Dental anatomy

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Dental anatomy

  1. 1. Human DentitionIntroduction :Dental Anatomy Includes 1- Nomenclature & terminology. 2- The external morphology and internal composition of individual teeth. 3-How tooth form serves its function. 4- The relationship of teeth to each other and to the jaw bones.
  2. 2. Types of Dentitions: Primary & Permanent Dentition
  3. 3. I-Primary Dentition
  4. 4. Permanent Teeth
  5. 5. Dental Anatomy Nomenclature The Jaws & Dental Arches
  6. 6. Quadrants: right & left quadrants Maxillary right and left. Mandibular right and left. Right Left Right Left 4 Quadrants
  7. 7. Functions of Teeth 1- Mastication: teeth are designed to perform this function. Incisors Canine Premolars Molars Chisel like Cutting or incising Wedge like Cutting and tearing At least two projections (cusps). Tearing and grinding Multiple projections (cusps) Grinding
  8. 8. 4- Growth of jaws: The teeth play a role in the growth of the jaws in some periods of life. 2- Appearance: - Well arranged clean teeth with proper alignment give nice appearance to the face. – Teeth give support to the facial expressions. 3- Speech: for clear pronunciation and production of sound.
  9. 9. Types of Teeth Posterior Teeth Anterior Teeth for cutting & tearing food
  10. 10. Anterior Teeth - Upper lateral Central Incisors Canine
  11. 11. Anterior Teeth - Lower lateral - Central Incisors Canine
  12. 12. Premolars: (in permanent only) First premolar & Second premolar Upper Lower
  13. 13. Molars: First & second Upper Lower Wisdom tooth = Third permanent molar
  14. 14. 1.Palmer Notation System 2.Universal System 3.International FDI System (two digit system) Tooth Identification Systems Numbering or Coding Systems
  15. 15. 1 - 8 1 1 1-Palmer Notation System 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 23 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Right Left for Permanent Teeth 8 - 1 8 - 1 1 - 8
  16. 16. The permanent teeth are numbered from 1-8 on each side from the midline. Upper right Upper left 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lower right Lower left Horizontal and vertical lines = symbol for the quadrant It represents the four quadrants of the dentition as if you are facing the patient. In upper right In upper left In lower right In lower left
  17. 17. A B C D E Palmer Notation System for Primary Teeth E-A E-A A-E A-E
  18. 18. The deciduous teeth are lettered from A-E on each side from the midline Upper right Upper left E D C B A A B C D E E D C B A A B C D E Lower right Lower left
  19. 19. 2-The International Numbering System “FDI” Federation Dentaire International (the two digit system) The teeth are designated by using two-digits: a. The first digit of the code is located at the left side of the number and indicates the quadrant: In permanent dentition In deciduous dentition U.R. 1 2 U.L. U.R. 5 6 U.L L.R. 4 3 L. L. L.R. 8 7 L.L.
  20. 20. 2-International System (Two Digit System) “FDI” Federation Dentaire International 111213 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 4142 43 44 45 46 47 48 1 2 34 For permanent Teeth First Digit = quadrant
  21. 21. Permanent teeth 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 b- The second digit is located at the right side of the number and indicates the number of the tooth in the quadrant. The two digits should be pronounced separately. Second Digit = Tooth number in the quadrant
  22. 22. For Primary Teeth 5 6 78 First Digit = quadrant 5 6 78 51 52 53 54 55 61 62 63 64 65 71 72 73 74 75 8182 84 83 85 2-International System (Two Digit System) “FDI” Federation Dentaire International First Digit = quadrant
  23. 23. Primary Teeth 55 54 53 52 51 61 62 63 64 65 85 84 83 82 81 71 72 73 74 75 First Digit = quadrant Second Digit = Tooth number in the quadrant 5 6 78 For Primary Teeth
  24. 24. 3.Universal system for Permanent Teeth
  25. 25. Universal System for Primary Teeth
  26. 26. Macro & Micro-anatomy of Teeth crown neck root
  27. 27. Single-rooted Multi-rooted
  28. 28. Micro-anatomy of Teeth
