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155 iit bomby 155 iit bomby Presentation Transcript

  • DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SOFT SWITCHED HIGH GAIN CURRENT FED FULL BRIDGE DC-DC CONVERTER FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS Members D Elangovan Asst.Prof (Senior) Siddhartha Nigam UG Student Dr.R.Saravanakumar Professor Dr.D.P.Kothari Professor School of Electrical Engineering , VIT University ,Vellore
  • BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH Recently, green power concept has potentially attracted the attention of researchers, industries as well as common men. With the concept of smart grid, smart meters and smart buildings, alternative energy sources are getting increasingly importance The alternative energy sources cannot be used as such as they provide unregulated electric power. A power electronics interface is required to convert power from alternative energy sources into usable power for several applications including grid-interface, vehicles, residential or standalone load applications
  • BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH Among fuel cells, wind & solar power, fuel cells are considered a potential and capable candidate energy source as they can provide continuous power in all seasons as long as the continuity of fuel supply is maintained.  Fuel cells are regarded as one option for a more environmentally friendly energy market in the future.[1] 
  • The main issues in power generation using fuel cell:  High efficiency during load operation  Large step-up ratio  Low input ripple current to increase the fuel cell lifetime. Challenges:  Design and interfacing an efficient and low cost power converter.
  • Literature Review  Boost Converter-The boost converter is one of the most important non isolated converter A conventional boost converters are able to achieve high step-up voltage gain in heavy duty  Vo = Vdc / (1-D) where D is the duty ratio = Ton / T
  • Literature Review     With a very high duty ratio, the output rectifier conducts for only a very short time during each switching cycle Very narrow turnoff pulses Serious output diode reverse recovery problem The switch-off loss due to the rectifier diode will degrade the efficiency
  • Literature Review Topology : Interleaved boost – Non isolated Ref.no Journal Topic [2] IEEE Trans. Power Electron, Mar.2008 Voltage multiplier cells applied to non-isolated DC–DC converters [3] IEEE Trans. Power Electron, Jul.2007 Interleaved boost converter for PFC front end,” IEEE Int. Symp. Power Electron. (ISIE), Jun. 2003 An interleaved boost DC–DC converter with large conversion ratio [4] Strengths  High voltage gain without high duty ratio  diode reverse recovery issues weaknesses Requires additional resonant inductors to cope with the diode reverse recovery problem
  • Topology : Coupled Inductor Ref.No Journal Topic Strengths [5] IEEE Trans. Power Electron, Jul.2008 “A family of interleaved DC–DC converters deduced from a basic cell with coupled inductors,” [6] IEEE Vehicle Power Propulsion Conf. (VPPC), Sep.2007 A novel high efficiency high power interleaved coupled-inductor boost DC–DC converter for hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle Interleaved converter is an attractive solution for high voltage gain applications, but it is complex and high cost (two sets of power devices, magnetic core & control circuit) IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron,Feb. 2007 High-efficiency DC–DC converter with high voltage gain and reduced switch stress, [7] diode reverse recovery affects the overall efficiency coupled inductor turns ratio that allows to boost the output voltage without high duty ratio weaknesses Leakage inductance of the coupled inductor affects the efficiency
  • Topology : Coupled Inductor Ref.No Journal Topic [ 11 ] IEEE Trans. Power Electron, Jan.2003 “High-efficiency, high step-ip DC–DC converters, [10] IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl, Mar. 2004 “Novel high-efficiency step-up converter [9] IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl, Jul. 2005 “High-efficiency DC/DC converter with high voltage gain, Strengths weaknesses Rectifier diode turnoff current is limited by leakage inductance of the coupled inductor itself. Additional clamping circuit is necessary to circulate leakage energy
