193 b.p.pattanaik

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193 b.p.pattanaik

  1. 1. B. P. Pattanaik1*, M. K. Mohanty2, B. K. Nanda1, S. K. Nayak1, R. Panua3, P. K. Bose3 1School of Mechanical Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 2College of Agriculture Engineering & Technology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura Presented at the 4th International Conference on “Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013)” 10 – 12 December 2013 , IIT Bombay
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES  Development of Karanja biodiesel from neat Karanja oil by base catalyzed transesterification method  Characterization of fuel properties of Karanja oil, Karanja biodiesel and comparison with diesel  Preparation of test fuels in the form of biodiesel blends  Application of the test fuels to a single cylinder low compression ratio diesel engine  Estimation of various engine performance and emission parameters for various test fuels and comparison of those with that of diesel fuel ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Why Alternative Energy?  Limited stock of present fossil fuel reserves which will last for few more years to come  Increasing rate of air-pollution from automobiles using petroleum based fuels  Alarming increase in Green House Gases in the atmosphere  Reducing health standards due to excessive automobile pollution  Continuous hike in crude petroleum prices ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 3
  4. 4. Causes for Promotion of Biofuels  Contribution to the Energy Security Policy  Environmental Concerns  Foreign Exchange Savings  Socio-Economic Issues Related to Rural Sector  Greater Use of Renewable Energy  Less Green House Gas Emissions ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 4
  5. 5. Biodiesel as a Renewable Fuel  Biodiesel is a chemically derived fuel comprised of Mono-alkyl ester / Methyl ester of long chain fatty acids of the triglycerides present in the straight vegetable oil (SVO) / animal fat obtained during the transesterification Process.  It possesses almost similar fuel properties as mineral diesel  Completely bio-degradable and non-toxic  Requires no engine modifications when used in engines  Produces less green house gas emissions as compared to diesel ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 5
  6. 6. Karanja as a potential source for biodiesel production  Suitable climatic and soil conditions for Karanja plantation in the Indian context  Can grow in unused and infertile lands  Higher oil content in the harvested seeds  Completely non-edible vegetable oil  Higher conversion yield potential for biodiesel production  Low cost biodiesel production ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 6
  7. 7. Photograph of Karanja Tree ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 7
  8. 8. Harvested Karanja fruits and seeds ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 8
  9. 9. Structure of Neat Vegetable Oil ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 9
  10. 10. The Transesterification Reaction ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 10
  11. 11. Transesterification Process ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 11
  12. 12. EXPERIMENTAL Biodiesel Production Methodology  Heating & Grease Removal of Vegetable oil  Acid Esterification of Vegetable oil  Reagent Mixture Preparation (KOH+CH3OH)  Base Catalyst Transesterification below 65 C  Biodiesel Separation  Methanol Recovery  Glycerol Collection  Biodiesel Collection, Washing & Purification ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 12
  13. 13. Schematic diagram of a small biodiesel reactor ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 13
  14. 14. Process Parameters used during Transesterification Sl No. Process parameters Description 1 Process selected Alkali catalyzed transesterification 2 Reaction temperature 55 – 60 oC 3 Sample oil used 1250 ml of neat Karanja oil 4 Methanol used 200 ml / kg of oil 5 Catalyst used (KOH) 0.5 – 1 % per kg of oil 6 Reaction time 1.5 hours 7 Settling time 8 – 10 hours 8 Water washing 8 – 24 hours 9 Stirring speed 550 – 700 rpm ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 14
  15. 15. Biodiesel & Glycerol Separation ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 15
  16. 16. Variation in viscosity of Karanja oil with temperature ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 16
  17. 17. Comparison in density at various stages of biodiesel production ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 17
  18. 18. Comparison of viscosity of Karanja oil at various stages ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 18
  19. 19. Comparison in FFA composition of Karanja oil at various stages ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 19
  20. 20. Biodiesel Conversion Yield 0.92 Conversion Yield (%) 0.9 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.8 0.78 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Reaction Time (Min.) ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 20
  21. 21. Characterization of Fuel Properties Properties Karanja oil Karanja biodiesel Diesel ASTM Methods Density at 25oC (kg/m3) 910 880 860 D 1298 Kinematic Viscosity at 40oC (cSt.) 34.78 6.5 2.56 D 445 Acid value (mg KOH/g) 30.8 1.12 - D 664 FFA (mg KOH/g) 15.4 0.56 - D 664 Calorific value (MJ/kg) 36.4 40.2 44.2 D 240 Cetane number 32.22 56.64 47 D 613 Flash point (oC) 219 124 76 D 93 Fire point (oC) 228 146 78 D 93 Cloud point (oC) 9 5 -10 D 2500 Pour point (oC) 3 -2 -18 D 97 ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 21
