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  • 1. LCA of Traditional Bricks in Western MH Shridhar Kumbhar Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas IIT Bombay ICAER 10-12th December 2013
  • 2. Content •Clay Bricks •Types clay brick making •Study area •Need of LCA in Clay Bricks •Production process •Energy use and Impacts •Role of LCA •Objective and Scope of work •Material and Methods •LCA by SIMAPRO 7.3.3 •Result and discussion •Conclusion 2
  • 3. Clay Bricks • Oldest man-made technology • Discovery -Indus valley Civilization • One of the major Building Construction Material • India- 2nd Largest producer of Bricks in world. • Production growth rate- 4% /year • 2001- 140 million • 2011- 250 million (UNDP, 2013 & Maithel et al, 2012) • 2nd Largest consumer of coal after Steel Industry in India- 35 million tones coal consumption/year (Lalchandani & Maithel, 2013) 3
  • 4. Types of brick kilns Type of kiln Specific Energy Consumption ( MJ/kg of fi red brick ) Specific coal consumption ( tons/100,000 bricks ) Production Contribution VSBK (India, Nepal, Vietnam) 0.7-1.0 11-16 5-10% Fixed chimney BTK (India) 17.5-24 20-25% Movable chimney BTK (India) 1.2-1.75 19-28 5% Tunnel Kiln (Vietnam) 1.4-1.6 22-25 5-10% Modern Tunnel kiln (Germany) 1.1-2.5 17.5-40 2.0-4.5 32-71 Continuous Kiln 1.1-1.5 Intermittent kilns Clamp and other batch kiln (Asia) Ref.- Teri, Brick by Brick, 2008 4 50-55%
  • 5. Study Area selection Data collection from Brick kiln site 5
  • 6. Production process 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Production process with emission 8
  • 9. Life Cycle Energy use and Impacts -20% -60% -20% 9
  • 10. Role of LCA • Provides A Scientific Approach • Detailed analysis – • Raw material, • Process • Fuel consumption • Relative impact on environment • LCA provides Holistic view of resource use and impacts of products/process by considering cradle to gate concept. 10
  • 11. Objectives and Scope • Objectives • To study the energy consumption pattern in traditional bricks • To study and analyze the natural resource consumption • To study Socio-economic impacts of traditional bricks in Western MH. • Scope • Traditional Bricks production in Western Maharashtra 11
  • 12. Steps 12
  • 13. On-site data collection • Interviews of Brick kiln owner, workers and stakeholders • Sources of raw material • Distance travelled • Fuel required for brick kiln and transport • Emissions • Socio-Economic Impact 13
  • 14. Field data Consumpti on per 1000 bricks (in terms of 3x4x9) BK 1 BK 2 BH 6 BK 3 BK 4 BK 5 BK 6 BK 7 BK 8 BK 9 BK 10 BK 11 Soil ( in brass) 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Foundry Sand ( in brass) 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.08 0.03 0.13 0.13 0.03 Bagasse (in tons) 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.11 0.17 0.13 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.11 0.23 0.14 Coal powder (in tons) 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.10 0.08 Coal (tons) 0.04 0.035 0.04 0.03 0.02  0.03 0.04 0.035 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.04 Coal Powder (tons) 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.06 0.03  0.05 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.03 14
