. The quality assessment of bio-diesel from poultry carcass was done at the Center of Excellence in Bio-Fuel at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. TANUVAS has applied for a patent for the processes. Head of the Department of Livestock Production and Management, VC&RI, Ramesh Saravanakumar, who was the guide for the project, said that waste such as fat collected from chicken stalls could also be used for producing bio-diesel. “These wastes have a better conversion rate as fat is directly available and could be of use for large-scale chicken meat processing units by making disposal of wastes easier,” he added.
  6. 6. Biodiesel Production  The selection of catalyst depends on FFA content of oil.  The FFA (free fatty acid) content can be determined by using titration method.  FFA < 1% Base catalyst is preferred(One Stage Process)  FFA > 1% Acid catalyst is preferred (Two Stage process)  FFA content of WCF was found to be 13.8%. O O O + C R NaOH NaO 0H (Free Fatty Acid) (Sodium Hydroxide) + C (Soap) H H R (Water)  Methanol and ethanol are the alcohols most frequently used in transesterification process. Methanol was preferred for the study for its low cost and higher reactivity compared to ethanol.
  7. 7. Pre-Treatment Process  The level of FFA is reduced to desirable (less than 1 percent) in the presents of catalyst, which is called as pre-treatment process O O + C R R' OH OH (Free Fatty Acid) R' C O (Alcohol) O + R H (Monoester) Homogeneous Catalyst • Ferric sulphate • Sulfonic • Sulfated zirconia • Hydrochloric acids (Water) Heterogeneous Catalyst • Sulfuric H • Ferric silica etc. • Problem of waste disposal • High activity • Loss of catalyst • Corrosive nature • Low cost • Environment Friendly
  8. 8. Photographic View of Steps Involved in Biodiesel Production Process
  9. 9. Properties of Fuel S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Properties Standard ASTM Density(kg/m3) D1298 Kinematic Viscosity ASTM @ 40°C, cSt D445 ASTM Cloud Point, °C D2500 ASTM Flash Point, °C D93 ASTM Fire Point, °C D93 ASTM Pour point, °C D97 Net calorific value, ASTM MJ/kg D240 Limits Diesel WCF WCFME 860-900 828.1 932 849 1.90-6.00 2.41 5.9820 2.6623 -15 to 5C 0 >130 50 315 170 - 56 320 192 -15 to 10 -6 - 40.456 -5 -6 37.91124 37.642
  10. 10. Properties of Fuel S.No Properties Standard Limits Diesel WCF WCFME Acid value, mg KOH/g 9 Saponification value, mg KOH/g 10 Copper Strip Corrosion 100°C, 3hr 11 Cetane Index ASTM D664 ASTM D5558 ≤0.80 0.07 0.8976 0.25 55.8756 251.23 1(b) 1(b) 12 Conradson carbon residue (% wt) 8 13 Ash contents w/w% - ASTM D130 Class 3 1(a) ASTM D976 ≥47 56# ASTM D189 0.2 0.002 ISO 6884 <0.02 61# 0.015 0.002 0.028 0.022
  11. 11. Cost Analysis Production of Waste Chicken Fat Pre-Treatment Transesterification Purification & Man Power Charge Process Waste Chicken (2kg) Electrical Charge Methanol Catalyst Electric Charge Methanol Catalyst Electric Charge Distillation, Washing, etc. Total Diesel (approx) Amount Rs. 5 3 16 1.5 1.5 9 2 1.5 5 45 58
  12. 12. Nanoparticle Additives  It is commonly proposed to reduce the emissions from the diesel engines by adopting various methods such as exhaust gas recirculation, alternation of fuel injection systems (injection pressure, split injection, injection timing etc.), after exhaust gas treatment etc.  Among the various techniques the use of fuel-borne catalyst is currently focused due to the advantage of increase in the fuel efficiency while reducing harmful greenhouse gas emissions.  The addition of nanoparticles in the fuel increases the surface-area-to-volume ratio which enables rapid oxidation process
  13. 13. Engine Setup and Measurements 1. Fuel Tank 2. Fuel Flow Sensors 3.Control Panel 4. Computer 5.Data Capture Card 6. CR Lever 7. Pressure Sensor 8. Crank Angle Encoder 9.Speed Sensor 10.Eddy Current Dynamometer 11. Loading Cell 12. Turbine Flow Sensor 13. Exhaust Gas Tank 14. Air Flow Sensor 15.Air Tank 16. Gas Analyzer 17. Smoke Meter
  14. 14. Uncertainty Analysis Quantity Measuring Range Accuracy NOx ± 10% of ind. val. HC 0-20000 ppm ± 10 ppm vol. CO 0-10 vol. % ± 0.03% vol. CO2 AVL Gas Analyzer 0-5000 ppm 0-20 vol. % ± 0.5% vol. 0-100% ± 0.1% −200 °C to 1350 °C ± 1°C AVL Smoke Meter Thermocouple Crank Angle Encoder - ± 0.5CA In Cylinder Pressure 0-110bar ± 0.5 bar Calculated Uncertainty Fuel Flow rate BSFC BTE Overall Uncertainty =0.59% =1.25% =1.2% = 1.91
  15. 15. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (kg/kWh) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (MPa) 0.5 0.6
  16. 16. Brake Thermal Efficiency Brake Thermal Efficiency (%) 30 20 10 0.0 Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (MPa) 0.5 0.6
  17. 17. Cylinder Gas Pressure 60 Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al Cylinder Gas Pressure (Mpa) 50 40 30 20 10 -60 -40 -20 0 Crank Angle (Deg) 20 40 60
  18. 18. Heat Release Rate Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al Heat Release (J/Deg) 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -100 -50 0 Crank Angle (Deg) 50 100
  19. 19. Carbon Monoxide Emissions Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al 0.18 Carbon Monoxide (% Vol.) 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (MPa) 0.5 0.6
  20. 20. Hydrocarbon Emissions Hydrocarbon Emissions (ppm) 60 Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al 50 40 30 20 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (MPa) 0.5 0.6
  21. 21. Nitrogen Oxide Emissions Nitrogen Oxide (ppm) 600 Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al 400 200 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (MPa) 0.5 0.6
  22. 22. Smoke Emissions 100 Smoke Opacity (%) 80 Diesel B20+25 Al B20+50 Al B40+25 Al B40+50 Al 60 40 20 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (MPa) 0.5 0.6
  23. 23. Conclusions •The bsfc for all the WCFME-diesel fuel blends are higher compared to the neat diesel because of its lower calorific value. The bsfc decreases and also the brake thermal efficiency increases when the increase in alumina nanoparticles concentration in the fuel blend. •The peak cylinder pressure is increasing with alumina concentration, but a shift in the peak cylinder pressure after TDC is observed. The heat release rate decreased with the alumina concentration. •The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emission for the diesel is more compared to the all nanoparticle blended WCFME-diesel fuel. •The NO emissions are slightly increased with increasing the alumina concentration and the smoke emissions decreased about the 65% using the nanoparticles.