  • Topology : Flyback Converter Ref.no Journal Topic [ 13 ] IEEE Trans. Power Electron, Nov.2011 High Step-Up Ratio Flyback Converter With Active Clamp and Voltage Multiplier Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron, Jul.2006 A low power topology derived from flyback with active clamp based on a very simple transformer IEEE Trans. Power Electron, Nov.2005 Analysis, design and implementation of an active clamp flyback converter [15] [17] Strengths  High voltage gain without high duty ratio  diode reverse recovery issues Combines Isolation with soft commutation weaknesses  Voltage stress across the rectifier diode Single winding carries a current Operates in discontinuous mode High off state voltage  core utilization
  • Topology : Half bridge DC-DC Converter Ref.no Journal Topic [ 18 ] ELSEVIER Interleaved soft-switched active-clamped L–L type current-fed half-bridge DC–DC converter for fuel cell applications International Journal of hydrogen energy 3 4 ( 2 0 0 9) [19] [20] IEEE Trans. Inds Electron, Jan 2012 IEEE Trans ENERGY CONVERSION Jun. 2007 Analysis, Design and Experimental Results of Wide Range ZVS ActiveClamped L-L Type Current-Fed DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cells to Utility Interface Fuel Cell Generation System With a New Active Clamping Current-Fed Half-Bridge Converter Strengths weaknesses  High voltage gain without high duty ratio Output diode suffers from reverse recovery problem.  Justified Current fed topology is best for fuel cell application The isolation transformer turns ration is high High compared topologies efficiency to other
  • Filling knowledge gap Topology : Fullbridge DC-DC Converter Ref.no Journal Topic Strengths [ 22 ] IEEE 2012 Control Design of Currentfed Full-bridge Isolated Dc/Dc Converter with Active-clamp  High Power compared with half bridge [23] [24] IEEE Trans. Power Electr, Jan 2008 Current-fed Full-bridge Boost Converter with Zero Current Switching for High Voltage Applications IEEE Trans. Power Electr, Mar 2007 Analysis & Implementation of a High Efficiency, Interleaved Current-Fed Full Bridge Converter for Fuel Cell System  High efficieny. weaknesses Output diode suffers from reverse recovery problem. The isolation transformer turns ration is high
  • Conclusion   High voltage gain possible without high duty ratio Leakage inductance energy is recycled using Clamping circuits thereby reducing the switch voltage stress  Compact and Cost-effective power supplies with low losses and high efficiency are major concern.  Our work focuses on reducing the size of power supplies and maximizing the power density by introducing new Dc-Dc converter
  • Proposed Converter
  • STEADY STATE ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED CONVERTER
  • Modes of operation Mode-1
  • At t=t2, iLk=0 and thus
  • Mode-2
  • Mode-3
  • Mode-4
  • Mode-5
  • Mode-6
  • Equivalent circuits
  • Theoretical Waveforms
  • Half-Wave Cockroft-Walton Voltage Multiplier OPTIMAL DESIGN CALCULATIONS REFERENCE:Ioannis C. Kobougias and Emmanuel C. Tatakis (2010), “Optimal Design of a Half-Wave Cockcroft–Walton Voltage Multiplier With Minimum Total Capacitance”. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., VOL. 25, NO. 9.
  • • The C-W VM circuit topology is an easy and an efficient way of achieving a high voltage conversion ratio. • Due to the AC impedance of the capacitors, there is a voltage drop and a peak to peak ripple when the circuit is fully loaded. • Moreover, most of the C-W VM circuits are designed with equal capacitances.
  • Choice of capacitance • Thus, an optimized H-W C-W VM circuit design is chosen. • There are 4 optimal design cases present for the V-M circuit present Case 1: C2i = C2i−1 = C (the classical case where all capacitors are equal) Case 2: C1=C2 = 2C and C2i = C2i−1 = C for i = 1 (case often found in the bibliography) Case 3: C2i = C2i−1 = (n + 1 − i)C Case 4: C2i = (n + 1 − i)C and C2i−1 = (n + 1 − i)2C i : number of every stage C : capacitance of the last stage, defined as base capacitance.
  • Case 3 can be characterized as the best choice among the four cases for an optimized design of a H-W C-W VM, because it gives the desired output voltage with a nearly optimum number of stages, a relatively small voltage ripple and the minimum total capacitance.
