0
A
Paper Presentation for ICAER 2013
on

Experimental Studies on Low Temperature Operability of High FFA
Oil Biodiesel
by

...
Outline of Presentation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Introduction
Objectives of the Study
What is low temperature properties of biod...
Biodiesel synthesis from high FFA oil
Feedstock

FFA (%)
For esterification
Methanol: v/v of oil
Acid catalyst:
H2SO4, % (...
GC-MS at CSMCRI Bhavnagar

GAS CHROMOTOGRAPHY-MASS
SPECTROSCOPY (GC-MS)

Table Fatty acid profile of biodiesel

Fatty acid...
Properties of high FFA B100
Table 2 Properties of high FFA oil biodiesel (B100) in comparison with diesel.
Properties

Sta...
Poor cold flow
properties ?
With decreasing temperature more
solids
form
and
material
approaches the pour point, the
lowes...
Effects of poor cold flow properties

-Plugging/Clogging of filters
and fuel tubes
-Increase in viscosity of BD
results in...
Cloud and pour point apparatus

biodiesel

cloud and pour point apparatus

Test jar
The following samples were tested to improve Pour
Point and Cloud Point
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) blen...
Antigel additive
Cloud and pour point measurement
Relationship between Pour point and % saturated fatty
acids of biodiesel
20

60

10

52

50

2

5

40

0
-5

30

-6

-10
-...
Effect of ethanol and methanol
cloud point improved from 5 oC to -4 oC while
pour point improved from 2 oC to -7 oC.

Effe...
Effect of kerosene and diesel on CP
and PP
cloud point improved from 5 oC to -2 oC while pour
point improved from 2 oC to ...
Effect of castor BD and Jatropha BD on
CP and PP
improves cloud point from 5 to -3 oC
while pour point from 2 oC to -5 oC
...
Effect of commercial antigel additive
cloud point reduced from 5 oC to -1 oC and pour
point from 2 oC to -7 oC when doped ...
Effect of additives on viscosity in low
temp region
Higher values of viscosity leads to poor spray characteristics and pro...
Effect of additives on viscosity in low
temp region

Higher viscosity value has impact on
spray pattern.
The change in the...
•
•

•

•

•

Conclusions
Based on the cold flow experimental results, the following conclusions have been
summarized;
Due...
131 sorate
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  • Outline of PresentationWhat is low temperature properties of biodieselFailures due to poor cold flow propertiesExperimentationCold flow measurementCold flow improvementResults and discussionsConclusionsReferences
  • High FFA oil,by product of vegetable oil refinery, which is available at low cost. At present it has very limited application in soap industries.
  • Nakpong et al. (2010) for high FFA coconut oil
  • Reported results matches with Moser et al (2011) for soybean oil methyl ester
  • Ghadage et al (2005) for high FFA Mahua oil biodieselNaik et al (2005) for FFA Karanja oil biodieselNakpong et al (2010) for high FFA coconut oil biodiesel
  • Park and Kim, 2008; Schumacher et al
  • Test jar cloud and pour point apparatus biodiesel
  • Antiigel additive
  • Cloud point measurement
  • Reported results matches with Bhale et al (2009) studied for Mahua biodiesel
  • Transcript of "131 sorate"

