Dosage form - external preparations


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Dosage form - external preparations

  1. 1. EXTERNAL PREPARATIONS Ibrahim Abdullah. MSU Pharmacy, Malaysia
  2. 2. INCLUDELotionLinimentDoucheEnemaCream, jelly, pasteOintment
  3. 3. LOTIONLow to medium viscosityApplication to unbroken skinMostly O/W emulsionsMay contain added ingredientslike fragrances, preservatives, stabilizingagentsDeliver to skin antiseptic, antifungal,corticosteroids, anti-acne, soothing agent
  4. 4. LINIMENT / BALMLow to medium viscosity (same as lotion)Applied with friction (always rubbed in)Common one used to relieve pain andstiffness (eg LMS)Formula include easily evaporating solventslike alcohol and acetoneMay be diluted before use (refer instructions)Not used on sensitive areas Ibrahim Abdullah. MSU Pharmacy, Malaysia
  5. 5. DOUCHEA device used tostream water intobody cavity, oftenfor medical orhygienic reasonsUsually (though notexclusively) refersto vaginal irrigation
  6. 6. DOUCHEMay consist of water,vineger and antisepticUnproven benefits ?Old time – used tocleanse afterintercourse as amethod of birthcontrol, though notvery effective
  7. 7. ENEMAUsed to introduceliquids into rectumand colon via anusAct directly at siteUsed for constipation,and fecal impactionCompare this withsuppository (morepreferred?) Ibrahim Abdullah. MSU Pharmacy, Malaysia
  8. 8. ENEMASodium phosphate solution drawsadditional water from the bloodstreaminto the colon and increases theeffectiveness of the enema, but oftenirritating to the colonMineral oil, which functions as a lubricantand stool softener, but side effect ofsporadic seepage from the patients anus
  9. 9. CREAMSemi-solid emulsions containing suspensions orsolutions of medicinal agents for external application O/W cream – small droplets of oil dispersed in continuous aqueous phase. Less greasy W/O cream – small droplets of water in continuous oily phase. Suitable for hydrophobic drugs. More moisturising as oily barrier reduces water lossWill not flow under influence of gravity (highviscosity)Soft, easy to apply onto skinWater-washable
  10. 10. CREAM Ibrahim Abdullah. MSU Pharmacy, Malaysia
  11. 11. GELTransparent or translucent semi-solids –thick viscous fluidsNatural gums (tragacanth, pectin) orsynthetics (methylcellulose)
  12. 12. PASTESemi-solids with high amountof fine powder medicaments(high amount of insolublesolids)Compared to ointment –pastes less stiffer, less greasyPastes absord serumsecretions – used for acutelesions which likely to ooze Zinc Oxide paste
  13. 13. OINTMENTSemi-solids, viscousOintment based: Hydrocarbon bases. e.g. hard paraffin, soft paraffin. Absorption bases. e.g. wool fat, beewax. Water soluble bases. e.g. macrogols 200,300,400Used on many parts of bodyincluding skin, mucus membranes of eyes,vagina, anus, glans, nose Ibrahim Abdullah. MSU Pharmacy, Malaysia
  14. 14. OINTMENTPrepared using one of thesemethods: TRITURATION – finely subdivided insoluble medicaments are evenly distributed by grinding with a small amount of the base followed by dilution with gradually increasing amounts of the base FUSION – the ingredients are melted together in descending order of their melting points and stirred to ensure homogenity
  15. 15. TRANSDERMAL PATCHMedicated adhesive patch placed onthe skin to deliver a specific dose ofmedication through the skin and intothe bloodstreamAdvantage – controlled releaseExamples: scopolamine (motionsickness), nicotine patch, estrogen(menopause)
  16. 16. QUESTION TIME Ask questions through email. Send your questions to: Ibrahim Abdullah. MSU Pharmacy, Malaysia