Informix Update New Features 11.70.xC1+


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En uppdatering kring Informix-produkterna, framför allt den allra senaste releasen av Informix-databasen samt framtida roadmap.
Denna presentation hölls på IBM Data Server Day den 22 maj i Stockholm av Rickard Linck, IT Specialist - Informix/Optim/DB2, Client Technical Specialist, IBM

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Informix Update New Features 11.70.xC1+

  1. 1. Informix Update New Features 11.70.xC1+Rickard Linck ( 31, 2012 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  2. 2. IBM Data Servers SoftwareUse your data more effectively and efficiently Optimized for extreme speed Optimized for a diverse range of delivering 10 times the performance solutions requiring maximum of conventional databases flexibility and performance Optimized for near hands free Optimized for solutions requiring administration, high availability the extreme levels of transaction and clustering for transaction & data volume and performance intensive solutions The industry’s broadest range of database and data warehouse management innovations optimized for every business need 2 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  3. 3. IBM Informix“Set it and Forget it” …for near hands free administration, high availability and clustering for transaction intensive solutions Resilient Agile Everywhere Reliable Flexible Minimal Secure Fast Affordable Cost Mission critical Effective and life critical Solutions solutions 1,000’s of 95% of telecom 20 of the top 25 Over 2,500 ISVs Retailers worldwide service delivery US Supermarkets worldwide providers “…Intrado provides the core of U.S. 9-1-1… We needed a fast database; one that would respond immediately, every time…” 3 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  4. 4. Informix Innovation … v11 Global Availability Informix Deep Extreme Active-Active Warehouse Compression Performance Clusters And ReliabilityEnhancements in all areas: Design Development OpenAdmin Tool Safe and Secure Mac OS/X Administration API Common Criteria Support4 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  5. 5. Themes for Informix Future Release Deep Embed Modernization Warehouse Smart Data Cloud 5 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  6. 6. Informix in 2012 (from IBM’s pricebook) Databases: Tools: – C-ISAM v7.26 – Client SDK v3.70 – SE (Standard Engine) v7.25 – ESQL/C v5.20 – ESQL/COBOL v7.25 – OnLine v5.20 – 4GL Compiler v7.50 – Informix v11.50, v11.70 (Express, Choice, – 4GL Interactive Debugger v7.50 Growth, Ultimate, Warehouse) – 4GL RDS (Rapid Development System) v7.50 • Storage Optimization Feature – SQL v3.70 • Excalibur TextSearch DataBlade v1.31 – Genero v2.40 • Geodetic DataBlade v3.12 – I-Spy v2.x • C-ISAM DataBlade v1.10 – Data Director for Web v2.x • Spatial DataBlade – Server Administrator v1.6 • TimeSeries Real Time Loader • Video Foundation DataBlade Connectivity: • Web DataBlade v4.13 – NETv5.20 • Workgroup DataBlade – STAR v5.10 • Image Foundation DataBlade v2.0x – Connect Runtime v3.70 – XPS (Extended Parallel Server) v8.51 – JDBC Driver/Embedded SQL v3.70 • XPS Storage Optimization Feature – Enterprise Gateway Manager v7.31 – Red Brick Warehouse v6.3 – Enterprise Gateway w DRDA v7.31 – MaxConnect v1.x6 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  7. 7. Informix 11.70 releases Major release: – 11.70.xC1 – October 2010 Minor releases: – 11.70.xC2 – March 2011 – 11.70.xC3 – June 2011 – 11.70.xC4 – October 2011 – 11.70.xC5 – May 2012 11 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  8. 8. 11.70.xC1 Features - 1 Installation – Installation application provides seamless installation and smarter configuration – Changes to installation commands – Simpler configuration for silent installation Migration – New default behavior during upgrades – Upgrading a high-availability cluster while it is on line – dbschema utility enhancement for omitting the specification of an owner – dbexport utility enhancement for omitting the specification of an owner – Generating storage spaces and logs with the dbschema utility High-availability – Quickly clone a primary server – Transaction completion during cluster failover – Running DDL statements on secondary servers – Monitoring high-availability servers – Running dbschema, dbimport, and dbexport utilities on secondary servers 12 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  9. 9. 11.70.xC1 Features - 2 Administration – Automatic storage provisioning ensures space is available – Backup and restore is now cloud aware – Easier event alarm handling – Defragmenting partitions – Automatically optimize data storage – Automatically terminate idle sessions – Notification of corrupt indexes – Prevent the accidental disk initialization of your instance or another instance – Automatic allocation of secondary partition header pages for extending the extent map – MQ messaging enhancements – Session-level control of how much memory can be allocated to a query – Deferred extent sizing of tables created with default storage specifications – New environment variable enables invalid character data to be used by DB- Access, dbexport, and High Performance Loader – New onconfig parameter to specify the default escape character – ifxcollect tool for collecting data for specific problems – dbschema utility enhancements for generating storage spaces and logs – Enhancements to the OpenAdmin Tool – Enhancements to the OAT Schema Manager plug-in – Enhancements to the OAT Replication plug-in 13 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  10. 10. 11.70.xC1 Features - 3 Application Development – Database extensions are automatically registered – Spatial data type and functions are built in and automatically registered – Time series data types and functions are built-in and automatically registered – Setting the file seek position for large files – Faster basic text searches on multiple columns – Virtual processor is created automatically for XML publishing – SQL expressions as arguments to the COUNT function – Specifying the extent size when user-defined indexes are created – Syntax support for DDL statements with IF [NOT] EXISTS conditions – Simplified SQL syntax for defining database tables – Debugging Informix SPL routines with Optim Development Studio Embeddability – Information about embedding Informix instances – Enhanced utility for deploying Informix instances – Tutorial to deploy and embed Informix – Deployment assistant simplifies snapshot capture and configuration – Enhanced ability to compress and to extract compressed snapshots – Improved return codes for the oninit utility – Sample scripts for embedding IBM Informix 11.70 database servers 14 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  11. 11. 11.70.xC1 Features - 4 Enterprise Replication – Create a new replication domain by cloning a server – Add a server to a replication domain by cloning – Automating application connections to Enterprise Replication servers – Replicate tables without primary keys – Set up and manage a grid for a replication domain – Handle a potential log wrap situation in Enterprise Replication – Improved Enterprise Replication error code descriptions – Repair replication inconsistencies by time stamp – Temporarily disable an Enterprise Replication server – Synchronize all replicates simultaneously – Monitor the quality of replicated data Security – Trusted connections improve security for multiple-tier application environments – Selective row-level auditing – Simplified administration of users without operating system accounts (UNIX, Linux) 15 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  12. 12. 11.70.xC1 Features - 5 Performance – Less root node contention with Forest Of Trees indexes – Fragment-level statistics – Automatic detection of stale statistics – Query optimizer support for multi-index scans – Improving performance by reducing buffer reads – Automatically add CPU virtual processors – Large pages support on Linux – Improve name service connection time – Faster C user-defined routines – Automatic light scans on tables – Alerts for tables with in-place alter operations – Reduced overhead for foreign key constraints on very large child tables Warehousing – Query optimizer support for star-schema and snowflake-schema queries – Partitioning table and index storage by a LIST strategy – Partitioning table and index storage by an INTERVAL strategy – Improved concurrency while redefining table storage distributions 16 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  13. 13. Informix 11.70.xC2 - New Enhancements Announced/available on 2011-03-29 Installation – Enhanced installation application (Linux, UNIX) Administration – New event alarms – The returned MAX_PDQPRIORITY value in a query to the SNMP rdbmsSrvParamTable – New SQL administration API arguments Application Development – Improved results of basic text search queries – Table and column aliases in DML statements – Case-insensitive queries on NCHAR and NVARCHAR text strings Embeddability – Embedding Informix software without root privileges (UNIX, Linux) – Deploying an RPM image of Informix software (Linux) OAT - Enhancements – to the OpenAdmin Tool – to the Schema Manager plug-in Performance – Improve network connection performance and scalability Warehousing – Informix Warehouse Accelerator17 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  14. 