Knowledge Based Assets for Competitive Success -  KNOWLEDGE CREATION & CAPTURE
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Knowledge Based Assets for Competitive Success - KNOWLEDGE CREATION & CAPTURE

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    Knowledge Based Assets for Competitive Success -  KNOWLEDGE CREATION & CAPTURE Knowledge Based Assets for Competitive Success - KNOWLEDGE CREATION & CAPTURE Presentation Transcript

    • Knowledge based assets for competitive success KNOWLEDGE CREATION & CAPTURE Session 2 Dr. Daniel Chandran Faculty of Information Technology University of Technology, Sydney August 2009
    • Objectives • Knowledge Creation – Characteristics – Dimensions – Models • Knowledge Creation Process • Knowledge Architecture • Knowledge Capture • Knowledge Audit • Technologies for knowledge management systems Daniel Chandran UTS 2
    • 1. Why have Japanese companies become successful? 2. How do Japanese companies bring about continuous innovation? Daniel Chandran UTS 3
    • “Knowledge” as a competitive force Knowledge Creation Continuous innovation Competitive Advantage Daniel Chandran UTS 4
    • Why Organizations Launch KM Programs Daniel Chandran UTS 5
    • Knowledge Creation • KM is not a technology; it is an activity enabled by technology and produced by people – how people share knowledge that will add value to the growth of business – Today’s knowledge may not solve tomorrow’s knowledge • Alternative way of creating knowledge is via teamwork • A team compares job experience to job outcome— translates experience into knowledge • Such newly acquired knowledge is carried to the next job • Maturation over time with a specific job turns experience into expertise Daniel Chandran UTS 6
    • Knowledge Creation & Knowledge Transfer Via Teams Initial knowledg e Outcome is realized Series of specific Tasks carried out in Team performs Outcome A specific order a job compared to action New knowledge reusable by same team on New next job experience/ Knowledge knowledge captured and gained codified in a form usable by others Daniel Chandran UTS 7
    • Impediments to knowledge sharing Personality Compensation Organizational Recognition culture Ability utilization Creativity Vocational Good work environment reinforcers Knowledge Autonomy sharing Job security Moral values Attitude Advancement Variety Company Achievement strategies and Independence policies Social status Work Norms Daniel Chandran UTS 8
    • Characteristics of Knowledge Creation • Express the inexpressible • Heavy reliance on figurative language and symbolism • Use of metaphor or analogy in product development • To disseminate knowledge, an individual’s personal knowledge has to be shared with others • New knowledge is born in the midst of ambiguity and redundancy • SIS • Unlearn Old ideas. Daniel Chandran UTS 9
    • Types of Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge (Subjective) (Objective) Knowledge of experience (body) Knowledge of rationality (mind) – tends to – tends to be tacit, physical and be explicit, meta physical and objective subjective Simultaneous Knowledge (here Sequential Knowledge (there and then) – and now) – specific, practical about past events or objects context Analog Knowledge Digital Knowledge (practice) – sharing between (theory) – sequentially created by ‘digital’ individuals through activity communication Daniel Chandran UTS 10
    • Nonaka’s Model of Knowledge Creation TACIT TO TACIT TACIT TO EXPLICIT Experience (SOCIALIZATION) (EXTERNALIZATION) Articulation among people among people in face-to-face through E.G. TEAM MEETINGS AND E.G., DIALOG WITHIN TEAM dialog meetings DISCUSSIONS ANSWER QUESTIONS INFORMAL MEETINGS TO SOLVE DIFFICULT PROBLEMS EXPLICIT TO TACIT EXPLICIT TO EXPLICIT Taking explicit (INTERNALIZATION) (COMBINATION) Best knowledge and supported by deducing new E.G., LEARN FROM A REPORT E.G., E-MAIL A REPORT technology ideas “RE-EXPERIENCE” WHAT THE OTHERS EXPERIENCED Daniel Chandran UTS 11
    • Knowledge Spiral Yield Mental Models and Tech Yield skills concepts Dialogue Socialisation Externalisation Sympathised Conceptual knowledge knowledge Field Linking Building Explicit Knowledge Operational Systemic knowledge knowledge About Project Management, Production Internalisation Combination Yield Prototypes Process & Policy Implemen- tation Learning by Doing Daniel Chandran UTS 12
    • NONAKA’s Spiral Process as grounded theory Dialoging - sharing of mental models, articulation of requires easy ways to exchange experiences, concepts, development of common terms. Usually develop trust, share values consciously constructed. Externalization Socialization Co u n n ve d inf stru rtin g an ex orm ctur g e inin g on ledg pli at ed cit ion pla ratin now str in Ex bo k uc t o la ting e is tur ex es Ev a cre luatin to red ate d e g new n g s into xpl ini ata icit ly b d om icit s dat C pl a rm ex w fo ne Internalization Combination Exercising - communicate artifacts and Systemising - visualizing interactions, embody in working context. Reflect on Daniel Chandran UTS constructing artifacts, combine explicit 13 outcomes. knowledge.