  • 15. Primary data • Mining of soil is done manually and transported with tractors or truck • Bagasse is taken from sugar factories nearby 50 km area. • Coal and coal powder is imported from Chandrapur, Wani area- avg. transport distance 470 km • Foundry sand is taken from nearby foundries about 15 km radius area • Drying of green bricks by heat of natural solar energy 15
  • 16. Sr. No. Material LCA work Database from Sima Pro 7.3.3 1 Soil Clay unspecified in ground 2 Water In water 3 Air In Air 4 Coal Hard coal mix, at regional storage/ UCTE 5 Land use Transformation, from arable , non irrigated 6 Transport Transport, combination of truck, diesel powered / US 7 Bagasse Bagasse from sugarcane, at sugar refinery Mh. 8 Foundry Sand Foundry sand, at mine / US – Waste generated from foundry 9 Air emissions Airborne emission 10 Heat waste Emission to soil 11 Particulate matter Waste flow 16
  • 17. User Interface to choose impact assessment method 17
  • 18. Result and Discussion Damage assessment- Eco-indicator 99 (I) Impact category Unit Total Hard coal /UCTE U Bricks Transport, / US Bagasse Foundry sand, at mine/US Disposal, /CHS Carcinogens DALY 2.16E-10 0 1.76E-10 5.21E-16 4.01E-11 0 4.03E-13 Resp. organics DALY Resp. inorganics DALY Climate change DALY Radiation DALY 1.92E-11 0 1.47E-11 4.18E-17 4.35E-12 0 1.53E-13 4.27E-07 4.22E-07 4.05E-09 4.67E-15 7.73E-10 0 1.59E-10 2.07E-08 3.31E-12 1.69E-08 0 3.35E-09 1.92E-12 9.32E-15 0 4.14E-10 1.38E-12 0 0 1.33E-11 4.28E-15 Ozone layer DALY 1.32E-12 0 4.47E-13 1.31E-21 8.61E-13 0 1.28E-14 Ecotoxicity PDF*m2yr 4.34E-05 0 2.44E-05 1.23E-11 1.87E-05 0 1.96E-07 Acidification/ Eutrophicatio n PDF*m2yr Land use PDF*m2yr 0.014984 -0.10222 0.014402 -0.10443 0.000496 0.001165 1.8E-09 0 8.23E-05 0.001043 0 0 3.66E-06 -1.9E-06 Minerals 0.000263 0 0.000114 0 0.000148 0 8.64E-07 MJ surplus 18
  • 19. Damage assessment by Material 19
  • 20. Single Score results - Eco-indicator 99 (I) Hard coal Foundry mix, Transport, sand, at Disposal, / Total Bricks /UCTE U /US Bagasse mine/US CH S 0.049239 0.047898 0.001038 1.8E-09 0.000282 0 2.1E-05 Impact category Total Unit Pt Carcinogens Pt 2.56E-05 0 2.08E-05 6.16E-11 4.74E-06 0 4.76E-08 Resp. organics Pt Resp. inorganics Pt Climate change Pt Radiation Pt 2.27E-06 0 1.74E-06 4.94E-12 5.15E-07 0 1.81E-08 0.050503 0.049914 0.000479 5.52E-10 9.14E-05 0 1.88E-05 0.002445 3.91E-07 0.001999 0 0.000396 2.27E-07 1.1E-09 0 4.89E-05 1.63E-07 0 0 1.57E-06 5.06E-10 Ozone layer Ecotoxicity Pt Pt 1.56E-07 1.93E-06 0 0 5.28E-08 1.09E-06 1.55E-16 5.47E-13 1.02E-07 8.35E-07 0 0 1.51E-09 8.75E-09 Acidification Pt 0.000668 0.000642 2.21E-05 8.04E-11 3.67E-06 0 1.63E-07 Land use Minerals Pt Pt -0.00456 0.000151 -0.00466 0 5.2E-05 6.54E-05 0 0 4.65E-05 8.54E-05 0 0 -8.6E-08 4.97E-07 20
  • 21. Comparison with Single Score 21
  • 22. Network - Eco-indicator 99 (I) 22
  • 23. Impact Assessment Results Impact Eco-indicator 99 (I) Eco-indicator 99 (E) Eco-indicator 99 (H) Human Health 45% 30% 30% Eco-system quality 35% 40% 50% Resources 20% 30% 20% 23
  • 24. Conclusion • Environmental Impact depends upon quantity and quality of coal used in kiln. • High socio-economic impact • Easy Traditional technology • Movable technology • Low capital investment • Need to modify traditional technology to reduce the pollution 24
  • 25. THANK YOU 25