14. Enhanced installation (Linux, UNIX) You can install the products without root privileges – Easier to install Informix in environments where root privileges are restricted or where Informix will be part of an embedded solution. • The resulting non-root installation does not support some features such as ER, distributed connections, and HA clusters. RPMBUILD – On Linux operating systems if you have rpmbuild installed you can create an RPM image to simplify redistribution to multiple computers. Deploying an RPM image of Informix software (Linux) – you can customize an RPM Package Manager image to exclude database server and client products that you do not plan to use. • You can reduce the size of the distributable image. – You can then embed the configured installation to multiple Linux computers that support RPM. • Deploy the image without the system resource demands of the installation application 18 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  15. 15. Event Alarms / SNMP New event alarms: Event alarm class IDs 81 and 83 added. – 81 indicates logical log corruption. – 83 indicates that a shared disk secondary server could not become the primary server because the primary server was still active. The returned MAX_PDQPRIORITY value in a query to the SNMP rdbmsSrvParamTable – When you use the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to query rdbmsSrvParamTable, SNMP now returns the current MAX_PDQPRIORITY value, including changes made with the onmode -D, onmode -wm, and onmode -wf commands. If an error occurs, SNMP returns the value of -1. 19 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  16. 16. New SQL administration API arguments The following new arguments are available with the SQL admin API task() and admin() functions: – create database: equivalent to the CREATE DATABASE statement. – drop database: equivalent to the DROP DATABASE statement. • deletes the entire database, including all of the system catalog tables, objects, and data. – ontape archive: invokes the ontape utility to create a backup. – onbar: equivalent to invoking the onbar utility to create backups. – onsmsync: invokes the onsmsync utility to synchronize the sysutils database, the storage manager, and the emergency boot file. 20 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  17. 17. Examples Create the database named demodbs with unbuffered logging: EXECUTE FUNCTION task("create database with log","demodbs"); Create a database that is not case-sensitive named demodbs2 with ANSI compliant logging in the dbspace named dataspace1: EXECUTE FUNCTION task("create database with log mode ansi nlscase insensitive","demodbs2","dataspace1"); Create a database named demodbs3 with a French-Canadian locale in the dbspace name dataspace1: EXECUTE FUNCTION TASK ("create database","demodbs3","dataspace1","fr_ca.8859-1"); Create a level 0 archive in the directory path /local/informix/backup/: EXECUTE FUNCTION task("ontape archive","/local/informix/backup/"); Create a level 0 archive in the directory path /local/informix/backup/ with a block size of 256 KB: EXECUTE FUNCTION task("ontape archive directory level 0", "/local/informix/backup/","256"); 21 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  18. 18. Improved results of Basic Text Search queries You can improve the results of basic text search queries by choosing a text analyzer that best fits your data and query needs. A text analyzer determines how the text is indexed. – The snowball analyzer indexes word stems. – The CJK analyzer processes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean text. – The Soundex analyzer indexes words by sound. – Other analyzers are variations of these analyzers and the standard analyzer. – You can also create your own analyzer. And now you can also: – create a thesaurus of synonyms to use during indexing. – specify different stopwords for each column being indexed instead of using the same stopwords for all indexed columns. – query each column in a composite index individually. – increase the maximum number of query results. 22 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  19. 19. BTS Analyzers Analyzers: – cjk: Processes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean text. Ignores surrogates. – Processes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean text. Processes surrogates. – esoundex: Processes text into pronunciation codes. – keyword: Processes input text as a single token. – simple: Processes alphabetic characters only without stopwords. – snowball: Processes text into stem words. – snowball.language: Processes text into stem words in the specified language. – soundex: Processes text into four pronunciation codes. – standard: Default. Processes alphabetic characters, special characters, and numbers with stopwords. – stopword: Processes alphabetic characters only with stopwords. – udr.udr_name: The name of a user-defined analyzer. – whitespace: Creates tokens based on whitespace only – or create your own analyzer The Snowball analyzer is similar to the Standard analyzer except that is converts words to stem words: different words are indexed with the same stem word: – accept [accept] – acceptable [accept] – acceptance [accept] 23 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  20. 20. Table and column aliases in DML statements The SQL parser supports new contexts for declaring aliases in SELECT, DELETE, and UPDATE statements. The alias is a temporary name that is not registered in the system catalog of the database, and that persists only while the statement is running. – SELECT statements and subqueries can declare an alias in the Projection clause for columns in the select list, and can use the aliases (as an alternative to the name or the select number) to reference those columns in the GROUP BY clause. – DELETE statements can declare an alias for a local or remote target table, and can use that alias elsewhere in the same DELETE statement to reference that table. – UPDATE statements can declare an alias for a local or remote target table, and can use that alias elsewhere in the same UPDATE statement to reference that table. 24 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  21. 21. ExamplesDELETE overstock@cleveland:stock AS ocs WHERE manu_code = (SELECT manu_code FROM ocs WHERE manu_code MATCHES H*);UPDATE nmosdb@wnmserver1:test r_tSET name=(SELECT name FROM test WHERE = EXISTS( SELECT 1 FROM test WHERE = ); 25 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  22. 22. Case-insensitive queries on NCHAR andNVARCHAR text strings In previous releases, strings stored in all Informix databases were treated as case-sensitive. Operations designed to disregard the case of text strings require a bts index or a functional index for each query. In this release a database is still created as case-sensitive by default. However, you can use the NLSCASE INSENSITIVE option with the CREATE DATABASE statement to create a database that ignores the case of text strings. – For example, querying "McDavid" returns "McDavid", "mcdavid", "MCDAVID", and "Mcdavid". Ignores letter case only on NCHAR and NVARCHAR data types, but it treats the other built-in character data types (CHAR, LVARCHAR, and VARCHAR) as case-sensitive. Note: You cannot include both case-sensitive and case-insensitive databases in a distributed query. 26 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  23. 23. IBM OpenAdmin Tool (OAT) Version 2.72 Back up the storage spaces for a database server: – Configure ontape or onbar to back up the storage spaces. – Schedule the backups to run automatically. – Run a backup of the storage spaces on demand. – Review the most recent backups and the next scheduled backups of the storage spaces. – Review the backup log. 27 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  24. 24. OAT – Automatic Backups 28 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  25. 25. IBM OpenAdmin Tool (OAT) Version 2.72 Create system reports based on the historical data for a database server – information about the SQL that were running, including the slowest and the one with the most I/O time and with the most buffer activity. Switch to the next logical-log file When you develop a plug-in for OAT, you can specify a minimum required version of OAT. You can uninstall plug-ins for OAT. – In previous releases, you could disable the plug-ins, but you could not uninstall them. You can restore OAT menu items that are deleted. – In previous editions, you could delete menu items, but you could not restore them. 29 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  26. 26. OAT: Schema Manager plug-in Version 2.72 Changes include: – Create a database on the Schema Manager page • specify the locale for the database. • specify that the database is not case-sensitive. – Drop a database – Disable index : • When you create a table and add a foreign key constraint, you can disable the index that is created automatically for the foreign key constraint. Disabling the index can improve the efficiency of INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE operations on large child tables. 30 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  27. 