    • Knowledge Creation Process (KCP) ENABLING CONDITIONS Intention TACIT KNOWLEDGE EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANISATION Autonomy IN ORGANISATION Redundancy etc SOCIALISATION EXTERNALISATION COMBINATION SHARING BUILDING AN CROSS LEVELING TACIT CREATING JUSTIFYING ARCHETYPE KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE CONCEPTS CONCEPTS INTERNALISATION Market EXPLICIT TACIT INTERNALISATION KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE BY USERS AS FROM USERS PRODUCTS/SERVICES Daniel Chandran UTS 14
    • Phase I-Sharing Tacit Knowledge • Start the focus on Tacit Knowledge • Individuals are the main source of Tacit Knowledge • Build mutual trust • Create a “field” where individuals can work – Self organising team facilitates organisational knowledge creation – Management sets challenging goals – Management endows high degree of autonomy – Autonomous team sets its own task boundaries Daniel Chandran UTS 15
    • II - Creating Concepts • Interaction between TK and EK • The team articulates it through further dialogue in the form of collective reflection • The tacit mental model is verbalised into words and phrases • Crystallised into explicit concepts • This phase employs figurative language such as metaphors and analogies • Corresponds to externalisation Daniel Chandran UTS 16
    • III- Justifying Concepts • Justify new concepts created by individuals/team – Determine the newly created concepts are truly worthwhile for the organisation and society • Criteria for justification – Both qualitative and quantitative – cost, profit margin, degree to which a product can contribute to the firm’s growth Daniel Chandran UTS 17
    • IV – Building an archetype • Justified concept is converted into tangible or concrete – an archetype • Can be a prototype for a new product • Can be a model operating mechanism for a service • Built by combining newly created EK with existing EK • It is a complex phase – requires cooperation of various departments within the organisation Daniel Chandran UTS 18
    • V- Cross-Leveling of Knowledge • Organisational knowledge creation is a never-ending process • New concept created, justified and modeled moves to a new cycle of knowledge creation at a new ontological level • Intra-organizationally it can trigger a new cycle expanding horizontally and vertically across the organisation • Inter-organizationally it can mobilize knowledge of affiliated companies, customers, suppliers, competitors through interaction Daniel Chandran UTS 19
    • Identifying Knowledge Content Centers . Competition . Job openings data . Benefits . Sales volume . Leader sales information Human Resources Sales Customer . Strategies Service . Tools .R&D Marketing . Advertising . Complaint rate . Satisfaction information Daniel Chandran UTS 20
    • Supporting Clients - Emphasis on Knowledge A HELP DESK SITUATION Ser v req ice ues t Find Client solution Contact person Organizational Experts database Knowledge about where knowledge can be found Daniel Chandran UTS 21
    • Knowledge Capture • Transfer of problem-solving expertise from some knowledge source to a repository or a program • A process by which the expert’s thoughts and experiences are captured • Includes capturing knowledge from other sources such as books, technical manuscripts, etc. • A knowledge developer collaborates with an expert to convert expertise into a coded program • Knowing how experts know what they know Daniel Chandran UTS 22
    • Strategic Directions for Knowledge Management Reward for contributing to Codification knowledge repository Personalization People-to-people Reward for sharing knowledge ESSENTIAL FEATURES Repository Are the two opposite or Collaborative service complimentary? Retrieval service Interface Daniel Chandran UTS 23
    • Aligning KM and Business Strategy Strategic Knowledge Gap Analysis What your company Strategy-knowledge Link What your company Must know Must do Knowledge Gap Strategic Gap What your company What your company Knowledge-Strategy Link knows Can do Daniel Chandran UTS 24
    • Ernst and Young Process Discussion database and document repository E-mail Reviews PowerPacks submissions Proposal Knowledge templates Knowledge object objects Subject matter development objects Daniel Chandran UTS 25
    • Accenture’s Knowledge Management Journey 1992-1994 1994-1996 1996-2000 21st Century Enabling Knowledge Knowledge Performance Infrastructure Sharing Outfitting Integration “Build it, and “Knowledge is a “Knowledge is “Our best they will come” by-product” actively managed” knowledge guides our activities” Result: Result: Result: Result: Global Organizational Relevant quality People Guided Communications Memory content, where and by Knowledge when needed Daniel Chandran UTS 26
    • Accenture’s Four Pillars of Knowledge Management • Which factors are critical for my business that can be addressed through knowledge management? • Which knowledge adds the most value, and what investments are required to realize this value? • What are the highest priority initiatives? • How do you create a culture for sharing? Strategy • What tools are currently in place? • Which people need to be empowered to contribute • What tools are needed to enable the right knowledge? the environment? People Technology • How do you fill the gap? • Are priorities aligned with measurements? Process • Are the right processes in place to: • capture, refine, and create knowledge? • disseminate, share, and apply knowledge to deliver business value? Daniel Chandran UTS 27
