Introducing tv drama_and_representation_for_g322_ocr_media_studies
AIM: By the end of the lesson, you will…• Understand the requirements of your exam•Distinguish TV Drama from other genres•Be able to analyse representation in a range of media texts.
ASSESSMENT G322: Key Media Concepts (TV Drama) The exam is 2 hours (including 30 mins for viewing and making notes on the clip) . Candidates are required to answer two compulsory questions - each question is marked out of 50.There are two sections to this paper: Section A: Textual Analysis and Representation (50 marks) Section B: Institutions and Audiences (50 marks) - see the case studies for The Inbetweeners Movie and John Carter. You should have also researched your own examples of an independent British film and mainstream Hollywood film.
SECTION A Section A: Textual Analysis and Representation You will watch an ‘unseen’ TV extract from a TV drama (a one-off drama series or serial drama programme scheduled on British TV, including some sourced from other countries). You will answer one compulsory question dealing with textual analysis of various technical aspects of the languages and conventions of moving image media. Candidates will be asked to link this analysis with a discussion of some aspect of representation within the sequence: Camera Angle, Shot, Movement and Composition Mise-en-Scène Editing Sound
SECTION B Section B: Institutions and Audiences One compulsory question to be answered by candidates based upon a case study of a specific media industry (we will study Film and Video Games). We will choose one of the topic areas in advance and prepare you for it. You will need to know contemporary institutional processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange/exhibition at a local, national or international level as well as British audiences’ reception and consumption. There should also be some emphasis on the students’ own experience of being audience.
What is TV Drama?YOUR TASK - Starter1. Write a list of the TV Dramas that you know!2. Put them into groups and label them appropriately.3. How have you decided to group them? Why?
TV Drama is…A story that is presented in a dramatic way and explores a range of genresDramatic programming that is scripted and normally fictional
TV Drama Sub-genresA ‘sub-genre’ is where genres are subdivided into even morespecific categories.What sub-genres can you think of?
Teen Dramas These depend entirely on the target audience empathising with a range of authentic characters, age-specific situations and anxieties. E.g. Skins.Watch a clip from 4OD or on Youtube:Think about the target audience.Who are they? How do you know?
Period/Costume Dramas These are often linked to ‘classic’ novels or plays and offer a set of pleasers that are very different to dramas set in our times. E.g. Downton AbbeyAs you watch this clipthink about the target audience.Who are they? How do you know?
Medical/Hospital Dramas We witness trauma and suffering on the part of patients and relatives with a set of staff narratives that deploy soap opera conventions. E.g. Holby City, ER, Scrubs.As you watch this clipthink about the target audience.Who are they? How do you know?
Police/Crime Dramas These work in the same way as medical/hospitaldramas but we can substitute the health context for representation of criminals and victims. E.g. The Bill.As you watch this clipthink about the target audience.Who are they? How do you know?
RememberIt is rare to find a TV Drama that fits all.Audiences like choice and different audiences find appeals in different types of media texts (Uses and Gratifications, Blumler and Katz)What is in each TV programme has been constructed to appeal to those audiences.Representation is constructed – your task is to deconstruct how it has been created using technical language.
RepresentationThe process by which the media present to us the‘real’ world. Okay, that’s harsh – I’m stereotyping!!
Representations can change overtime… The Sun, 1998 Headline ‘Banished Beckham’The Sun, 2001 Headline‘Glorious Golden Balls’
Other factors that affectrepresentations:Audience positioning – consider how different categories of audiences will react to you.Interaction between other groups (important when looking at characterisation within TV Drama).Cultural ideology – we hall have expectations about how certain characters and groups should react, behave and operate within society.Exam spec has changed – no longer is the extract exclusive to UK but can be an imported TV drama shown in the UK. How does the above affect this?
Key pointsFor many of us, the media are the key source of our understanding of the world.For example, what is it like to live in Australia? If you have not been there, how do you know this?Many people believe that the media are a powerful means of shaping our attitudes and beliefs – what does this mean?
7 groups of representationClassSexualityDisabilityRegional identityAgeEthnicityGender
How accurate is the media?Can we trust the representation that is being made to be an ‘accurate’ portrayal?
STEREOTYPINGWhat does ‘stereotyping’ mean?“The portrayal of people or places through a few obvious characteristics”What is the stereotype of British youths?
YOUR TASK Look at the images on your table. Answer the following questions on the images. You will be required to feed back your answers!
Things to think about…How accurately do they represent young people in Britain?Are the images a positive or negative representation?
YOUR TASK1. Research examples of the following TV Drama sub-genres:•Teen Drama•Period/Costume drama•Police/crime drama•Medical/hospital drama2. Look for representations of the following within each genre:•Class, Sexuality, Disability, Regional identity, Age, Ethnicity, Gender YOU WILL FEED BACK YOUR FINDINGS TO THE REST OF THE CLASS!