  • Simulation of the Proposed Converter
  • Simulation Parameters Parameter Values Input voltage 30V Transformer primary turns 25 Transformer secondary turns 25 Output voltage 240V Switching Frequency 100KhZ
  • Input & Output Voltage
  • Transformer Primary & Secondary Voltage
  • ZCS
  • HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
  • Hardware Model Voltage Multiplier High Frequency Transform er Source CSI Step Down Transform er Rectifier with filter Microcontrolle r and driver
  • Conclusion •The size of the transformer gets reduced and the •Efficiency of the proposed method is more compared to the conventional method
  • References [1] Prasanna U R, Member, IEEE, and Akshay K Rathore, Member, IEEE ,” Analysis and Design of ZeroVoltage-Switching Current-Fed Isolated Full-Bridge Dc/Dc Converter” IEEE PEDS 2011, Singapore, 5 - 8 December 2011 Interleaved boost – Non isolated [2] M. Prudente, L. L. Pfitscher, G. Emmendoerfer, E. F. Romaneli, and R. Gules, “Voltage multiplier cells applied to non-isolated DC–DC converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 871–887, Mar.2008 [3] Y. Jang and M. M. Jovanovic, “Interleaved boost converter with intrinsic voltage-doubler characteristic for universal-line PFC front end,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1394–1401, Jul.2007. [4] R. Gules, L. L. Pfitscher, and L. C. Franco, “An interleaved boost DC–DC converter with large conversion ratio,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Electron. (ISIE), Jun. 2003, vol. 1, pp. 411–416
  • References - Coupled Inductor [5] W. Li and X. He, “A family of interleaved DC–DC converters deduced from a basic cell with windingcross-coupled inductors,” IEEE Trans.Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1791–1801, Jul. 2008. [6] S.M. Dwari and L. Parsa, “A novel high efficiency high power interleaved coupled-inductor boost DC–DC converter for hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle,” in Proc. IEEE Vehicle Power Propulsion Conf. (VPPC), Sep.2007, pp. 399–404 [7] R. J. Wai, C. Y. Lin, R. Y. Duan, and Y. R. Chang, “High-efficiency DC–DC converter with high voltage gain and reduced switch stress,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 354–364, Feb. 2007. [8] T. J. Liang and K. C. Tseng, “Analysis of integrated boost-flyback step-up converter,” IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 217–225,Mar. 2005.
  • References [9] - Coupled Inductor R. J. Wai and R. Y. Duan, “High-efficiency DC/DC converter with high voltage gain,” IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 152, no. 4, pp. 793–802, Jul. 2005 [10] T. J. Liang and K. C. Tseng, “Novel high-efficiency step-up converter,”IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 182–190, Mar. 2004. [11] Q. Zhao and F. C. Lee, “High-efficiency, high step-ip DC–DC converters,”IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 65–73, Jan. 2003.
