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# MET 211 introduction-to_thermdynamics_4-4_

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### MET 211 introduction-to_thermdynamics_4-4_

1. 1. Chapter 2 Part 4 of 4
2. 2. DefinitionsDr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani
3. 3. Reversible (Carnot) Heat engine  Is a hypothetical engine that operates on the reversible cycle  Named After Nicolas Carnot  Doesn’t Violate the first law  Violate the second law  Violation can be easily detected by Entropy S  The Carnot engine model was mathematically elaborated Nicolas Carnot upon by Rudolf Clausius in the 1850s and 60s from which 1796-1832 the concept of entropy emerged. France SimulationDr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani
4. 4.   Reversible Process First Law Second Law Q ?Dr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani
5. 5. First Law  Some process can not take place in real life but yet apply to the 1st law  Provides no restriction over the process direction Second Law  Does not apply to such process  Gives Direction to the energy follow  Indicates the energy Quality  Provides accurate evaluation of any engineering process.  Provides a theoretical limit of any engineering process.Dr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani
6. 6. Second Law Statements:  Clausius statement No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a body of lower temperature to a body of higher temperature  Kelvin statement No process is possible in which the sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and its complete conversion into work.Dr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani
7. 7. Entropy S Entropy is  a thermodynamic property that can be used to determine the energy available for useful work in a thermodynamic process  a measure of the disorder of a system. 𝑄 Δ𝑆 = 𝑇 the heat added per unit temperature and has the units of Joules/Kelvin (J/K)  In any cyclic process the entropy will either increase or remain the same according to the second law of thermodynamicDr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani
8. 8. Dr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani
9. 9. IC engine 1000 words or 5 pages Essay to be submitted and presented in front of the class next week. @ eLearningDr.Khaled S. Al-zahrani