  29. 29. Pulp Cavity 1-Coronal pulp: •Pulp chamber •Pulp horns 2-Radicular pulp: •Root canal •Apical foramen
  30. 30. 2-Radicular pulp: •Root canal •Apical foramen Pulp Cavity in Root
  31. 31. Surfaces of Teeth
  32. 32. Surfaces of teeth are identified by the relationship to surrounding orofacial structures Each tooth has Five surfaces: 1.Facial 2.Lingual, 3.Mesial, and 4. Distal (proximal) 5.Functioning surf. (Incisal) occlusal,
  33. 33. FACIAL SURFACE any surface on the outside (towards the face) 1.LABIAL is facial surface of the anterior teeth (green), 2. BUCCAL is the facial surface of the posterior teeth (blue).
  34. 34. Inter-proximal surfaces: 1.Facing towards the midline: MESIAL. 2. Facing away from the midline:  DISTAL Surfaces in between two teeth:
  35. 35. LINGUAL The surfaces facing the tongue PALATAL on the maxilla. palatal
  36. 36. Functioning Surfaces: chewing/biting surfaces of teeth : OCCLUSAL: chewing surfaces of posterior teeth INCISAL: the anteriors’ biting surface
  37. 37. Line and Point Angles Division into Thirds
  38. 38. :Line angle It is formed by the junction of two surfaces and its name is derived from both surfaces :Point angle It is formed by the junction of three surfaces and its name is derived from these surfaces. Line and Point Angles
  39. 39. Line Angles of Anterior Teeth
  40. 40. Line Angles of Posterior Teeth
  41. 41. Point Angles Meeting of 3 surfaces
  42. 42. Division into Thirds
  43. 43. Anatomical Landmarks of the Crown Developmental data: Lobe: • It is one of the primary centers of calcification and growth formed during the crown development. • Each tooth begins to develop from four lobes or more. •The pulp chamber has pulp horns corresponding to these lobes.
  44. 44. A- Crown Elevations: They are three small rounded projections of enamel present in the incisal third of newly erupted incisors It is the bulge on the cervical third of lingual surface of the crown in anterior teeth 1-Mamelons 2-Cingulum 3-Cusps They are pyramidal projections on the incisal portion of the canine and on the occlusal surfaces of the premolars and molars
  45. 45. 4-Tubercle It is a small elevation produced by excessive formation of enamel. Tubercle is noticed at : •the palatal surface of E & 6 •sometimes at the lingual surface of incisors over the cingulum. N.B. Tubercle differs from cusp , it is formed of enamel only while cusp is formed of pulp horn covered by dentin and enamel.
  46. 46. Ridge or elevation of enamel forming the margin of the surface of a tooth; • on mesial /distal margins of lingual surfaces anterior teeth. • mesial & distal margins of occlusal surfaces posterior teeth 5-Ridges •Linear ridges: Elevated portions of tooth run in a line named for their location •Cervical •Incisal •Labial •Buccal •Lingual Marginal Triangular Linear Transverse Ridge Oblique Ridge
  47. 47. •Small , irregularly placed auxiliary grooves. •Branches from developmental grooves. •They do not denote union of primary lobes. •The third molars followed by second permanent molars are characterized by high number of supplemental grooves. B-Crown Depressions •Lingual fossa •triangular fossae •Central fossa 1-Developmental grooves: Shallow grooves that separate cusps or primary parts of teeth Linear Depressions Irregular Depressions 1-Fossa Depression or concavity 2- Supplemental grooves:
  48. 48. 3- Fissures • Found in the bottom of developmental grooves. •Result from incomplete union of the primary lobes. •Represent a fault in enamel. Linear Depressions Irregular Depressions 2- PITS: •b- FAULTY PIT: • Develop as a result • of incomplete formation of enamel. • It is located at the end of the buccal developmental grooves of the lower molars or palatal developmental grooves of the upper molars.
  49. 49. Dental Formula: Permanent Teeth  A shorthand way of indicating the number and relative position of teeth – Written as ratio of upper to lower teeth for the mouth – Primary: 2I (incisors), 1C (canine), 2M (molars) – Permanent: 2I, 1C, 2PM (premolars), 3M 2I 1C 2PM 3M X 2 (32 teeth) 2I 1C 2PM 3M

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