27. Schema Manager 31 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  28. 28. Create Database wizard Review the SQL Statement that creates the database: EXECUTE FUNCTION ADMIN (CREATE DATABASE WITH BUFFERED LOG NLSCASE INSENSITIVE, iasdb, datadbs, sv_SE.8859-1); 32 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  29. 29. Improve network connection performanceand scalability You can improve the performance and scalability of network connections on UNIX by using the NUMFDSERVERS parameter. Adjusts the maximum number of poll threads for the server to use when migrating TCP/IP connection across virtual processors (VPs). Adjusting the number of poll threads, for example, by increasing the number of poll threads beyond the default number, is useful – if the database server has a high rate of new connect and disconnect requests or – if you find a high amount of contention between network shared file (NSF) locks. • For example, if you have multiple CPU VPs and poll treads and this results in NSF locking*, you can increase the value of NUMFDSERVERS (and you can increase the number of poll threads specified in the NETTYPE configuration parameter) to reduce NSF lock contention. – *use onstat -g ath command to display information about all threads which includes a status, such as mutex wait nsf.lock, which indicates that you have a significant amount of NSF lock contention. Default 4, Max 50. 33 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  30. 30. Informix Warehouse Accelerator - IWA An Informix product that delivers faster analytic query responses transparently to all Informix users. The accelerator integrates into an Informix environment, providing high-performance query software that is based on advanced data in-memory technology. The accelerator helps enable a new class of high speed business intelligence (BI). Includes a graphical user interface plugin for IBM Data Studio that you can use to perform accelerator administration tasks. You can use the accelerator with a database server that supports a mixed workload (an online transactional processing (OLTP) database and a data warehouse database), or use the accelerator with a database server that supports only a data warehouse database 34 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  31. 31. IWA requires you to do…No query tuning and optmizer hintsNo database tuningNo index creation, reorganizationNo update StatisticsNo partioning/FragementationNo storage management/page size configurationNo database/schema changesNo application changesNo summary tables/materialized views/query tablesNo buying more expensive hardware*No change of expectations Power of Simplicity!35 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  32. 32. Informix Warehouse Accelerator – BreakthroughTechnology for Performance Extreme Compression Row & Columnar Database 3 to 1 compression ratio Row format within Informix for transactional workloads and columnar data access via accelerator for OLAP queries. Multi-core and Vector 7 1 In Memory Database Optimized Algorithms 3rd generation database technology avoids Avoiding locking or synchronization I/O. Compression allows huge databases 6 2 to be completely memory resident 5 3 4 Frequency Partitioning Predicate evaluation on Enabler for the effective parallel access of compressed data the compressed data for scanning. Often scans w/o decompression Horizontal and Vertical Partition during evaluation Elimination. Massive Parallelism All cores are used for each queryComes with Smart Analytics Studio, a GUI tool, for configuring data mart with IWA36 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  33. 33. IWA - architecture OLTP Client BI Client Linux Intel 64‐bit Informix Warehouse Accelerator 64‐bit Unix/Linux 1 coordinator node per 4 worker nodes TCP/IP & Manages the distribution DRDA accelerated queries tasks such as loading data and and query Informix Database Server query results coordinator node processing. Query Router Performs data compression and query processing with extreme parallelism fact table worker node worker node worker node worker node dimension tables Memory other tables compressed data: compressed data: compressed data: compressed data: 25% of fact table + 25% of fact table + 25% of fact table + 25% of fact table + own copy of all own copy of all own copy of all own copy of all DWADIR=$IWA_INSTALL_DIR/dwa/demo START_PORT=21020 dimension tables dimension tables dimension tables dimension tables NUM_NODES=5 (1 coord, 4 worker) WORKER_SHM=0.7 (70% of mem) Disk/SSD COORDINATOR_SHM=0.05 (5% of mem) DRDA_INTERFACE="eth0" accelerator storage directory: compressed data on disk 37 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  34. 34. Configuration Scenarios Alternative 1: Install IWA on a separate Linux box Informix Database Server Informix Warehouse Accelerator 64‐bit RHEL 5/SUSE 11 64‐bit RHEL 5/SUSE 11 Solaris 10/AIX 6.1/HP‐UX 11.31 Alternative 2: Install Informix and IWA in the same symmetric multiprocessing system Informix Database Server Informix Warehouse Accelerator 64‐bit RHEL 5/SUSE 11 Note: IWA requires Linux on Intel x64 (64-bit EM64T) Xenon 38 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  35. 35. v11.70.xC3 – 29th June 2011 Administration Automatic read-ahead operations Configuring the server response to low memory Reserving memory for critical activities Connection Manager enhancements Enhancements to the OpenAdmin Tool Embeddability Managing message logs in embedded and enterprise environments Developing Built-in SQL compatibility functions for string manipulation and trigonometric support High availability clusters and Enterprise Replication Automatically connecting to a grid Code set conversion for Enterprise Replication Enhancements to the Informix Replication Plug-in for OAT Security Non-root installations support shared-memory and stream-pipe connections Retaining numbers for audit log files Restrict operating system properties for mapped users Time Series data Simplified handling of time series data Informix TimeSeries Plug-in for OAT 39 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  36. 36. New features – Low Memory Manager Configuring the server response to low memory Configure the actions that the server takes to continue processing when memory is critically low. You can specify the criteria for terminating sessions based on idle time, memory usage, and other factors so that the targeted application can continue and avoid out-of-memory problems. Configuring the low memory response is useful for embedded applications that have memory limitations. 1. Set the LOW_MEMORY_MGR configuration parameter to 1 2. EXECUTE FUNCTION task("scheduler lmm enable", "LMM START THRESHOLD", "10MB", "LMM STOP THRESHOLD", "20MB", "LMM IDLE TIME", "300"); start_threshold_size = 5MB – 95MB or % of SHMTOTAL stop_threshold_size = 10MB – 100MB or % of SHMTOTAL idle_time = between 1 and 86400 secs. 40 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  37. 37. Monitor with onstat -g lmm$ onstat –g lmmLow Memory ManagerControl Block 0x4cfca220Memory Limit 300000 KB - memory to which the server is attempting to adhereUsed 149952 KB - memory currently used by the serverStart Threshold 10240 KB - automatic low memory management start thresholdStop Threshold 10 MB - automatic low memory management stop thresholdIdle Time 300 Sec - time after which almm considers a session idleInternal Task Yes - Yes = using Informix procedures / No = user defined procsTask Name ‘Low Memory Manager’Low Mem TID 0x4cfd7178# Extra Segments 0Low Memory Manager TasksTask Count Last RunKill User Sessions 267 04/04/2011 16:57 - Automatic terminated sessionsKill All Sessions 1 04/04/2011 16:58Reconfig(reduce) 1 04/04/2011 16:59 - freed blocks of unused memoryReconfig(restore) 1 04/04/2011 17:59 - restored services and configurationLast 20 Sessions KilledSes ID Username Hostname PID Time194 bjorng dockebo 13433 04/04/2011 16:57201 bjorng dockebo 13394 04/04/2011 16:57198 bjorng dockebo 13419 04/04/2011 16:57190 bjorng dockebo 13402 04/04/2011 16:57199 bjorng dockebo 13431 04/04/2011 16:57 41 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  38. 38. New features - LOW_MEMORY_RESERVE You can reserve a specific amount of memory for use when critical activities (such as rollback activities) are required and the database server has limited free memory. This prevents the database server from crashing if the server runs out of free memory during critical activities. Max size of reserved memory is 20 percent of the value of SHMVIRTSIZE For example, to reserve 512 kilobytes, specify: LOW_MEMORY_RESERVE 512K the size of memory reserved in bytes.$ onstat -g segid key addr size ovhd class blkused blkfree8945678 52604801 44000000 133652480 1006264 R 32627 38978447 52604802 4bf76000 131072000 769136 V 17181 14819Total: - - 264724480 - - 49808 14822Virtual segment low memory reserve (bytes):4194304Low memory reserve used 0 times and used maximum block size 0 bytes number times that the database server has used this memory Note: Can also be changed by onmode –wm/wf maximum memory required 42 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  39. 