114 santanu

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114 santanu

  1. 1. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Pinch Analysis for MultiDimensional Sustainable Energy Systems Planning Raymond R. Tan De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines Santanu Bandyopadhyay Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India S Bandyopadhyay 1/25
  2. 2. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Classification of Design Activities Qualitative Heuristics Rules Knowledge Based Systems (rules of thumb) (rule-based automated approaches) Automatic Hierarchical Analysis Optimization Methods Interactive Thermodynamic Methods (Mathematical (Pinch Analysis, Exergy Programming, Stochastic Analysis) Search Methods) Quantitative Process Integration and Optimization S Bandyopadhyay 2/25
  3. 3. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) What Is Process Integration? Systematic and General Methods for Designing Integrated Production Systems, ranging from Individual Processes to Total Sites, with special emphasis on the Efficient Use of Energy and reducing Environmental Effects. This definition points to design methods, but the term Process Integration is also used to describe physical arrangements such as the interconnection of equipment and process streams in a plant. S Bandyopadhyay 3/25
  4. 4. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Categories of Process Integration Mathematical optimization based methodologies:  preferred to address issues like multiple contaminants, controllability, flexibility, cost-optimality  a good synthesis tool in handling complex systems with different complex constraints  major problems associated with these methodologies are combinatorial explosion and local optimality  do not provide good insight to the process designer during network synthesis  do not exploit special structures of these problems to develop efficient algorithm S Bandyopadhyay 4/25
  5. 5. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Categories of Process Integration-2 Methodologies based on conceptual approaches:  help in getting a physical insight through its graphical representations and simplified calculation procedures  efficient calculation procedure due to special structure of these problems  recognize the importance of setting targets before design and allow different process design objectives to be screened prior to the detailed design  provides graphical representation tools and full control to the process designer over decision making processes  applicable to simple systems with simple constraints S Bandyopadhyay 5/25
  6. 6. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Pinch Analysis Pinch Analysis is a conceptual process integration approach Development of simple and efficient algorithms by exploiting special structures S Bandyopadhyay 6/25
  7. 7. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) Birth of Pinch Analysis S Bandyopadhyay 7/25
  8. 8. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Problem Definition for HEN  Given:  a set of hot process streams to be cooled from the inlet temperatures to the outlet temperatures  a set of cold process streams to be heated from the inlet temperatures to the outlet temperatures  the heat capacities and flow rates of the hot and cold process streams  the external utilities available and the temperatures or temperature ranges as well as their costs  heat-exchanger cost data  Objective:  To develop a network of heat exchangers with minimum annualized investment and operating costs S Bandyopadhyay 8/25
  9. 9. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Historical Milestones     Ten Broeck, 1944: First known HEN-related paper Westbrook, 1961: First use of mathematical programming for HEN Hwa, 1965: First use of a superstructure in HEN Hohmann, 1971: Composite curves to calculate of minimum utilities requirement, and estimation for the minimum number of units (attempts to publish in journals were turned down twice)  Umeda et al., 1978 and Linnhoff and Flower, 1978: Identification of heat recovery pinch point (Starting point for Pinch Analysis)  Linnhoff and Hindmarsh, 1983: Pinch Design Method is proposed  Furman and Sahinidis, 2001: Mathematical proof that this is N Phard (refuting the possibility for the existence of polynomial optimization algorithms → Sequential optimization) S Bandyopadhyay 9/25
  10. 10. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Process Flowsheet 20° C3 1300 3 85° Steam 1 155° 175° Reactor H1 1400 CW 40° C4 Heat Duty kW 45° Steam CW 125° H2 1080 2 98° 112° 4 65° 1320 The starting point in the application of pinch technology is a simplified flowsheet showing major unit operations with heating and cooling duties. Ref: U. V. Shenoy, Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis, 1995, Gulf Pub. Com., Houston, Texas S Bandyopadhyay 10/25
  11. 11. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Temperature (°C) Composite Curves 200 180 Process to process heat 160 recovery 140 120 Min. 100 Hot 80 Utility 60 Pinch Min. 40 20 Cold Utility 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Enthalpy (kW) 5000 Composite Curves show the heat availability and heat requirement for the overall process S Bandyopadhyay 11/25
  12. 12. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Can We Target the Minimum Energy Requirements in Algebraic Way? S Bandyopadhyay 12/25
  13. 13. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) “…some of the greatest advances in science have come about because some clever person spotted an analogy between a subject that was already understood, and another still mysterious subject.” - Richard Dawkins The Blind Watchmaker (1986) S Bandyopadhyay 13/25