  24. 24. References  Rajesh Mehta and RG nambiar, “The poultry industary in INDIA”  Walter C Willett and Meir J Stampfer, “Rebuilding the Food Pyramid”,     Scientific American, 2002. M.Mathiyazhagan and A.Ganapathi, “Review Article Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production”, Research in Plant Biology, 1(2): 01-05, 2011. J.M. Encinar, N. Sanchez, G. Martinez and L. Garcia, “Study of biodiesel production from animal fats with high free fatty acid content”, Bioresource Technology 102 (2011) 10907–10914. Ertan Alptekin and Mustafa Canakci, “Optimization of pretreatment reaction for methyl ester production from chicken fat”, Fuel 89 (2010) 4035–4039. H. An, W.M. Yang, S.K. Chou and K.J. Chua, “Combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine fuelled by biodiesel at partial load conditions” Applied Energy 99 (2012) 363–371
  25. 25. References  Arul Mozhi Selvan, V., Anand, RB. and Udayakumar, M. (2009) Stability, Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol Blend with Castor Oil as Additive in Variable Compression Ratio E ngine, Journal of SAE international, Paper No: 20097120.  Dale, N. (1992) True metabolizable energy of feather meal, Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 1, pp.         331-334. Rajesh Mehta, and Nambiar, RG. The poultry industry in India. Walter Willett, C., and Meir Stampfer, J., (2002) Rebuilding the Food Pyramid, Scientific American.c om. Arul Mozhi Selvan, V., Anand, RB. and Udayakumar, M. (2009)Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends on the performance and emission characterist ics of a CI engine, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4, pp. 1-6, Wen, D. (2010) Nanofuel as a potential secondary energy carrier, Energy Environmental Science, 3, p p. 591-600. Yetter, RA., Risha, GA. and Son, SF. (2009) Metal particle combustion and nanotechnology, Proceedi ngs of Combust Institute, 32, pp. 1819-1838. Sajith, V., Sobhan, CB. and Peterson, GP. (2010) Experimental Investigations on the Effects of Ceriu m Oxide, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Article ID 581407. Heejung Jung, David Kittelson, B. and Michael Zachariah, R. (2005) The influence of a cerium additi ve on ultrafine diesel particle emissions and kinetics of oxidation, Combustion and Flame, 142, pp. 27 6–288. Shafii, MB., Deneshvar, F., Jahani, N. and Mobini, K. (2011) Effect of ferrofluid on the performance a nd emission patterns of a four-strokee diesel engine, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in mechanical engineering, Article ID 529049,.
  26. 26. References  Ranaware, A. and Satpute, ST. Correlation between Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and Ferroflu        id on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a C.I. Engine, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Ci vil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), pp. 55-59. Matthew Jones, Calvin, H Li., Abdollah Afjeh and Peterson, GP. Experimental study of combustion char acteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol), Nanoscale Research Letter s, 6: 246, doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-246. Sadhik Basha, J. and Anand, RB.(2011) An Experimental Study in a CI Engine Using Nanoadditive Blend ed Water–Diesel Emulsion Fuel, International Journal of Green Energy, 8(3), pp. 332-348. Flemming Cassee, R., Arezoo Campbell, John Boere, A F., Steven McLean, G., Rodger Duffin, Petra Krys tek, Ilse Gosens and Mark Miller, R. (2012) The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaus t following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice, Environmental Resear ch, 115, pp. 1–10. An, H., Yang, WM., Chou, SK. and Chua, KJ. (2012) Combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel at partial load conditions, Applied Energy, 99, pp. 363–371. Sadhik Basha, J. and Anand, RB. (2012) Effects of nanoparticle additive in the water-diesel emulsion fue l on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine, International Journal Vehicle Design, 59, pp. 164-181. Anand, R.., Kannan, GR., Nagarajan, S. and Velmathi, S. (2010) Performance emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil”, SAE Paper :20 10-01-0478. Kannan, GR., Karvembu, R. and Anand, R. (2011) Effect of metal based additive on performance emissio n and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel, Applied Energy, 88, pp. 3694–3 703.

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