39. AUTO_READAHEAD Use read-ahead operations automatically to improve performance. The database server can automatically use asynchronous operations for data or it can avoid them if the data for the query is already cached. Use the AUTO_READAHEAD onconfig parameter all queries Use the SET ENVIRONMENT AUTO_READAHEAD for a particular session. – 0 = Disable automatic read-ahead requests. – 1 = Enable automatic read-ahead requests in the standard mode. The database server will automatically process read-ahead requests only when a query waits on I/O. – 2 = Enable automatic read-ahead requests in the aggressive mode. The database server will automatically process read-ahead requests at the start of the query and continuously through the duration of the query. The RA_THRESHOLD parameter is deprecated with this release! 43 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  40. 40. Automatic read-ahead operations Asynchronous page requests can improve query performance by overlapping query processing with the processing necessary to retrieve data from disk and put it in the buffer pool. Avoids read-ahead if data cached in bufferpool Set up and administration of automatic read-ahead – ONCONFIG: AUTO_READAHEAD mode[,readahead_cnt] – Environment: SET ENVIRONMENT AUTO_READAHEAD mode – onmode –wm/fm AUTOREADAHEAD=mode Value/Mode Comments 2 Enable automatic requests aggressive mode 1 Default: Enable requests in standard mode 0 Disable automatic read-ahead requests readahead_cnt Optional: Read ahead pages AUTO_READAHEAD deprecates ONCONFIG parameters RA_PAGES and RA_THRESHOLD! 44 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  41. 41. Settings explained Modes 1 and 2: – 1 = Enable automatic read-ahead requests in the standard mode which is the default. • The database server will automatically process read-ahead requests only when a query waits on I/O. • Appropriate for most production environments, even cached environments. – 2 = Enable automatic read-ahead requests in the aggressive mode. • The database server will automatically process read-ahead requests at the start of the query and continuously through the duration of the query • It might be slightly more effective: – For some scans that read a small amount of data – In situations in which you switch between turning read-ahead off for small scans and on for longer scans – For scans that look only at a small number of rows, because the server performs read-ahead operations immediately rather than waiting for the scan to encounter I/O. • Use aggressive read-ahead operations only in situations in which you tested both settings and know that aggressive read-ahead operations are more effective. Do not use aggressive read-ahead operations if you are not sure that they are more effective. readahead_cnt Optional: Number of read ahead pages • When not set, the default is 128 (range 4-4096) pages 45 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  42. 42. Monitor with onstat -g rah$ onstat –g rahRead Ahead# threads 4# Requests 150501# Continued 1017# Memory Failures 0Q depth 0Last Thread Add 04/06/2011.14:34Partition ReadAhead Statistics Buffer Disk Hit Data Index Idx/DatPartnum Reads Reads Ratio # Reqs Eff # Reqs Eff # Reqs Eff0x200003 2412176 587381 75 0 0 150499 67 0 00x100163 4020 12 99 1 77 2 66 172 00x100165 1010 8 99 1 50 2 50 26 00x1001c8 107 4 96 0 0 1 0 2 340x1001c9 7 2 71 0 0 0 0 1 100# Continued Number of times a read-ahead request continued to occur# Memory Failures Number of failed requests because of insufficient memoryQ Depth Depth of request queueLast Thread Add Date and time when the last read-ahead thread was addedHit Ratio Cache hit ratio for the partition# Reqs Number of data page read ahead requests.Eff Efficiency of the read-ahead requests. This is the ratio been the number of pages requested by read-ahead operations to the number of pages that were already cached and for which a read-ahead operations was not needed. Values are between 0 and 100. A higher number means that read ahead is beneficial. 46 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  43. 43. Connection Manager 3.70.xC3 enhancements The Connection Manager performs three roles: 1. Rule-based connection redirection 2. Connection unit load balancing • Grids and replicate sets: LATENCY, FAILURE, and WORKLOAD • High-availability clusters and Server sets: WORKLOAD 3. Cluster failover You can now configure a single Connection Manager (CM) instance to automatically manage client connection requests for a combination of a) high availability clusters, b) grids, c) server sets, and d) Enterprise Replication (ER) servers. Before you had to use a separate CM instance to manage each type of connection unit. For example, you had to use one CM instance for servers that were in a grid and another CM instance for servers that were in a high-availability cluster. To make configuration easier, most of the command-line options are deprecated and options are set using the configuration file. In addition, the format of the configuration file is more intuitive than before. Because a single CM instance supports multiple connection units, you should configure backup CM instances in case the primary CM instance fails. 47 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  44. 44. Connection Unit Type CLUSTER – A high-availability cluster is a set of database servers consisting of a primary server and one or more secondary servers. The servers in a cluster are homogeneous; that is, all of the servers use the same hardware and software configurations. A cluster can consist of a primary server, an HDR secondary server, and zero or more shared disk secondary servers (SDS servers) and zero or more remote standalone secondary servers (RSS servers). REPLSET – a set of database servers linked with Enterprise Replication (ER) GRID – any set of interconnected servers, including clusters, replicate sets, and server sets, in an Enterprise Replication (ER) domain. SERVERSET – A server set is a server or group of servers that are managed by third-party replication application. The database server must have the same database name and schema in order for client applications to connect. The CM provides only availability and load balancing to server sets. 48 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  45. 45. Converting old file to new format To use the latest Connection manager, you must convert the configuration files from versions prior to 3.70.xC3 using command line options. You can use the following command to convert the old configuration from to the new format: $ oncmsm -c cmsm.cfg -n 11.70.xC1 format 11.70.xC3 format NAME sample NAME sample SLA sqtp=PRI LOGFILE /usr/informix/tmp/cm.log SLA sqrt=(SDS+HDR+RSS) CLUSTER cluster1 SLA drtp=PRI { SLA drrt=(SDS+HDR+RSS) SLA sqtp DBSERVERS=PRI FOC SDS+HDR+RSS,0 SLA sqrt DBSERVERS=(SDS,HDR,RSS) SLA_WORKERS 16 SLA drtp DBSERVERS=PRI LOGFILE /usr/informix/tmp/cm.log SLA drrt DBSERVERS=(SDS,HDR,RSS) FOC ORDER=SDS,HDR,RSS TIMEOUT=0 } 49 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  46. 46. Connection Manager exampleNAME cm1MACRO NY=(ny1,ny2,ny3)MACRO CA=(ca1,ca2,ca3)LOG 1LOGFILE ${INFORMIXDIR}/tmp/cm1.logCLUSTER west # cluster name (unique in CM){ INFORMIXSERVER ids_w1,ids_w2 SLA oltpw DBSERVERS=primary SLA reportw DBSERVERS=(HDR,SDS) FOC ORDER=SDS,HDR TIMEOUT=5 RETRY=1 CMALARMPROGRAM ${INFORMIXDIR}/etc/}REPLSET erset #replset name{ INFORMIXSERVER g_er1,g_er2 SLA repl1_any DBSERVERS=ANY # node discovery SLA repl1_ca DBSERVERS=${CA} POLICY=WORKLOAD SLA repl1_ny DBSERVERS=${NY}}GRID grid1 # grid name{ INFORMIXSERVER node1,node2,node3 SLA grid1_any DBSERVERS=ANY POLICY=LATENCY SLA grid1_avail DBSERVERS=${NY},${CA}}GRID grid2 # grid name{ INFORMIXSERVER node4,node5 SLA grid2_any DBSERVERS=ANY POLICY=LATENCY SLA grid2_avail DBSERVERS=${CA},${NY}}SERVERSET ss # name of serverset, unique in CM{ INFORMIXSERVER ids1,ids2,ids3 SLA ssavail DBSERVERS=ids1,ids2,ids3 HOST=apollo SERVICE=9600 NETTYPE=onsoctcp SLA ssany DBSERVERS=(ids1,ids2,ids3) HOST=apollo SERVICE=9610 NETTYPE=onsoctcp} 50 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  47. 47. Managing message logs in embedded andenterprise environments Use Scheduler tasks to reduce the size of message log files by automatically truncating or deleting the log files or by configuring automatic file rotation. Additionally, you can use the related ph_threshold table parameters to specify the maximum number of message log files to retain. These tasks and parameters are useful for embedded applications because they reduce DBA or system administrator requirements for managing the log files. You can also use SQL administration API commands to manage the size of the log files on demand, as necessary. 51 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  48. 48. Enabling automatic rotation The tasks associated to each of the common log files that can be enabled using the SQL Admin API: File Task Default Frequency in ph_threshold online.log online_log_rotate MAX_MSGPATH_VERSIONS bar_act_log bar_act_log_rotate MAX_BAR_ACT_LOG_VERSIONS bar_debug_log bar_debug_log_rotate MAX_BAR_DEBUG_LOG_VERSIONS Enable and change frequency of rotation to 10 days: DATABASE sysadmin; UPDATE ph_task SET tk_enable = “t”, tk_frequency = INTERVAL (10) DAY TO DAY WHERE tk_name = "online_log_rotate"; 52 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  49. 49. Or use OAT53 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  50. 