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001 pvthakre 001 pvthakre Presentation Transcript

  • Performance Analysis of Single Phase Photovoltaic Inverter Topologies and Implementation of Piccolo Series Controller TMS320C28027 based Pulse Width Modulated Signal for Single Phase Bidirectional High Frequency Link Inverter Prashant V. Thakre, Associate Prof. SSBT College of Engg. & Technology, Jalgaon, Maharashtra Dr. Saroj Rangnekar, Prof. & Head, Energy Dept., MANIT, Bhopal 1 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013
  • INDEX • • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Problem Formulation Methodology Adopted Literature Review Overview of Thermal & Solar Photovoltaic System Solar Tracking System Types of Solar Photovoltaic System Inverter Topologies Modeling of Closed Loop System Simulink Models Experimental Setup Conclusion References 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 2
  • Introduction With the growing energy demand, increasing global environmental issues, and depleting energy resources such as coal, oil and gas, the need to develop and utilize new sources of energy seems inevitable. Therefore renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, biomass, hydro and geothermal etc appear as important alternative energy options. Solar energy is one of the few clean and abundant renewable energy resource which is being use extensively in recent years. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 3 View slide
  • Energy demand projection in India [www.mnre.gov.in] 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 4 View slide
  • Introduction • Worldwide lot of work on solar technology is going on even in the countries where there is limited sunshine over the year. India is blessed with a bright sunshine round the year. With the advancement in control techniques, solar energy is becoming one of the alternate renewable energy sources for generation of power. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 5
  • Introduction • Today, with the explosive growth and expanding efficiency of digital technology, digital inverter system is having edge over analog systems. Microprocessors, Microcontrollers and Digital Signal Processors (DSP) have been used for Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulse generation and realtime controller of inverter systems 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 6
  • Aims and Objectives • Study and implementation of maximum peak power tracking system • Study of various control techniques for PWM inverters • MATLAB/Simulink model of closed loop boost converter • Selecting appropriate control technique for the BHFL solar photovoltaic inverter • Analytical modeling of the BHFL solar photovoltaic inverter and controller design • System Testing • Hardware implementation • Test and results 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 7
  • Problem formulation • Identifying the solar tracking methods for maximum power output. • Mathematical modeling of selected tracking system for maximum power point tracking • Development of MATLAB/Simulink models for solar photovoltaic system. • Design and developing inverter models & PWM generations using MATLAB/Simulink • Testing the developed models with different test conditions. • Selecting the suitable model based on amount of total harmonic distortion, voltage and current waveforms and switching frequencies, for implementing hardware circuit for inverter. • Designing and development of hardware circuit for selected solar photovoltaic inverter model. • Development of algorithm for generating PWM signals in real time. • Interfacing of digital controller to PC for uploading the software for generating the PWM signals. • Testing the digital controller based solar photovoltaic system in real time mode. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 8
  • Methodology Adopted • Development of mathematical models for solar photo voltaic system. • Development of inverter models & PWM generations using MATLAB/Simulink. • Testing of models with different switching frequencies. • Development of algorithm for generating PWM signals in case of real time analysis. • Interfacing of DSP kit to PC for uploading the software project for generating the PWM signals. • Development of hardware model for BHFL solar photovoltaic inverter with appropriate driver circuit. • Interfacing BHFL inverter to solar panel. • Implementation of maximum peak power tracking system 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 9
  • Solar Tracking System (P&O Method) The voltage corresponding to the maximum power given to the panel is dependent on solar irradiation and on temperature Where Iph is the current generated from photon as a function of temperature and solar irradiation, Isat is the saturated reverse current, q is the charge on electron, A is the ideality factor, K is the Boltzmann’s Constant, T is the temperature, rs is the series resistance 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 10
  • Solar Tracking System The light generated current and the saturated reverse current is expressed as Where Tr is the reference temperature Eg is the energy band gap Iscr is the short circuit current at reference temperature KI is the current temperature coefficient S is per unit irradiation Irr is the reverse current at reference temperature 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 11