  • References - Flyback [12] A. Bakkali, P. Alou, J. A. Oliver, and J. A. Cobos, “Average modeling and analysis of a flyback with active clamp topology based on a very simple transformer,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. (APEC), 2007,pp. 500–506 [13] Giorgio Spiazzi, , Paolo Mattavelli, and Alessandro Costabeber “High Step-Up Ratio Flyback Converter With Active Clamp and Voltage Multiplier” IEEE Trans.on power Electronics,VOL. 26, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2011
  • References 1. B.R.Lin, K.Huang, and D.Wang, (2005) “Analysis and Implementation of Full Bridge Converter with Current Doubler Rectifier ”, in IEEE Proceedings Electric PowerApplications,Vol.152,No.5, pp.1193–1202. 2. Juergen Biela, Member, IEEE, Owe Badstuebner, Student Member, IEEE, and JohannW. Kolar, Senior Member, IEEE (2009),“Impact of Power Density Maximization on Efficiency of DC–DC Converter Systems” , IEEE Ttransactions on Power electronics, Vol. 24, No. 1. 3. Tereň, A., Feňo, I., Špánik, P (2001), “DC/DC Converters with Soft (ZVS) Switching.” In Conf. Proc. ELEKTRO 2001, section -Electrical Engineering. Zilina, pp. 82-90, 4. Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, J. Pan, X.I Zhao, and P. Lee (2008) , “A novel phase-shift fullbridge converter with voltage-doubler and decoupling integrated magnetics in
  • References 6. Ioannis C. Kobougias and Emmanuel C. Tatakis (2010), “Optimal Design of a Half-Wave Cockcroft–Walton Voltage Multiplier With Minimum Total Capacitance”. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., VOL. 25, NO. 9. 7. M. Prudente, L. L. Pfitscher, G. Emmendoerfer, E. F. Romaneli, and R. Gules (2008), “Voltage multiplier cells applied to non-isolated DC-DC converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 871–887. 8. J. M. Kwon and B. H. Kwon (2009), “High step-up active-clamp converter with input-current doubler and output-voltage doubler for fuel cell power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 108–115. 9. Y. Hsieh, T.Hsueh, and H.Yen (2009), “An Interleaved boost converter with zero-voltage transition, “ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol.24, NO.4, pp.973978.
  • References - Flyback [14] P. Alou, O. Garc´ıa, J. A. Cobos, J. Uceda, and M. Rasc´on, “Flyback with active clamp: A suitable topology for low power and very wide input voltage range applications,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. (APEC), 2002, pp. 242–248. [15] P. Alou, A. Bakkali, I. Barbero, J. A. Cobos, and M. Rascon, “A low power topology derived from flyback with active clamp based on a very simple transformer,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. (APEC), 2006, pp. 627–632. . [16] N. P. Papanikolaou and E. C. Tatakis, “Active voltage clamp in flyback converters operating in CCM mode under wide load variation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 632–640, Jun. 2004. [17] B. R. Lin, H. K. Chiang, K. C. Chen, and D. Wang, “Analysis, design and implementation of an active clamp flyback converter,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Drive Syst. (PEDS), 2005, pp. 424– 429.
  • References - Halfbridge [18] Akshay K. Rathore, Interleaved soft-switched active-clamped L–L type current-fed half-bridge DC– DC converter for fuel cell applications, International journal of hydrogen energy 3 4 ( 2 0 0 9 ) page no 9 8 0 2 – 9 8 1 5 [19] Akshay K. Rathore, Ashoka K. S. Bhat and Ramesh Oruganti “Analysis, Design and Experimental Results of Wide Range ZVS Active-Clamped L-L Type Current-Fed DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cells to Utility Interface “IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 59, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012 . [20] Su-Jin Jang, Chung-Yuen Won, Byoung-Kuk Lee, “Fuel Cell Generation System With a New Active Clamping Current-Fed Half-Bridge Converter”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 22, NO. 2, JUNE 2007 [21] S.-K. Han, H.-K. Youn, G.-W. Moon, M.-J. Youn, and Y.-H. Kim, “A new active clamping zerovoltage switching PWM current-fed half-bridge converter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1271–1279, Nov.2005.
  • References - Full bridge [22] Prasanna UR, and Akshay K. Rathore, “Control Design of Current-fed Full-bridge Isolated Dc/Dc Converter with Active-clamp,” 978-1-4673-0158-9/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE [23] Jiann-Fuh Chen, Ren-Yi Chen, and Tsorng-Juu Liang,” Study and Implementation of a SingleStage Current-Fed Boost PFC Converter With ZCS for High Voltage Applications,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 . [24] Xin Kong, and Ashwin M. Khambadkone, “Analysis & Implementation of a High Efficiency, Interleaved Current-Fed Full Bridge Converter for Fuel Cell System”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, MARCH 2007 [25] G. Moschopoulos and P. Jain, “Single-stage ZVS PWM full-bridge converter,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 39, no. 4, pp.1122–1133, Oct. 2003. Thank you