50. SQL admin API Examples Rotate a maximum of 52 /usr/informix/online.log files: – execute function task("file rotate", "/usr/informix/online.log",52); • When the database server rotates these files, the server deletes version 52 of the file. Version 51 becomes version 52, version 50 becomes version 51, and so on. The new online log becomes version 1. Truncate online.log: – execute function task("file truncate", "/usr/informix/online.log"); Delete online.log: – execute function task("file delete", "/usr/informix/online.log"); Display Status: – execute function task("file status", "/usr/informix/online.log"); (expression) File name = /usr/informix/online.log Is File = 1 Is Directory = 0 Is Raw Device = 0 Is Block Device = 0 Is Pipe = 0 File Size = 554 Last Access Time = 11/29/2010 21:55:02 Last Modified Time = 11/29/2010 21:51:45 Status Change Time = 11/29/2010 21:51:45 User Id = 200 Group id = 102 File Flags = 33206 54 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  51. 51. New built-in SQL compatibility functionsNew built-in SQL string manipulation functions. – Returns either a character string derived from an argument to the function, or an integer that describes a string argument: • CHARINDEX() Returns the location of a substring within a string • INSTR() Returns position of Nth occurrence of a substring within a string • LEFT() Returns the leftmost N characters of a string • LEN() Synonym for the LENGTH function • REVERSE() Reverses the order of characters in a source string • RIGHT() Returns the N rightmost characters from a source string • SPACE() Returns a string of N blank characters • SUBSTRING_INDEX() Returns a substring that includes the Nth occurrence of a delimiterBuilt-in trigonometric support functions. – Converts the units of angular measurement of a numeric expression argument from radians into degrees, or from degrees into radians: • DEGREES() Converts units of radians to degrees • RADIANS() Converts units of degrees to radiansCan simplify the migration to the Informix database server of applicationsdeveloped for other database servers.55 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  52. 52. ILogin Demo 56 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  53. 53. Client SDK includes ConnectTest utility The ConnectTest utility is included in Client SDK, Version 3.70.xC3. The utility is installed with Client SDK or Informix Connect on the Windows 32-bit and 64- bit platforms. The ConnectTest utility is a user interface that can execute SQL queries and display the resulting data of the executed SQL query. Located in C:Informixbin 57 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  54. 54. DB-Access included with Client-SDK Client SDK includes the DB-Access utility! Users now have an IBM supported server command line utility on the client side. – The DB-Access utility is included in IBM Informix Client Software Development Kit (Client SDK), version 3.70.xC3 – The utility is installed with Client SDK or IBM Informix Connect only on platforms that support IBM Informix 11.70. 58 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  55. 55. Non-root installations with SHM and pipes Non-root installations support shared-memory and stream-pipe connections (for onipcshm and onipcstr) – Communication files directory option (cfd) – You can use the communication files directory option to store shared-memory or stream-pipe connection communication files in a new location. Specifying the communication files directory option for non-root installations of Informix is necessary if the server and client are in different locations, and increases system performance if the server and client are in the same location. – The cfd option can define an absolute path or a path relative to $INFORMIXDIR for storing communication files: • cfd=/location defines an absolute path • cfd=location defines a path relative to $INFORMIXDIR – The length of the cfd path is restricted to 70 bytes. Relative-path byte lengths include $INFORMIXDIR. – Non-root installations of Informix do not have permission to write to the /INFORMIXTMP directory, so shared-memory and stream-pipe connection communication files are written to the $INFORMIXDIR/etc directory if no communication files directory has been specified as an option in the sqlhosts file. 59 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  56. 56. Grid & ER Automatically connecting to a grid – You can connect to a grid automatically by including the ifx_grid_connect() procedure as part of the sysdbopen() procedure. Set the value of the ER_enable option of the ifx_grid_connect() procedure to 2 or 3 to suppress errors that would prevent the session from accessing the database. CREATE PROCEDURE public.sysdbopen() SET ISOLATION TO REPEATABLE READ; SET ENVIRONMENT OPTCOMPIND 1; EXECUTE PROCEDURE ifx_grid_connect(grid1, 3); END PROCEDURE; • ER_enable: – 0 = Default. Replication is disabled. – 1 = Replication is enabled. – 2 = Replication is disabled and errors are suppressed. – 3 = Replication is enabled and errors are suppressed Code set conversion for Enterprise Replication (ER) – ER supports replication between database servers that use different code sets. • You can convert servers to the Unicode code set with minimal application downtime, convert servers from one code set to another, and replicate data between servers in different locales. • You can enable replication between code sets by using the UTF8 option when creating the replicate definition. 60 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  57. 57. Enhancements to the Replication plug-in for OAT Define one Connection Manager for multiple connection units. – You can define a Connection Manager to manage client connection requests for a combination of clusters, grids, replication sets, and server sets on the Replication > Connection Manager pages. – You can • add connection units to a Connection Manager • start and stop a Connection Manager • create service level agreements (SLAs). Replicate among multiple code sets. – You can specify that replication can occur between code sets when you create a template or a replicate on the Replication > Replicates pages. • The character columns are converted to UTF-8 when a row is copied into the transmission queue. • When the replicated row is applied on the target server, the data is converted from UTF-8 to the code set of the target server. 61 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  58. 58. Audit log files Retaining numbers for audit log files Audit log file numbers are no longer reused if the database server restarts after audit log files are removed. The adtlog.server file in the $INFORMIXDIR/aaodir directory maintains the number of the most recent audit log file. The adtlog.server file saves system resources whenever the database server restarts because the database server no longer checks each audit log file number before assigning a number to the new log file.62 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  59. 59. Mapped Users Restrict operating system properties for mapped users The operating system administrator can now use the /etc/informix/allowed.surrogates file to control which operating system users and groups can act as surrogates for mapped users. – The improved control makes root installations of Informix more secure by preventing the database security administrator from specifying surrogates that could compromise operating system security. 63 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  60. 60. Simplified handling of time series data• Managing time series data with the Informix TimeSeries data type is easier than in previous releases:• Storing time series data: • Containers for time series data are created automatically in the same dbspaces that the table uses. Container and TimeSeries subtype names can be up to 128 bytes long. Time series tables and containers can use non-default page sizes.• Creating a time series: • You can use predefined calendars for a time series. You can experiment with time series data in the stores_demo database.• Using time series data: • You can create virtual tables based on the results of a time series expression, and you can use standard virtual tables to easily update data. You can also output time series data in XML format with the TSToXML function.• Deleting time series data: • You can quickly delete large quantities of time series data. 64 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  61. 61. Informix TimeSeries plug-in for OAT • With the TimeSeries plug-in, you can monitor the database objects related to your time series: • View the TimeSeries subtypes, containers, and calendars that are used for the time series data in a database. • View the tables and indexes that contain TimeSeries subtypes. • View the virtual tables that are based on tables that contain TimeSeries subtypes. • Monitor the percentage of the space that is used in the containers and in the dbspaces for the containers. • You can also create and drop containers, calendars, and virtual tables. 65 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  62. 