204 vikram
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
161
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
143
Embed Views
18

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 18

http://www.ese.iitb.ac.in 18

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Current G.D.P. Of India and manufacturing
  • EC-Energy Conservation
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • ABS- AcryloNitrile Butadiene StyreneLDPE-Low DensityPolyEthylenePTFE-
  • So there is need to evaluate the drying kinetics of Nylon-6Materials used for construction of Solar Dryer: Plywood (Base)Metal sheet (Absorber)Transparent Plastic sheetBlack paintOther accessories
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing
  • Current G.D.P. Of india and manufacturing

204 vikram 204 vikram Presentation Transcript

  • IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai Conservation of Energy through Solar Energy Assisted Dryer for Plastic Processing Industry D.H. Kokate, D. M. Kale, V. S. Korpale, Y. H. Shinde, S.P. Deshmukh,S.V. Panse, A. B. Pandit* Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai-19 E-mail: dr.pandit@gmail.com 1
  • Contents ☼ Introduction ☼ Construction of ISC based Solar dryer ☼ Development of mathematical model for solar collector ☼ Drying kinetics of Nylon-6 and modeling of drying process ☼ Economic evaluation of solar dryer ☼ Conclusion ☼ References 2
  • India’s Per Capita Consumption Is Just one fifth of the World Average ! We need to Enhance our HDI by rapid mfg of Plastic Goods with sustainable Development. 3
  • 1.1 Indian Plastic Industry Polymer demend, MMT The Plastic Industry has growing 1.5 times of GDP ( 1995- 2005)  with GDP @ 9% , the expected domestic demand of Polymer to Reach at 9.5 MMT.  Increased Demand in Polymer will Increase the Energy Wastages ( If EC measures are not adopted/ neglected) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9% 1995-96 2005-06 Year 2011-12 4
  • 1.1 Indian Plastic Industry  The boosting Demand will reach to 12.8 MMT.  The Growth Drivers are need to be closely monitored and policies need to integrated with EC Act 01 & RE Sources to promote the EC.  Managing the Energy Demand to meet the Polymer demand @ 19 % is a challenge .  Energy Management of using alternative energy sources will be a IMP tool to meet the above challenge. 5
  • 1.2 Energy in plastic processing Energy Energy Blending Distribution Granulation Drying Energy Rejects Process Energy Dispatch Energy 4% 3% •Total enthalpy of the drying process: 2% 1% 0% Use of energy for drying in various processes Where, HGG = Enthalpy of Humid gas HGW = Enthalpy of moisture HGM = Residual enthalpy for mixing and other effects Y = Absolute humidity of gas 6
  • 1.3 Low temp. Application in plastic processing for Solar Chimney / Dryer Max. operating Common name Specific gravity temp. (°C) Acrylic 1.18 1.04 55 70 (high impact) LDPE PVC (flexible) PVC (rigid) Polycarbonate 0.92 1.3 1.4 1.15 80 50 90 115 Epoxies Polyester PTFE Silicones Nylon 6 1.2 1.8 2.1 1.4 1.14 130 130 180 240 220 Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene Styrene Solar Thermal Process Preheating up to 40°C Preheating up to 50°C Preheating up to 70°C De-humidification & Preheating up to 70 °C Drying of hygroscopic Polymers & preheating of Polymeric materials up to 70 °C easily achieved by solar Chimney / Dryer
  • 1.4 Scope for Solar Thermal in Plastic Processing Solar Thermal Implementation measure Energy Reduction (expected) Preconditioning of Polymeric Material. - Heating & Drying before processing. 7 – 10 % Heating during Processing ( partially) 8- 12 % Effluent Treatment 5- 10 % Shop floor & Industry Lighting by Solar PV Panel Total 3- 5 % 23 – 37 % About 20 % cost reduction, in required energy is possible by using only Solar Thermal application that will reduce the cost of manufacturing / maximize the profit.
  • 2.1 Concept of Solar Dryer Temperatures of air T14 Temp. of drying Material Temp. of drying tray T13 Temperatures of absorber plate T11 T12 T9 T10 T7 T8 T5 T6 T3 T4 T1 T2
  • 2.2 Solar Dryer Model Different design: •Basic ISC design •Absorber lining inside the drying chamber •Some part Top cover was replaced by absorber cover from above Drying material Properties: Good strength, stiffness, chemical and impact resistance, as well good frictional characteristics. Its diffusion characteristics show very different nature compared with other plastic materials. 10
  • 3.1 Development of mathematical model for solar collector Assumptions: - bulk mean temperature of air rises from Tf to Tf +dTf flowing through the distance dx - The air mass flow rate md - The mean temperature of absorber plate and cover are Tpm and Tc respectively. - Aperture factor, Bottom and side losses are neglected. 11
  • Energy balance for absorber plate: Where Energy balance for Cover: Energy balance for air stream: 380 Tfo(experimental) 370 Acceptable within 5 % variation Tfo (K) 360 The final mathematical expression is, Tfo(model) 350 340 330 320 0 1 2 3 Trials 4 5 6 12