Homework/independent studyChoose a TV Drama to watch before next lesson (Monday)Choose a specific representation to analyseMake notes and be ready to feed back to the class on Monday about what you have found! END OF SESSION 1
AIM: By the end of the lesson, you will be able to deconstruct a TV Drama extract. STARTER: Watch the following extract…(Put your homework on your desk ready for collection)
DeconstructingWhat is it?Looking at the choices made in production. Picking them apart. We will ‘deconstruct’ the text.What should we look at?Camera (angles and movement)Sound (dialogue, effects, music)Editing (pace, transitions)Mise en scene
YOUR TASKTime to deconstruct another extract!You will be either a 1, 2 or 3…If you are a 1, you will focus on camera (angles and movement).If you are a 2, you will focus on editing (pace, transitions).If you are a 3, you will focus on sound (dialogue, effects, music).FEEDBACK
Future Focuses There are more areas to focus on. Youshould also be looking at shot types, special effects, props, costume, hair and make-up, setting, colour, and lighting. See other presentations on editing, camera and sound.
AIM: By the end of the session, you will understand realism and apply this to extracts from a range of TV dramas. STARTER: Complete the terminology test!
CAMERA Let us recap what we know about camera.ACTIVITY: Match the camera shots, angles andmovements to the definitions. Write the correct term above each definition. Now tell me, what shot is this?
CAMERA: ACTIVITY Watch the following clip from 24. Note down (in a list) every camera shot, angle and movement you see! Now, in pairs, discuss the use of these shots and answer the following questions: WHY was that shot used? What effect does it have? Write an account for the significance of each shot (and sequence of shots used) in explaining the setting/location and social context. This slide assumes you’re a 24 fan or can have access to any of the amazing episodes.
REALISM WHAT IS IT? A style that attempts to represent the real world. TASK: Read the extract on your worksheet, then watch the following clip. Consider how the narrative, mise-en-scene, camera and sound are constructed to represent reality.
REALISMCharacters and narrative are plausible – they help toconvince audiences and provide the effect of reality;
REALISMMise-en-scene – designed to look realistic(appropriate sets, locations, dress and lighting);
REALISMCamerawork – although stylised and contemporary,aimed at conveying realism;
REALISMSound – mainly diegetic but non-diegetic sound is notintrusive.
MISE-EN-SCENE (RECAP) What is mise-en-scene? Everything that appears before the camera. What can be included in ‘mise-en-scene’? Set, props, actors, costumes, composition, lighting. ACTIVITY: Watch the following extract and describe the mise-en-scene of the scene. GIVE AS MUCH DETAIL AS POSSIBLE!
Answer the following question… Discuss the ways in which the following extract from Shameless constructs the representation of social class using the following: • Camera shots, angles, movement and composition • Editing • Sound • Mise-en-scène
HOMEWORKKNOW THE APPROPRIATRE TERMSUSE THE CORRECT ONES!
AIM: By the end of the lesson, you will have analysed therepresentation of gender within a range of TV drama extracts. STARTER: Complete the terminology test.
ACTIVITY Using the worksheet, analyse the following extract from Primeval. As in the exam, you will see the extract four times. During the first viewing, you will not be able to make notes.
ON YOUR OWN Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of gender using the following: Camera shots, angles, movement and composition Editing Sound Mise en scene
AIM: By the end of the lesson, you will create your own character representation. STARTER: Look at the still images from TV dramas and answer these questions: •What sub-genre of TV drama does it belong to? •How do you know? •Who is being represented? •How are they being represented in this image?
ON YOUR POST-IT NOTE…Write YOUR definition of representation (and your name) and go and stick it on the whiteboard. Watch the following video and be ready to discuss.
Stuart Hall – Key PointsHall emphasises the importance of visual representation – the image seems to be the prevalent sign of late modern culture.Representation – to present/to depict.The word suggests something was there already and has been represented by the media.Representation is that which stands in for something else.Representation is the way in which meaning is given to the things which are depicted that stand in for something.
REPRESENTATIONWhat questions do we need to ask ourselves when welook at representation within an image (or an extract)?WHO is being represented?IN WHAT WAY are they being represented?WHO is representing them in this way?WHY are they being represented in this way?In the representation FAIR & ACCURATE?ACTIVITY: Go back to your still images sheet – answerall of the above questions about each image.
QUESTIONRepresentation is not present just in people… it’sin places and ideas too.Does representation in media texts alter how wesee the real world around us?
SEMIOTICSWATCH THE FOLLOWINGVIDEO…The study of signs.Developed by Ferdinand de Saussure (1974).We make meaning through the creation and interpretation of signs.Signs can be words, images, sounds, odours, flavours, acts, objects.The word sign is used to describe anything that carries meaning - whether it’s a word, a symbol/image, or a sound.
SIGNSBecause of their nature, we have to view signs as having two distinct parts:The signifier - the physical sign itselfThe signified - the meaning carried by the signAlternatively, we can think in terms of the denoted meaning (what the thing is), and... the connotations carried by the thing.It is important to remember is that signs are polysemic: open to many interpretations.
ACTIVITYLook at the following images and make a note of:The SignifiersThe Signified
YOUR TASKYou will be given a character from the list. You must create a storyboard (minimum 5slides) to tell the story of them taking a trip to the shops. How would you represent them?Use all the technical codes to add understanding to your storyboard.Characters: Things to think about:•A teenager •How would they get to the shops? Technical codes: •What might they buy?•Middle class,middle aged man •What would they wear? •Camera work•Elderly person •How would you frame it? •Editing•A disabled person •How would you edit it? •Mise en scene•Housewife •What would we hear? •Sound•Doctor •Would they go on their own?
You should continue to look at TVDrama clips and practise analysingthem.Presentations on the other key areas are on a separate presentation. Visit www.alevelmedia.co.uk for more ideas and suggested activities.