62. Informix Warehouse Accelerator v1.1 Create data mart definitions automatically When you have a large number of tables for data warehousing, you can use query probing to create the data mart definitions automatically. You use stored procedures and functions to analyze your database schema and warehouse queries and determine which tables to include in a data mart definition. A file is created, in XML format, with the data mart definition. You can then import this file into the administration interface to proceed with deploying and loading the data mart. Additional locales supported Previously Informix Warehouse Accelerator supported only the default locale en_us.8859-1. Additional locales are now supported. For the Nordic countries, I found these: sv_se.8859-1 sv_se.8859-15 sv_se.utf8 sv_se.PC-Latin-1 sv_se.CP1252 sv_se.CP1252@euro fi_fi.8859-1 fi_fi.8859-15 fi_fi.utf8 fi_fi.PC-Latin-1 fi_fi.858 fi_fi.CP1252 fi_fi.CP1252@euro da_dk.8859-1 da_dk.8859-15 da_dk.utf8 da_dk.PC- Latin-1 da_dk.858 da_dk.CP1252 da_dk.CP1252@euro no_no.8859-1 no_no.8859-15 no_no.utf8 no_no.PC-Latin-1 no_no.CP1252 no_no.CP1252@euro 66 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  63. 63. 11.70.xC4 - 25th October 2011 Administration – Enhancements to the OpenAdmin Tool (OAT) – Enhancements to the Replication Plug-in for OAT – Informix Health Advisor Plug-in for OAT – Dynamically change additional configuration parameters – Compare date and interval values – Plan responses to high severity event alarms – Data sampling for update statistics operations – SQL admin API command arguments for creating sbspaces – Monitor client program database usage – Progress of compression operations High availability and Enterprise Replication – Easier setup of faster consistency checking – Handle Connection Manager event alarms – Easier startup of Connection Manager – Prevent failover if the primary server is active – Configure secure connections for replication servers Security – Global Security Kit (GSKit) support – Use a file to authenticate server connections in a secured network environment Time Series data – TimeSeries Plug-in for Data Studio – Delete a range of elements and free empty pages from a time series – Aggregate time series data across multiple rows 67 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  64. 64. OAT News Install OpenAdmin Tool (OAT) for Informix when you install Informix Client SDK. – When you install the Client SDK, or when you install the Informix software bundle and select Client SDK or Informix Connect, you can install OAT. This option is available on Windows 32-bit, Linux 32-bit and 64-bit, and MAC OS 64-bit operating systems. Previously, OAT was available only as a separate download package. Add and manage users without operating system accounts (UNIX, Linux). – You can add internally authenticated users and users who do not have accounts on the host operating system on the Server Administration > User Privileges > Internal Users page. – You can specify whether the users can access the database server and whether they can have administrative privileges. – These actions require Informix 11.70. 68 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  65. 65. Informix Health Advisor Plug-in for OAT Analyzes the state of Informix database servers. – The Health Advisor plug-in contains a series of alarms that check conditions on the database server, including configuration, operating system, performance, storage, and Enterprise Replication. The Health Advisor plug-in creates a report of the results and recommendations and sends the report by email to the specified recipients. With the Health Advisor plug-in, you can: – Create profiles that specify the alarms that are enabled and the thresholds for the alarms. – Schedule tasks to run the Health Advisor with specific profiles at regular intervals. – Specify who receives an email notification of the results. – Run a check on demand with the current profile and view the report. 69 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  66. 66. Enhancements to the Replication Plug-in for OAT Administer Enterprise Replication, the Connection Manager, and grids for multibyte database locales. – You can view data in any database locale that Informix database servers support when you are using the Replication plug-in, including the Enterprise Replication, Connection Manager, and Grid pages. – For example, you can access a database that has an Italian or a Japanese locale. – Previously, the OAT pages supported non-English locales, but the Replication plug-in did not. – Support for multibyte database locales in the Replication plug-in requires Informix 11.70.xC4.70 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  67. 67. Dynamically change additional configurationparameters In past releases you could dynamically change some configuration parameters with the onmode -wf or onmode -wm commands. As of this fix pack, you can use those commands to dynamically change these additional configurations parameters: – ALARMPROGRAM, AUTO_REPREPARE, BLOCKTIMEOUT, CKPTINTVL, DBSPACETEMP, DEADLOCK_TIMEOUT, DEF_TABLE_LOCKMODE, DIRECTIVES, DRINTERVAL, DRTIMEOUT, FILLFACTOR, LOGSIZE, LTAPEBLK, LTAPEDEV, LTAPESIZE, MSGPATH, ONDBSPACEDOWN, OPTCOMPIND, RA_PAGES, SHMADD, STACKSIZE, SYSALARMPROGRAM, TAPEBLK, TAPEDEV, TAPESIZE, TBLTBLFIRST, TBLTBLNEXT, TXTIMEOUT, and WSTATS. 71 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  69. 69. Datablade API - date/interval comparison Compare date and interval values – You can compare the values of two DATETIME data types or the values of two INTERVAL data types to determine if the first value is before, after, or the same as the second value. mi_integer mi_interval_compare( – mi_interval *inv1, – mi_interval *inv2, – mi_integer *result) mi_integer mi_datetime_compare( – mi_datetime *dtime1, – mi_datetime *dtime2, – mi_integer *result) 73 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  70. 70. Plan responses to high severity event alarms Using ALARMPROGRAM to Capture Events – On UNIX, use the and on Windows, use the alarmprogram.bat shell script, for handling event alarms and starting automatic log backups. – You can now plan responses to severity 4 and 5 event alarms based on the documented explanations and user actions. Severity 4 example: Class ID:1 Event ID: 1009 Class message:Table failure: dbname:"owner".tabname Specific message: Page Check Error in object The database server detected inconsistencies while checking a page that was being read into internal buffers. Online log: Assertion failure or assertion warning with a description of the problem. Server state: Online or offline, depending on how serious the problem is. User action: Follow the suggestions in the online log. Typically, run the oncheck -cD command on the table mentioned in the class message or on the database. Severity 5 example: Class ID:6 Event ID: 6041 Class message:Internal subsystem failure: message Specific message: An internal error was detected by the Buffer Manager in the database server. The database server buffer manager encountered an internal error and either shut down or corrected the problem. Online log: Assertion warning or an assertion failure with a description of the operation being performed at the time of the error. Typically, an assertion warning shows that the error was internally corrected. Server State: Offline if the error was unrecoverable. Online if the error was corrected. User action: If the error was unrecoverable, start the database server and try the operation again. If the operation fails again, note all circumstances and contact IBM Software Support. No action is required if the error was internally corrected by the database server. 74 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  71. 71. SQL administration API command arguments for creatingsbspaces Three SQL administration API command arguments were added: – create tempsbspace : creates temporary sbspace that has a size of 20 MB with an offset of 0: EXECUTE FUNCTION task ("create tempsbspace","tempsbspace3", "$INFORMIXDIR/WORK/tempsbspace3","20 M","0"); – create sbspace with log: creates sbspace that have transaction logging turned on that has a size of 20 MB with an offset of 0: EXECUTE FUNCTION task ("create sbspace with log","sbspace2", "$INFORMIXDIR/WORK/sbspace2","20 M","0"); – create sbspace with accesstime: creates sbspaces that track the time of access for all smart large objects stored in the sbspace: EXECUTE FUNCTION task ("create sbspace with accesstime","sbspace4", "$INFORMIXDIR/WORK/sbspace4","20 M","0"); 75 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  72. 72. Performance of Update Statistics low Previously, updating statistics for an index in the Low mode requires a complete index traversal to gather the necessary statistics such as number of pages, number of unique keys, degree of clustering of data, etc, for the optimizer to generate accurate query plans. – For very large indexes this can take a significant amount of time. This feature will use sampling resulting in significantly reducing the amount of data and time required to generate the statistics, thus improving performance. – Has little to no impact to the accuracy of optimizer parameters Currently a 1 billion row table with 8 indexes takes 63 hrs to generate the necessary statistics, and a 1.4 billion row table with 4 indexes took about 27 hrs. This new feature will bring the time taken down to few minutes each! 76 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  73. 