    1. 1. A Paper Presentation for ICAER 2013 on Experimental Studies on Low Temperature Operability of High FFA Oil Biodiesel by Mr. K. A. Sorate, Research Scholar & Dr. P.V. Bhale, Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat
    2. 2. Outline of Presentation • • • • • • • • • Introduction Objectives of the Study What is low temperature properties of biodiesel? Failures due to poor cold flow properties Experimentation Cold flow measurement Cold flow improvement Results and discussions Conclusions ICAFICE 2013 Mr. K.A.Sorate & Dr.P.V.Bhale, MED, SVNIT 7th2/25 February 13
    3. 3. Biodiesel synthesis from high FFA oil Feedstock FFA (%) For esterification Methanol: v/v of oil Acid catalyst: H2SO4, % (v/v of oil) Reaction time (min) Reaction temperature, 0C For transesterification Methanol: v/v of oil Alkali catalyst: KOH % (w/v of oil) or Reaction time (min.) Reaction temperature, 0C High FFA soy Oil used in the present study 16.8 0.35 0.7 60 60 0.4 1.5 60 60 Nakpong et al. (2010) used two step method for high FFA coconut oil 4
    4. 4. GC-MS at CSMCRI Bhavnagar GAS CHROMOTOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROSCOPY (GC-MS) Table Fatty acid profile of biodiesel Fatty acid Formula Structure Wt.% Palmitate C17H34O2 17:0 14.90 Stearate C19H38O2 19:0 2.50 Oleate C19H36O2 19:1 30.00 Linoleate C19H34O2 19:2 50.93 *Fatty acid profile results matches with Moser et al (2011) studied for soybean oil methyl ester
    5. 5. Properties of high FFA B100 Table 2 Properties of high FFA oil biodiesel (B100) in comparison with diesel. Properties Standard Limit B100 Diesel FAME content EN 14103 96.5 98.33 - Density at 15 oC, kg/m3 ASTM D4052 860-900 890 820 Kinematic Viscosity at 40 oC, mm2/s ASTM D445 1.9-6.0 4.83 2.5 Acid value, mg KOH/g ASTM D974 Max.0.5 0.38 - Calorific value, MJ/kg ASTM D4809 - 37.5 42.5 Flash point , oC ASTM D93 Min 130 174 55 Cloud point, oC ASTM D2500 Report 5 -16 Pour point, oC ASTMD97 -15-10 2 -21 Cetane number ASTM D613 Min. 51 49 51 Oxidation stability at 110 oC,h EN ISO 14112 Min. 6 2.1 - Iodine value g I2/100 g EN 14111 Max.120 37 -
    6. 6. Poor cold flow properties ? With decreasing temperature more solids form and material approaches the pour point, the lowest temperature at which it will cease to flow. (Schumacher et al,1999) 7
    7. 7. Effects of poor cold flow properties -Plugging/Clogging of filters and fuel tubes -Increase in viscosity of BD results in poor combustion Park and Kim, 2008; Schumacher et al
    8. 8. Cloud and pour point apparatus biodiesel cloud and pour point apparatus Test jar
    9. 9. The following samples were tested to improve Pour Point and Cloud Point 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) blended with ethanol High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) blended with methanol High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) blended with kerosene High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) blended with diesel High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) blended with castor biodiesel 6. High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) blended with jatropha biodiesel and 7. High FFA oil biodiesel (B100) doped with diesel fuel antigel additive.
    10. 10. Antigel additive
    11. 11. Cloud and pour point measurement
    12. 12. Relationship between Pour point and % saturated fatty acids of biodiesel 20 60 10 52 50 2 5 40 0 -5 30 -6 -10 -15 20 17.4 -20 13 -25 10 -30 -35 -30 Castor BD Saturated fatty acids % Pour point, deg cen 14 Pour points Saturated FA,% 15 5 0 Jatropha BD Mahua BD High FFA BD 13
    13. 13. Effect of ethanol and methanol cloud point improved from 5 oC to -4 oC while pour point improved from 2 oC to -7 oC. Effect of ethanol on percentage blend of biodiesel Improved CP from 5 oC to -4 oC while pour point improved from 2 oC to -7 oC Effect of methanol on percentage blend of biodiesel Reported results matches with Bhale et al (2009) studied for Mahua biodiesel; Scheminder et al for soybean biodiesel 14
    14. 14. Effect of kerosene and diesel on CP and PP cloud point improved from 5 oC to -2 oC while pour point improved from 2 oC to -5 oC cloud point improved from 5 oC to -3 oC while pour point improved from 2 oC to -6 oC. Effect of kerosene on percentage blend of biodiesel Effect of diesel on percentage blend of biodiesel Reported results matches with Bhale et al (2009) studied for Mahua biodiesel; Scheminder et al for soybean biodiesel
    15. 15. Effect of castor BD and Jatropha BD on CP and PP improves cloud point from 5 to -3 oC while pour point from 2 oC to -5 oC Effect of castor biodiesel on percentage blend of biodiesel improves CP from 5 to -1 oC while PP from 2 to -3 oC Effect of Jatropha biodiesel on percentage blend of biodiesel Reported results matches with Zuleta et al, 2012 and Joshi et al
    16. 16. Effect of commercial antigel additive cloud point reduced from 5 oC to -1 oC and pour point from 2 oC to -7 oC when doped up to 2%. Figure: Effect of antigel additive on percentage blend of biodiesel Reported results matches with Bhale et al (2009) studied for Mahua biodiesel; Scheminder et al for soybean biodiesel 17
    17. 17. Effect of additives on viscosity in low temp region Higher values of viscosity leads to poor spray characteristics and problem in pumping and poor combustion. Hence viscosity should be low for proper combustion Effect of ethanol, methanol and antigel additive on the kinematic viscosity of B100 in low temperature region Effect of kerosene, diesel and antigel additive on the kinematic viscosity of B100 in low temperature region Reported results matches with Bhale et al (2009) studied for Mahua biodiesel 18
    18. 18. Effect of additives on viscosity in low temp region Higher viscosity value has impact on spray pattern. The change in the spray pattern can greatly change the combustion properties of the fuel mixture. Effect of Castor biodiesel, Jatropha biodiesel and antigel additive on the kinematic viscosity of B100 in low temperature region 19
    19. 19. • • • • • Conclusions Based on the cold flow experimental results, the following conclusions have been summarized; Due to addition of ethanol up to 20%, there is significant improvement in cold flow properties of biodiesel have been noticed. However, the addition of ethanol should be restricted due to its lower Cetane number. Similarly, blending of kerosene up to 20% in biodiesel improves cold flow properties of biodiesel considerably. However, higher blends of kerosene should be limited due to its poor lubricity, which may reduce the lubricity of biodiesel. In comparison with ethanol and kerosene, less improvement in cloud and pour point were observed when biodiesel blended with diesel up to 20 %. Compared to ethanol and kerosene, less improvement in cloud and pour point were observed when biodiesel blended with castor biodiesel and jatropha biodiesel. The effect of 2% commercial additive was found significant compared to other blended materials. The improved low temperature performance of biodiesel (B100) blended with alcohol, fossil based fuels; biodiesel in biodiesel blend; and with commercial Antigel additive shows its use under diverse cold climate temperatures where it is usable. Therefore, from all of these results, lower cost high FFA oil has a bigger potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. 20
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