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  • 1. Multi-criteria Analysis of Alternative Biogas Technologies Bakul Rao1,*, Archana Mane2, Anand B. Rao1, and Vishal Sardeshpande1,3 1 Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai, India 400076 2 Mechanical Department, MIT Academy of Engineering, Alandi, Pune 412105, India. 3 ATE Entreprises Pvt. Ltd., Pune * Corresponding Author. Tel: +91-22-25767830, E-mail: bakulrao@iitb.ac.in
  • 2. Motivation With issues of climate change taking a forefront there is a need to promote technologies like biogas which effectively addresses the problem of greenhouse gas emissions and solid waste management. This will lead to self-reliant development of a country by meeting the energy needs through renewable sources, and decentralised energy supply in domestic, industrial and commercial segments in rural and urban areas.
  • 3. Problem Statement • The current study carries out a multi criteria analysis using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) tool for selection of biogas technology (2m3 capacity) among the widely promoted models by GOI with a perspective of overall self-reliant development.
  • 4. Tool Used for Analysis - AHP • Developed by Prof. Thomas Saaty in 1970s • Aids in understanding and analysing diverse information about various technologies and arriving at a right technology option. • Uses a pair-wise comparison method for assigning weights to the attributes and also measures consistency of pair-wise comparisons. • AHP also helps in quantifying the qualitative attributes • Structures a decision problem into a number of hierarchical levels • Hence AHP is chosen for analyzing the technology alternatives in this paper.
  • 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • Biogas Technologies Identification and Data Collection • Information regarding the technical, social, economic and environmental attributes were obtained through primary surveys and interviews.
  • 6. Characteristics of various biogas plants Attributes Units KVIC digester KVIC digester with KVIC digester KVIC digester with FRP Deenbandhu Nisargaruna (T1) (T5) technology ferrocement digester and gas holder digester (T2) 6000 200 3 6 holder (T3) 8000 150 3 6 (T4) Capital cost Maintenance cost Skilled labor Unskilled labor for construction Time to set up Rs Rs/year Nos. Nos. Days 5 5 Life of the plant Years 10 Payback period Years Energy Required/ kWh/day Consumed Feed to water ratio 1 Raw material * Location Transport * * CH4 content in the % biogas Sturdiness * Skills * Accessories required * Degree of mechanization * *- qualitative attribute 11000 299 3 6 with FRP gas (T6) 360000 24000 3 4 25000 100 5 7 7000 150 3 6 3 3 4 45 12 15-20 25-30 12 10 4 2 4 6 4 NR NR NR NR NR 3 1 FRP 1 Bricks, Cement, Sand 1 to 3 Mild Steel Sheets Village Tempo Village Not Transportable City Truck 55-60 50-55 70-75 Less Sturdy Sturdy 1 1 1 Bricks, Bricks, Concrete, Bricks, Concrete, Concrete, Cement, Sand, M.S. Cement, Sand, Cement, Sand, Sheet, M.S. Wire FRP M.S. Sheet Village Village Village Not Not transportable Not transportable Transportable 55-60 55-60 55-60 Sturdy Sturdy Sturdy Sturdy Initial training is required none Initial training is required none Initial training is required none Initial training is required Manually operated Manually operated Manually operated Manually operated none In depth training Intense training required required none Large no of accessories required Manually Partially operated mechanized
  • 7. AHP Methodology • AHP involves three stages namely, decomposition, comparative judgment and synthesis of priorities Stage 1: Decomposition
  • 8. Quantitative and qualitative attributes of various technology alternatives Level 2 Attributes A1 Capital cost A2 A3 Maintenance cost Skilled labor A4 Unskilled labor for construction A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 Time to set up Life of the plant Payback period Energy Required/ Consumed Feed to water ratio Raw material A11 Transport A13 A14 CH4 content in the biogas Sturdiness A15 A16 Skills Accessories required A17 Degree of mechanization Rs Cost/ Benefit Location A12 Units Cost Rs/year Cost Nos. Cost Nos. Benefit Days Years Years kWh/day 1 Cost Benefit Cost Cost Cost % Benefit
  • 9. AHP Methodology • Stage 2: Comparative judgment an attribute to attribute comparison is carried out. • Attribute weights are obtained by doing pairwise comparison of the attributes • The quantitative attributes are defined as cost attribute or benefit attribute and accordingly its normalized values are calculated • Stage 3: Ranking the alternatives following formula is used Here, Rj = Ranking of the alternatives pij = Normalised attribute values of the alternatives wi = Attribute weight
  • 10. RESULT OF AHP STUDY • The summary of rankings is shown below: Alternative T1 Rj Rank T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 3.83 3.81 3.83 4.05 3.97 0.60 4 5 3 1 2 6 • KVIC with FRP gas holder and digester ranks 1st because of its:  Corrosion resistance and hence less maintenance cost,  High strength to weight ratio which makes it easy to transport and improved life, and  Unskilled person with meager amount of training can also be employed in its construction and repaire hence meeting the goal of regional self reliant development.