73. Data sampling for update statistics If you have a large index with more than 100 000 leaf pages, you can generate index statistics based on sampling when you run UPDATE STATISTICS statements in LOW mode. – Gathering index statistics from sampled data can increase the speed of the update statistics operations. To enable sampling, set the USTLOW_SAMPLE configuration parameter or the USTLOW_SAMPLE option of the SET ENVIRONMENT statement or use onmode –wm/wf. Range of values – 0 = disable sampling (default!) – 1 = enable sampling77 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  74. 74. Monitoring – path of client Monitor client program database usage – You can use the onstat -g ses sessionid command to display the full path of the client program that is used in your session. $ onstat -g ses 53 session effective #RSAM total used dynamic id user user tty pid hostname threads memory memory explain 53 informix - 36 18638 apollo11 1 73728 63048 off Program : /usr/informix/bin/dbaccess tid name rstcb flags curstk status 77 sqlexec 4636ba20 Y--P--- 4240 cond wait sm_read - Memory pools count 1 name class addr totalsize freesize #allocfrag #freefrag 53 V 4841d040 73728 10680 84 6... 78 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  75. 75. Monitoring – progress of compression Enhanced output of onstat -g dsk – “Approx Prog” and ”Approx Remaining” added. # output for a compress operation $ onstat -g dsk Rows Approx Approx Partnum OP Processed Cur Page Prog Duration Remaining Table 0x00100196 COMPRESS 63253 3515 75% 00:00:03 00:00:01 footab # output for a repack operation $ onstat -g dsk Rows Approx Approx Partnum OP Processed Cur Page Prog Duration Remaining Table 0x00100196 REPACK 22900 4285 28% 00:00:01 00:00:02 footab OP Compression operation, such as compress, repack, or shrink. Processed Number of rows processed so far for the specified operation Curr Page The current page number that the server is operating on now Approx Prog Percentage of the total operation that has completed Duration The number of seconds that have elapsed since the operation started Approx Remaining The approximate time that remains before the operation is complete 79 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  76. 76. Faster consistency checking Easier setup of faster consistency checking – When you increase the speed of consistency checking by creating an index on the ifx_replcheck shadow column, you no longer need to include the conflict resolution shadow columns in the replicated table. In the CREATE TABLE statement, the WITH REPLCHECK keywords do not require the WITH CRCOLS keywords. – To index the ifx_replcheck shadow column, create a unique index based on the existing primary key columns and the ifx_replcheck column. – For example, the following statement creates an index on a table named customer on the primary key column id and ifx_replcheck: CREATE UNIQUE INDEX customer_index ON customer(id, ifx_replcheck); 80 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  77. 77. Prevent SDS failover if the primary server is active Use the SDS_LOGCHECK parameter to determine whether the primary server is generating log activity and to allow or prevent failover of the primary server – If your system has I/O fencing configured, and if an SD secondary server becomes a primary server, the I/O fencing script must prevent the failed primary server from updating any of the shared disks. If the system does not have I/O fencing configured, the SDS_LOGCHECK configuration parameter prevents the occurrence of multiple primary servers by not failing over to the SD secondary server if the original primary server is generating log records. – For example, if the SDS_LOGCHECK parameter is set to 10, and the primary server fails, the SD secondary server waits up to 10 seconds to either detect that the primary server is generating log records (in which case failover is prevented), or the SD secondary server detects that the primary is not generating log records and failover occurs Settings: 0 = Do not detect log activity; allow failover. n = Wait up to n seconds. If log activity is detected from the primary server, failover is prevented; otherwise, failover is allowed. 81 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  78. 78. Connection Manager enhancements Easier startup of Connection Manager – If you set the CMCONFIG environment variable to the path and file name of the Connection Manager configuration file, you can start, stop, and restart the Connection Manager without specifying the configuration file. – The configuration file specifies service level agreements and other Connection Manager configuration options. • If the CMCONFIG environment variable is not set and the configuration file name is not specified on the oncmsm utility command line, the Connection Manager attempts to load the file from the following path and file name: $INFORMIXDIR/etc/cmsm.cfg Handle Connection Manager event alarms – You can use the values of the INFORMIXCMNAME and INFORMIXCMCONUNITNAME environment variables when writing an alarm handler for the Connection Manager. If the Connection Manager raises an event alarm, the Connection Manager instance name is stored in the INFORMIXCMNAME environment variable, and the Connection Manager connection unit name is stored in the INFORMIXCMCONUNITNAME environment variable. • automatically created and set by the Connection Manager and you must not set or modify them. 82 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  79. 79. Security - secure connections for replication Configure secure connections for replication servers – You can use the connection security option in the sqlhosts file and create an encrypted password file so that the Connection Manager and the CDR (ER) utility can securely connect to networked servers. Use the onpassword utility to encrypt or decrypt a password file. – The input file is an ASCII text file with the following structure: • Server_or_group AlternateServer UserName Password – The file contains the server names, user names, and passwords that must be specified in order to connect to the appropriate server. AlternateServer specifies the name of an alternate server to connect with in case the connection cannot be made to ServerName. – To encrypt a file named passwords.txt by using a key named EncryptKey and place the encrypted file in $INFORMIXDIR/etc/passwd_file: • onpassword -k EncryptKey -e ./passwords.txt 83 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  80. 80. Security – S6_REMOTE_SERVER_CFG Use a file to authenticate server connections in a secured network environment – You can use the S6_USE_REMOTE_SERVER_CFG parameter with the REMOTE_SERVER_CFG parameter to specify the file that is used to authenticate connections in a secured network environment. range of values 0 = The $INFORMIXDIR/etc/hosts.equiv file is used to authenticate servers connecting through a secure port. 1 = The file specified by the REMOTE_SERVER_CFG configuration parameter is used to authenticate servers connecting through a secure port• The file specified by the REMOTE_SERVER_CFG configuration parameter must be located in $INFORMIXDIR/etc. If the configuration parameter is set, then the specified file is used instead of the $INFORMIXDIR/etc/hosts.equiv file. 84 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  81. 81. Security - GSKIT_VERSIONGlobal Security Kit (GSKit) support – The GSKit is used by the database server for encryption and SSL communication. – GSKit version 8 is installed with Informix® 11.70 and IBM Client Software Development Kit (Client SDK) version 3.70. GSKit 8 is used by default; however, if you have another supported, major version of GSKit software installed on your computer, you can set the GSKIT_VERSION parameter so that the database server uses the other version. – GSKit 8 includes the GSKCapiCmd command-line interface for managing keys, certificates, and certificate requests. – The iKeyman utility and GSKCmd command-line interface can also be used to manage keys, certificates, and certificate requests, but are a part of IBM JRE 1.6 or later, instead of GSKit 8. 85 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  82. 82. Time series IBM Informix TimeSeries Plug-in for Data Studio – You can easily load data from an input file into an Informix table with a TimeSeries column by using IBM Informix TimeSeries Plug-in for Data Studio. You can also use the plug-in with IBM Optim(TM) Developer Studio. Delete a range of elements and free empty pages from a time series – You can delete elements in a time series from a specified time range and free any resulting empty pages by using the DelRange function. The DelRange function is similar to the DelTrim function; however, unlike the DelTrim function, the DelRange function frees pages in any part of the range of deleted elements. You can free empty pages that have only null elements from a time series for a specified time range or throughout the time series by using the NullCleanup function. 86 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  83. 