  • 4.1 Temperature variation in natural Convection solar Chimney Air temp & air velocity profile over the day 100 3 Air at 1 Air at 2 Air at out outlet velocity Air at 3 inlet Velocity 90 2.5 Temp, oC 80 2 70 1.5 60 1 50 40 0.5 30 10:00 0 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 Time, hr:min 15:00 16:00 ∆T, achieved up to 40 C & air velocity up to 2 m/sec Air elocity, m/sec Air at in
  • 4.2 Variation of pellet temperature and air velocity over a day Pellet temperature and wind velocity 350 pellets temperature Wind velocity 7.0 345 6.0 340 Temperature, K 330 4.0 325 3.0 320 315 2.0 310 1.0 305 300 0.0 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 Time, Hr:min Velocity, m/sec 5.0 335
  • 4.3 Thermal performance Trial Tpm Tfo (exp.) Pr (K) (K) E-11 339.4 331.5 0.72 E-21 340.8 331.8 E-31 336.3 328.6 Nu hfp hr (W/m2 K) (W/m2 K) 5.95 1.66 5.67 0.72 5.38 1.47 5.71 0.72 5.30 1.73 5.62 md (kg/s) Qi Qu (W) (W) ηth % 0.117 6763 1630 24.1 340.8 0.132 9101 2215 24.3 336.3 0.115 5927 2043 35.7 Trial Tpm E-11 (K) 339.4 E-21 E-31 Here is a scope to improve the Efficiency up to 40%
  • 4.4 Drying Kinetics of Nylon-6 and modeling of Drying Process 1.6 Dry basis moisture content (%) 1.4 1.2 E21 E31 E11 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 Time (Hr: min) 16
  • 4.4 Drying Kinetics of Nylon-6 and modeling of Drying Process 0.0003 E21 Dryiing rate (g/g . s) 0.00025 E31 E11 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Dry basis moisture content (%) Effective moisture diffusivity was calculated for all the trials, and found to be in the range of 4 - 6.5 X 10-9 cm2/s. is in good agreement with the value reported in the literature which is 5 X 10-9cm2/s. 17
  • 5.1 Dryer Sizing Ms (kg) Mw (kg) Qe (W) Qs (W) Qd (W) Qu (W) Ap (m2) 1 0.0162 10.73 1.99 12.72 33934 4.24 10 0.1628 107.3 19.93 176.75 33936 42.42 50 0.8140 536.6 99.66 176.75 11783 58.91 100 1.6281 298.1 199.33 353.50 23567 117.83 Assuming, 1.5% drying efficiency Dry basis moisture content 9% Sample temp. 327K Solar Intensity 800W/m2 18
  • 5.2 Cost Analysis of solar dryer The simple cost analysis approach is depicted for this topic and it shows the total cost of any system is sum of cost of individual components. Solar dryer consisting of collector and drying chamber.  The roof of the collectors may be withstanding maximum temperatures up to 80 0C, thus material should be quite stress resistant additional to transparency. The collectors may be glass sheet, polycarbonate sheet or thin polyster sheet.  Polyster sheet costs Rs. 72/m2 . Material cost for constructing the dryer is Rs. 50/m2 of collector area. Total cost of dryer = collector cost + drying chamber cost + fabrication cost = 72 + 50 + (72+50) = Rs. 244 /m2 of collector area 19
  • 6. Conclusion  Drying behavior of Nylon-6 was investigated using natural convection solar drying.  Air temperature inside the dryer is found to be in the range of 55-70oC, which is dependent on factors such as solar intensity, outside wind velocity, and type of absorber etc.  Drying of Nylon-6 is found to be in the falling rate period. Nylon-6 took nearly 6 hrs to reach 0.15 % moisture content value.  Value of effective diffusivity is varied from 4 - 6.5 X 10-9 cm2/sec. The results presented in this work suggest that solar dryer can be satisfactorily used for drying of Nylon-6.  Economic analysis show simple payback period for solar dryer capable of drying 100 kg/hr is around 7 months.  Solar Thermal Energy options can be quickly harnessed in plastic processing, e.g. Pre-conditioning , Drying , and Preheating of Polymers. 20
  • References 1. CRISIL Infrastrure Advisory. Indian Plastic Industry-Vision 2012. Delhi, 2006. 2. Indian Plastic Industry. 1999-2013. (accessed 2013). 3. Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation,Natural Resources Canada. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in the canadian plastics processing industry. Ottawa ON K1A 0E4, 2007. 4. Tangram Technology. Energy efficiency in Plastic processing-Practical Worksheet for Industry. Tangram Technology Ltd. 5. D. M. Kale, R. G. Patil, A.B. Pandit, V. D. Deshpande, J. B. Joshi, S.V. Panse, “Economic Optimization of Inclined Solar Chimney for Power Generation “ISWESD, Assam,2012 6. A.S.Jadhav, A.S.Gudekar, S.V.Panse, J.B.Joshi. (2011). Inclined solar chimney for power production, Energy Conversion and Management 52, 3096–3102 7. S.P.Sukhatme, J.K.nayak. Solar Energy-Principle of Thermal energy collection and storage. Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2008. 8. Y.H. Shinde Development of natural convective solar drying. Mumbai: Institute of Chemical Technology, 2009. 9. Nelson W.E. Nylon Plastic Technology. Newnws-Butterworths, London: Butterworth and Co.(Publishers) Ltd., 1976. 10. Psychometric Analysis C.D.-Psychart-1,American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air conditioning Engineering Inc., Copyright 1992 21
  • Thank you
  • Drying model