  • Solar Tracking System Maximum peak power is found by solving the following equation The optimal voltage Vm is used to consider the voltage perturbation given by equation 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 12
  • Types of Solar Photovoltaic Systems Solar photovoltaic system is classified as : a) Grid-connected solar PV systems b) Stand Alone System 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 13
  • Transformer isolated high-frequency link inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 14
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 15
  • Equivalent circuit of the BHFL inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 16
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 17
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 18
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter Also equation are expressed as the values of rl & rc are assumed to be very small & are neglected .Thus equation becomes 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 19
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter Based on the equations a dynamic model of the system is represented by block diagram as shown 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 20
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter Since the controller is to be implemented using a digital processor ,the continuous time space equations are converted into discrete form .The discrete time state space equations with sampling period of Ts are represented as 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 21
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter Where 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 22
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter The discrete time equation are rewritten as: From equations, it is observed that additional disturbance terms appear due to discretisation of modal. As compared with continuous time modal shown , there exist two disturbances instead of one, acting on inductor current and output voltage. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 23
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter The current & voltage disturbances are represented by the equation, 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 24
  • Modeling of closed loop BHFL Inverter Based on the above equations the digital model are represented by a block diagram as shown where Z-1 is unit delay. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 25
  • Modeling of Solar Photovoltaic Cell (MATLAB/Simulink model of PV cell) 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 26
  • Simulink Model of Solar Photovoltaic System 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 27
  • MATLAB/Simulink model of closed loop boost converter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 28
  • Solar PV Inverter model with pulse generator using MATLAB/Simulink 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 29
  • Solar PV Inverter model with PWM generation 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 30
  • Solar PV Inverter model with bipolar scheme 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 31
  • Solar PV Inverter model with unipolar switching scheme 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 32
  • Solar PV Inverter model with 1800 mode 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 33
  • Model of single phase BHFL solar PV inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 34
  • Model of solar photovoltaic system 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 35
  • Stand alone solar photovoltaic system 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 36
  • Results and discussion The simulation and experimental results for a photovoltaic system was carried out. The performance of different types of inverter systems were studied with respect to the photovoltaic input using simulink models. A prototype photovoltaic system for 500VA was also developed and its result were studied and verified. For studying and verifying the prototype hardware model, an advanced digital controller TMS320C28027 of Texas Instruments was considered. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 37
  • Results and discussion Initially the performance of solar cell was studied by using a simulink model. After that the characteristics of solar panel, considering arrays of panel was also tested with the help of MATLAB/simulink model by considering parameters such as insolations, short circuit current and short circuit voltage. The characteristics of solar panel were obtained with the help of algorithm and programming. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 38
  • Output power with different values of insolations Sr. No. Insolation (w/m2) Iout Vout Output Power(watts) 1) 925 3.914 3.914 15.32 2) 950 9.769 9.769 95.43 3) 975 10.57 10.57 111.8 4) 1000 10.93 10.93 119.4 5) 1025 11.15 11.15 124.4 6) 1050 11.32 11.32 128.2 7) 1075 11.45 11.45 131.2 8) 1100 11.56 11.56 133.2 9) 1125 11.65 11.65 135.8 10) 1150 11.74 11.74 137.7 11) 1175 11.81 11.81 139.4 12) 1200 11.87 11.87 140.9 13) 1340 12.16 12.16 147.9 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 39