83. Time series Aggregate time series data across multiple rows – You can use a single TimeSeries function, TSRollup, to aggregate time series values by time for multiple rows in the table and return a time series that contains the results. Previously, you could aggregate time series values only for each row individually. – For example, if you have a table that contains information about energy consumption for the meters attached to a specific energy concentrator, you can aggregate the values for all the meters and sum the values for specific time intervals to get a single total for each interval. The resulting time series represents the total energy consumption for each time interval for that energy concentrator. 87 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  84. 84. Informix Growth Warehouse Edition IBM Informix Growth Warehouse Edition: – IBM Informix Growth Edition – IBM Informix Warehouse Accelerator IBM Informix Growth Warehouse Edition V11.7 provides: – Faster query response times on unpredictable and long-running query workloads – Help in lowering operating costs by reducing database tuning efforts – Improved performance on analytical queries compared to your existing Informix environment – The ability to run mixed workloads IBM Informix Growth Warehouse Edition can be deployed on a physical server that has 16 cores or less. IWA can be configured for a maximum of 48 gigabytes of memory. IWA component compresses data in memory and can, therefore, potentially hold up to 250 gigabytes of raw table data. 88 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  85. 85. Install Informix Warehouse Accelerator on acluster system You can now install IWA on a cluster system. Using a cluster for IWA takes advantage of the parallel processing power of multiple cluster nodes. The accelerator coordinator node and each worker node can run on a different cluster node. IWA software and data are shared in the cluster file system. You can administer IWA from any node in the cluster 89 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  86. 86. Refresh data mart data during queryacceleration You can now refresh data in IWA while queries are accelerated. – You no longer need to suspend query acceleration in order to drop and re-create the original data mart. 1. Using the existing administrator tools, you create a new data mart that has the same data mart definition as the original data mart, but has a different name. 2. You can then load the new data mart while query acceleration still uses the original data mart. 3. After the new data mart is loaded, the accelerator automatically uses the new data mart with the latest data to accelerate queries.90 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  87. 87. IWA – ondwa / new functions / AQTs User informix can run the ondwa commands – The ondwa commands can now be run by user informix provided that the shell limits are set correctly. root was needed previously. Support for new functions is implemented – DECODE – NVL – TRUNC New options for monitoring AQTs (accelerated query tables) – New columns have been added to the output of the onstat -g aqt command that include counters for candidate AQTs. 91 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  88. 88. JDBC 4.1 compliance Support for metadata functions for JDBC 4.1 compliance for the JCC data driver – In DB2 ver 9.7.fp5 JCC plans to support the JDBC 4.1 specifications. According to the specifications, there is additional column level metadata information that is needed from the server side. On the Informix side this epic is intended to address all such metadata changes for JCC. All internal C/R related changes were already done during the 11.70xC3 time frame. 92 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  89. 89. 11.70.xC5 – eGA May 24 - 2012 Administration – Plan responses to medium-severity and low-severity event alarms – IFX_BATCHEDREAD_INDEX environment option – Reserve space for BYTE and TEXT data in round-robin fragments. Application development – Improvement to the keyword analyzer for basic text searching – Increased SQL statement length – Enhanced query performance – The Change Data Capture API sample program Enterprise Replication – Replication errors on leaf nodes Global language support – Scan strings with the ifx_gl_complen() function Time Series: – Count the time-series elements that match expression criteria – Remove old time-series data from containers – New operators for aggregating across time-series values Informix Warehouse Accelerator – Refresh data quickly without reloading the whole data mart – Use high-availability secondary servers to accelerate queries – New options added for the use_dwa environment variable – Support for new functions is implemented – Support for the Solaris Intel x64 operating system added 95 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  90. 90. Plan responses Plan responses to medium-severity and low-severity event alarms – You can plan responses to severity 3, 2, and 1 event alarms for alarms with documented explanations and user actions. 96 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  91. 91. IFX_BATCHEDREAD_INDEX environment Onconfig setting BATCHEDREAD_INDEX was introduced in 11.70.xC1 to control whether the optimizer automatically fetches a set of keys from an index buffer for a session. Use the IFX_BATCHEDREAD_INDEX environment option of the SET ENVIRONMENT statement to enable/disable it for a specific session. Specify: – 1 to enable the optimizer to automatically fetch a set of keys from an index buffer – 0 to disable the automatic fetching of keys from an index buffer Example: – SET ENVIRONMENT IFX_BATCHEDREAD_INDEX 1; 97 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  92. 92. Improvement to the keyword analyzer forbasic text searching (BTS) You can specify that the keyword analyzer removes trailing white spaces from input text and queries so that you do not need to specify the exact number of white spaces to query words in variable-length data types. – Add the .rt suffix to the keyword analyzer name when you create the bts index. White spaces are indexed. Queries for text that includes white spaces must escape each white space by a backslash () character. If the analyzer name is keyword.rt, BTS removes trailing white spaces during indexing and querying. 98 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  93. 93. Increased SQL statement length Previously, SQL statements and SPL routines were restricted to 64 KB in length. – Automated query generation program, such as Cognos, generates large statements (with multiple nested derived tables) and has run into the 64KB limit. The maximum length of SQL statements and is now 4 GB! The only exception is the length of the CREATE VIEW statement, which is restricted to 2 MB in length. The extended length is valid when using Client SDK 3.70.xC5 and JDBC 3.70.xC5. 99 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  94. 94. Enhanced query performance When a SELECT statement is sent from a Java program to an Informix database, the returned rows, or tuples, are stored in a tuple buffer in Informix JDBC Driver. The default size of the tuple buffer is the larger of the returned tuple size or 4096 bytes. You can now set the maximum size of the fetch buffer to 2 GB to increase query performance and to reduce network traffic. setenv FET_BUF_SIZE bytes The greater the size of the buffer, the more rows can be returned, and the less frequently the client application must wait while the database server returns rows. A large buffer can improve performance by reducing the overhead of filling the client-side buffer. Max was previously 32767, now it is 2147483648 bytes. 100 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  95. 95. The Change Data Capture (CDC) API sampleprogram The Change Data Capture API sample program,, is included in the INFORMIXDIR/demo/cdc directory. In previous releases, you had to copy the program from the documentation. 101 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  96. 96. Replication errors on leaf nodes Because leaf servers have limited information about other replication servers, the syscdrerror tables on leaf nodes no longer contain replication errors for other replication servers. 102 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  97. 97. Scan strings with the ifx_gl_complen()function The ifx_gl_complen() function scans input strings faster than using the ifx_gl_mblen() function alone. The ifx_gl_complen() function returns the length in bytes of the initial part of an input string that matches a collating element, or returns 0 if the initial part of the string is not a collation sequence. #include <gls.h> int ifx_gl_complen(gl_lc_t lc, gl_mchar_t *input) 103 © 2012 IBM Corporation
  98. 98. PN_STAGEBLOB_THRESHOLD Use the PN_STAGEBLOB_THRESHOLD configuration parameter to reserve space for BYTE and TEXT data in round-robin fragments. Set this configuration parameter to the typical or average size of the BYTE or TEXT data that is stored in the table. When a table reaches the maximum number of pages for a fragment, more pages can be added to the table by adding a new fragment. However, if a table contains BYTE or TEXT columns and that table is fragmented by the round-robin distribution scheme, adding a new fragment does not automatically enable new rows to be inserted into the new fragment. PN_STAGEBLOB_THRESHOLD 0 # default range of values 0 to 1000000 units Kilobytes 104 © 2012 IBM Corporation