  14. 14. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Brief History of “Pinch” 1970s Synthesis of heat exchanger network (HEN) 1987 Synthesis of HEN for batch processes 1989 Synthesis of mass exchange network (MEN) 1994 Water minimization (water pinch) 2002 Property integration (property pinch) 2007 Energy planning (carbon pinch) 2007 Isolated energy systems S Bandyopadhyay 14/25
  15. 15. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Basic Problem Pattern  Minimize use of scarce, high-quality stream  Each stream source has fixed quality and quantity characteristics  Each stream demand has fixed quality and quantity requirements  Quality index is inverse and follows a linear mixing rule What other problems follow a similar pattern? S Bandyopadhyay 15/25
  16. 16. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Source/sink representation Source i Source: A stream which contains the targeted species. Each source has: Flowrate Fi Quality Qi Quality load: mi = F i Qi i=1 i=2 i=3 S Bandyopadhyay Sink j j=1 ? j=2 j=3 Sink: An existing process unit/ equipment that can accept a source. Each sink has: Flowrate Fj Quality Qj where: Qjmin ≤ Qj ≤ Qjmax Load capacity: mi = F i Qi 16/25
  17. 17. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Philosophy of Pinch Analysis Generalized Problem Definition and Solution:  Flows and Qualities  Laws of thermodynamics, conservation relations  Phenomenological relations, design correlations  Overall optimization with system constraints  Algebraic methodology  Graphical representation Setting Targets (Prediction of the optimum performance prior to any synthesis/ detailed design):  Physical insights to the designer  Tool: preliminary analysis/directions for improvements  Preliminary screening of design alternatives  Step change to learning curves S Bandyopadhyay 17/25
  18. 18. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Flows and Qualities in PA Flows Heat Mass Qualities Temperature Examples/Problems Heat integration (1971, 1979) Total site integration (1984) Integration of thermal equipments (1982) Mass integration (1989) Concentration Water/Hydrogen management(1994,1996) Pollution prevention/Treatment networks Mass Properties Recycle/reuse networks (2004) Steam Pressure Cogeneration (1993, 2008) Energy CO2 Carbon-constraint energy planning (2007) Mass Time Supply chain management (2002) Energy Time Stand-alone energy system (2007) Isolated power system (2007) S Bandyopadhyay 18/25
  19. 19. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) The “PINCH” Concept  Processes and Utility Systems  From Scheduling to Strategic Planning  Improving Efficiency (Energy and Raw Material)  Continuous to Batch Processes  All aspects of Processes: Reactors, Separators, etc.  Integration between Processes  Waste and Wastewater Minimization  Emissions Reduction to Pollution Prevention  Hydrogen Management  Aggregate Production Planning  Sizing Renewable Energy Systems  ……… etc. S Bandyopadhyay 19/25
  20. 20. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Sustainable Energy Systems  Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their needs (Brundtland, 1987)  Sustainable energy systems provide energy services to the present while ensuring that similar energy services for future generations (Manish et al., 2006)  Atmospheric CO2 levels recently exceeded 400 ppm, (safe limit is 350 ppm, Rockstrom et al., 2009)  Sustainability indices:  Economic cost  EROI: energy return on investment (Hall, 1972)  Land/water/carbon footprints  ….. etc. S Bandyopadhyay 20/25
  21. 21. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Problem Definition  Given a set of energy sources (i = 1, 2, 3… m)  fixed EROI (EROIsi)  cost per unit energy (Csi)  carbon intensity or footprint coefficient (Fsi)  availability limits (Esimax)  Given a set of demands (j = 1, 2, 3… n).  energy quantity (Edj)  quality (carbon emissions) specifications (Edj × Fdj)  Determine the source-sink mapping (system network) using EROI and cost as objectives  Multi-Objective optimization problem: Pareto optimal front using weighted-objective method S Bandyopadhyay 21/25
  22. 22. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Case Study: Philippines Demand CO2 limit (t/GWh) Energy Sources Natural Gas Coal Geothermal Hydroelectric Wind Others Region A 17,500 GWh 500 Region B 5,000 GWh 200 EROI Relative Cost CF (kg CO2/kWh) Limit (GWh) 7 18 15 40 20 6 1.14 1 1.67 1.19 1.67 5.71 0.55 1 0.17 0.04 0.03 0.09 No limit No limit 3,000 10,000 1,500 350 Ref.: DOE, 2013; Evans et al., 2009; Gupta et al., 2011 S Bandyopadhyay 22/25
  23. 23. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Pareto Optimal Front Relative cost Cost (Φ) 27000 Minimum energy invested solution (EROI-23.47, cost - 26773) Wind and hydroelectric at maximum, coal (8958 GWh) and geothermal (2042 GWh). 26800 26600 26400 26200 26000 25800 25600 25400 25200 800 1000 1200 1400 Total Energy investment (Ω) Mixed solution (EROI-17.78, cost - 25932) Wind and hydroelectric at maximum, coal (7233 GWh) and natural gas (3767 GWh). S Bandyopadhyay 1600 Minimum cost solution (EROI-14.46, cost 25380) Hydroelectric at maximum, coal (5500 GWh) and natural gas (7000 GWh). 23/25
  24. 24. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) Conclusions  Pareto optimal front is piece-wise linear in nature  Weighted objective methods can identify only discrete optimal points (where slope of the Pareto optimal front changes)  Line joining consecutive optimal point is also optimum  Extended pinch analysis method for multiple-objective source-sink problems  Concept of prioritized cost (Shenoy and Bandyopadhyay, 2007) can be extended to address multi-objactive pinch analysis problems  Demonstrated with a case study of Philippines S Bandyopadhyay 24/25
  25. 25. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013) My father rode a camel. I drive a car. My son flies a jet plane. His son will ride a camel. - Saudi proverb Thank You santanub@iitb.ac.in tanr_a@dlsu.edu.ph S Bandyopadhyay 25/25

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