  22. 22. Preparation of Biodiesel Blends (Test Fuels)  B-20 (20% Biodiesel + 80% Petro Diesel)  B-50 (50% Biodiesel + 50% Petro Diesel)  B-100 (100% Biodiesel) ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 22
  23. 23. Photograph of various test fuel samples ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 23
  24. 24. Schematic Presentation of the Test Engine ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 24
  25. 25. Photograph of the Test Engine Setup ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 25
  26. 26. Test Engine Specification Parameter Description Make/Model Kirloskar oil engines India Ltd / AV-1 Engine type Four-Stroke diesel engine No. of cylinder One Bore × Stroke 80 × 110 mm2 Compression ratio 16.5:1 Injection pressure 220 bar Injection nozzle opening 23obTDC Rated power 6.25 kW Rated speed 1500 rpm Cooling type Water cooled Lubricating oil SAE 20 W40 Dynamometer Eddy current type (10kW, 43.5 A) ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 26
  27. 27. RESULTS Engine Performance Analysis 1. Brake Thermal Efficiency ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 27
  28. 28. 2. Brake Specific Energy Consumption ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 28
  29. 29. 3. Exhaust Gas Temperature ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 29
  30. 30. Engine Emission Analysis 4. CO Emission ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 30
  31. 31. 5. HC Emission ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 31
  32. 32. 6. CO2 Emission ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 32
  33. 33. 7. Smoke Emission ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 33
  34. 34. 8. NOX Emission ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 34
  35. 35. CONCLUSIONS  The BTE was found to be increasing and the BSEC found to be decreasing with increase in engine power output. The BTE was highest for diesel and the BSEC was highest for Karanja biodiesel at all loads.  The CO and HC emission decrease initially at lower loads and then increases when the load is increased above 50%. The CO and HC emissions were also found to be higher for diesel.  The CO2 emission in g/kWh decreases with increase in engine power and the smoke emission increases with engine power and load. Smoke emission was higher in case of B50 and B100. ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 35
  36. 36. Continued….  The EGT increases with increase in engine power and NOx emission in g/kWh was found to be decreasing with increase in engine power and load. Both EGT and NOx emission were higher for Karanja biodiesel. ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 36
  37. 37. FUTURE SCOPE  Biodiesel being more viscous than diesel may require frequent cleaning of engine components. Use of preheated biodiesel blends in engines may be studied.  Biodiesel if used for longer time in engines causes corrosive effects. Studies on engine wear and corrosion due to the use of biodiesel must be carried out.  Biodiesel combustion causes higher combustion and exhaust temperatures. Studies must be carried out for suitable engine modifications resulting in low temperatute biodiesel combustion. ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 37
  38. 38. Continued….  Higher NOx emission due to biodiesel combustion is a great matter of environmental concern. Investigation must be undertaken for reduction of the same using newer methods like exhaust gas recirculation. ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 38
  39. 39. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are extremely thankful to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata and the College of Agriculture Engineering & Technology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha for providing laboratory facilities for conduct of the experiments. ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 39
  40. 40. REFERENCES 1. Kerschbaum, S, Rinke, G: Measurement of the temperature dependent viscosity of biodiesel fuels. Fuel 83, 287–91(2004) 2. Stavarache, C, Vinatoru, M, Nishimura, R, Maed, Y: Fatty acids methyl esters from vegetable oil by means of ultrasonic energy. Ultrason Sonochem 12, 367–72(2005) 3. Wang YD, AZ-Shemmeri T, Eames P, McMullan J, Hewitt N, Huang Y: An experimental investigation of the performance and gaseous exhaust emission of a diesel engine using blends of a vegetable oil. Appl Therm Eng 26, 1684–91 (2006) 4. Sundarapandian S, Devaradjane G. Experimental investigation of the performance on vegetable oil operated CI engine. 19th National Conference on I.C. engine and combustion, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, December 21–23, 87–94 (2005). 5. Barnwal BK, Sharma MP. Prospects of bio-diesel production from vegetable oils in India. Renew Sust Energy Rev 9, 363–78 (2005) 6. Goff, MJ, Bauer, NS, Lopes, S, Sutterlin, WR, Suppes, GJ: Acid-catalyzed alcoholysis of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 200481, 415–20 7. Lotero, E, Goodwin, JG, Bruce, DA, Suwannakarn, K, Liu, Y, Lopez, DE: The catalysis of bio-diesel synthesis. Catalysis 19, 41–83 (2006) 8. Dmytryshyn, SL, Dalai AK, Chaudhari, ST, Mishra, HK, Reaney, MJ: Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties. Bioresour Technol 92, 55–64 (2004) 9. Ramadhas, AS, Jayaraj, S, Muraleedharan, C: Biodiesel production from high FFA rubber seed oil. Fuel 84, 335-340 (2005) 10. Misra, RD, Murthy, MS. Performance, emission and combustion evaluation of soapnut oil- diesel blends in a compression ignition engine. Fuel 90, 2514-2518 (2011) ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 40

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