    • The Accenture: Knowledge Xchange Knowledge center Capturing Knowledge Research knowledge in specialist Help desk 14 Global libraries Content management Managed vocabulary Search and browse FRAMEWORK Process integration Client Knowledge Socialization (mindset center champion change) Utilization (easy access) Automation (enterprise wide access) Daniel Chandran UTS 28
    • Accenture www.ac.com Capturing Knowledge Subject specialist Practice Storage and E-mail specific Classification delivery database Daniel Chandran UTS 29
    • Key propositions • KM initiatives have to be aligned with corporate goals • Top management involvement and commitment are important • Systematic collaboration of all employees involved in the transformation have to be supported • Efficient and effective knowledge sharing and creation have to be practiced continuously to overcome barriers Daniel Chandran UTS 30
    • Benefits of KMS Process Outcomes Organisational outcomes Communication Financial • enhanced communication • increased sales • faster communication • decreased cost • more visible opinions of staff • higher profitability • increased staff participation Marketing Efficiency • Better service • reduced problem-solving time • Customer focus • shortening proposal times • targeted marketing • faster results • proactive marketing • faster delivery to market General • greater overall efficiency • Personnel reduction • improved project management • consistent proposals to multi- national clients Daniel Chandran UTS 31
    • IT & KM • IT is crucial to the success of every KM System • IT enables KM by providing the enterprise architecture on which it is built
    • Portals Portals are virtual workplaces that: • Promote knowledge sharing among different categories of end users e.g. customers, partners and employees • Provide access to stored structured data e.g. data warehouses, database systems • Organize unstructured data e.g. paper documents, electronic documents etc
    • Benefits of Knowledge Portals Productivity E-mail Traffic Locating Documents Bandwidth Use Collaboration Time in Meetings Better Decisions Phone Calls Quality of Data Response Times Sharing Knowledge Redundant Efforts Identifying Experts Operating Costs Time to market Daniel Chandran UTS 34
    • Portal Features and Benefits Daniel Chandran UTS 35
    • Intelligent Agents • Intelligent agents are tools that can be applied in numerous ways in the context of EKPs. • They are an intermediary between the enterprise and its customer in virtual destinations • Intelligent agents are still in their infancy. • Agents are software entities that are able to execute a wide range of functional tasks such as searching, comparing, learning, negotiating and collaborating Daniel Chandran UTS 36
    • Portal Vendors Vendor KM Portal Feature Summary Best Uses Product Lotus/IBM Lotus Raven 1.0 (in • Intelligent taxonomy • Self-creating and refining beta) • QuickPlace taxonomies collaboration tool • Personnel resources linked to data • Assigns value to data sources based on how often it is • Advanced collaboration used • Easy portal repurposing • Portal replication • Rapid application development with • Facilitates content associated KM packages management Open Text MyLivelink Portal 1.0 • Integrated work flow • Integrated KM with Livelink 8.5.1 KM • Quick integration of • Document management and work software features flow • Quick portal • Custom collaboration spaces deployment (personal, project, or enterprise) Daniel Chandran UTS 37
    • Vendor KM Portal Feature Summary Best Uses Plumtree Plumtree • Automatic population • Easy and extensive content Corporate • E-mail, voice, and wireless and application integration Portal 4.0 notification • Scalability • Integration with LDAP directories • Advanced security • E-room tools • Trainable taxonomies • Various data access • Customization and extensibility Woolamai WebMeta • Quick integration • Usability Engine 1.0 • Flexible portal interface • Tracking site statistics • Knowledge taxonomy adapts to • Content streaming to data views wireless devices • Data-mining functionality • Web site statistics Daniel Chandran UTS 38
    • Other Supporting Technologies • Artificial Intelligence – Assist in identifying expertise – Elicit knowledge automatically and semi-automatically – Provide interfacing through natural language processors – Enable intelligent searches through intelligent agents. • Intelligent agents are software systems that learn how users work and provide assistance in their daily tasks. • Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) is a process used to search for and extract useful information from volumes of documents and data. It includes tasks such as: – knowledge extraction – data archaeology – data exploration – data pattern processing – data dredging – information harvesting Daniel Chandran UTS 39
    • Other Supporting Technologies • Data mining the process of searching for previously unknown information or relationships in large databases, is ideal for extracting knowledge from databases, documents, e-mail, etc. • Model warehouses & model marts extend the role of data mining and knowledge discovery by acting as repositories of knowledge created from prior knowledge-discovery operations • Extensible Markup Language (XML) enables standardized representations of data structures, so that data can be processed appropriately by heterogeneous systems without case-by-case programming. Daniel Chandran UTS 40