  • Output power based on rated values of standard panels Sr. No. Model No. Isc (Amp) Voc (volts) Imax (Amp) Vmax (volts) Pmax (Watts) Ipv (Amp) Vpv (volts) Output Power(W) 1) BP3230T 8.4 36.7 7.9 29.1 230 18.85 18.85 355.5 2) BP3225T 8.3 36.6 7.7 29.1 225 18.85 18.85 355.5 3) BP3170T 5.2 43.6 4.8 35.6 170 23.18 23.18 537.5 4) BP3215T 8.1 36.5 7.4 29.1 215 18.85 18.85 355.5 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 40
  • Output characteristics of boost converter (X axis – Time, Y axis – DC Voltage, Duty ratio, Efficiency) 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 41
  • Output of Solar Photovoltaic Inverter System (X axis – Time, Y axis - AC voltage, AC current, input current, duty ratio, input and output power) 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 42
  • Parameters for single phase bidirectional high frequency link inverter Sr. No. 1) Parameters DC input voltage Values Vdc = 230 volts 2) Inductance L1 = 0.166 mH 3) Capacitance C1 = 1 µf 4) Inductance L2 = .5 H 5) Carrier frequency (Stage 1) Fs = 15 KHz 6) Modulation Index (Stage 1) 0.8 7) Carrier frequency (Stage 2) Fs = 1KHz 8) Modulation Index (Stage 2) 0.8 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 43
  • Voltage waveform at output of transformer ( X axis – Time, Y axis – Voltage) 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 44
  • Output voltage waveform of BHFL inverter ( X axis – Time, Y axis – Voltage) 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 45
  • THD for single phase full bridge bidirectional high frequency link inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 46
  • Output signal with fs = 1.5 KHz 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 47
  • Output signal with fs = 2.5 KHz 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 48
  • Output signal with fs = 10 KHz 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 49
  • Parameters considered for standalone PV system S.No. Components Value 1) Vdc DC voltage 12 volts 2) C1 Capacitor 110µf 3) L1 Inductor 2.5mH 4) R1 Resistor 0.01ohms 5) C2 Capacitor 4700µf 6) L2 Inductor 5mH 7) R2 Resistor 3 ohms 8) C3 Capacitor 1 µf 9) R3 Resistor .01 ohms 10) C3 Capacitor 1 µf 11) C4 Capacitor 3 µf 12) C5 Capacitor 3 µf 13) R4 Resistor 1 ohm 14) fs Switching frequency 1.5KHz 15) 12/12/2013 Notations MI Modulation Index 0.8 ICAER 2013 50
  • Output current and voltage of standalone PV system (X axis – Time, Y axis – Current and Voltage) 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 51
  • Battery Voltage for standalone system 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 52
  • THD for standalone PV system 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 53
  • % THD Values S. No. Inverter Topology 1) Single Phase PV Inverter with pulse generator 64.25 16.70% 2) Single Phase PV Inverter with bipolar switching 90.99 5.84% 3) Single Phase PV Inverter with unipolar switching 219 5.65% 4) Single Phase BHFL PV Inverter with unipolar switching 179.9 4.95% 12/12/2013 Fundamental Component (50Hz) ICAER 2013 % THD 54
  • Hardware specification of the circuit PV Module Specification Model No. SLP5 - 12 Battery Specification Microtek Inverter Circuit Specification IGBT driver (TLP250) IGBT (G4PC60U) Filter Circuit Specification Inductor Resistor Capacitor Digital Controller TMS320C28027 (Texas Instruments) 12/12/2013 Rated Power = 5 watt Rated Voltage = 17.5 volts Rated Current = 0.3 Amp Voc = 21.6 volts Isc = 0.34 Amp Insolation = 1000 watt/m2 DC voltage rating = 12 volts Rated Current = 7.2 Ah Vcc = 10 – 35 volts Max. threshold Current (If) = 5 mA Max. output current (Iout) = 1.5 Amp Vmax = 600 volts, Imax = 23 Amp Operating Temp. = -55 deg. To +150 deg. 10 mH 22 ohms 22 µf 32 bit CPU, 60 MHz device On chip flash, SARAM OTP memory, 3.3 volt supply ICAER 2013 55
  • Experimental setup for generating PWM signal 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 56
  • PWM signal generated from TMS320C28027 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 57
  • Hardware implementation of BHFL inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 58
  • Connecting BHFL inverter to TMS320C28027 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 59
  • Observed AC Signal 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 60
  • Experimental setup of single phase prototype model of BHFL inverter 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 61
  • Conclusion •Based on the output generated by the closed loop boost converter, a MATLAB/Simulink model of BHFL photovoltaic inverter was developed and its output was studied by considering different switching frequencies. It was observed that by increasing the switching frequencies there is an improvement in output signal. The amount of THD for single phase BHFL photovoltaic inverter was found to be 4.95% 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 62
  • Conclusion Hardware Implementation After simulating, testing and observing the output signals of various simulink models a hardware prototype model of photovoltaic bidirectional high frequency link inverter was developed for 500 VA rating. The pwm signals for IGBT’s were generated by using piccolo series dsp processor TMS320C28027. The generated pwm signals from GPIO pins of processor were observed on oscilloscope first and then with proper driver circuit consisting of TLP250, given to IGBT’s. The generated ac output signal was also observed on DSO and then applied to the load. 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 63
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  • Thank You 12/12/2013 ICAER 2013 70