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  • 1. ®Enterprise Architecturepo meri vašeg preduzećaSrdjan KneževićSoftware Client Architect
  • 2. Agenda What is Enterprise Architecture Why, when and how to introduce EA Links between EA and Solution Architecture Rational System Architect as the EA tool 2
  • 3. What is Enterprise Architecture? IBM: “The Enterprise Architecture discipline defines and maintains the architecture models, governance, and transition initiatives needed to effectively co-ordinate semi-autonomous groups towards common business and/or IT goals” 1 Gartner: “Enterprise architecture is the process of translating business vision and strategy into effective enterprise change by creating, communicating and improving the key principles and models that describe the enterprises future state and enable its evolution.” 2 Similar definitions, consistent intent 1. Enterprise Architecture in the era of On-Demand, IBM Academy of Technology Study, October 2004 2. Short form, Gartner Defines the term ‘Enterprise Architecture’, Anne Lapkin, Gartner, July 12, 2006 3
  • 4. EA as the “planning” function between strategy formulation anddelivery… Enterprise Strategy Strategy Business Bus Strategy IT Strategy Technology Opportunity Availability = “the city’s purpose & goals” Strategy Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Transition Architecture Infrastructure Initiatives Competency C entre Initiatives Outsou rcin g Initiatives Enterprise wide Ele ctron ic NET W ORK Service D elivery Int er- com pan y W AN (im ple.) O utso urce net w ork Plan ning/Desig n Initiatives m a a m n n g e t p rt n O e io s R e g s n re o o ip a e c n e d p rt l b ro m G r p ic lIS a h a a C lm a g e t n e n m e n C p ity P rfa d a c m a a m n n g e t e M a a m n n g e t C e ig f n o . g o ro le L P b m n ly e b m A a s ro le p Dat a W arehou se o u D c me t a n g me t n M a e n D a a t B y s a /o fix a p d n r s a p b m E c te ro le l Wa r o s h e u e u t m r C s o e S e icv r e p a c s e U d e u m r t to . . B U M id d w a le e r B .U . I n a e M il in a tr c u tr n t/ a fr s u t r e ia n e ro m D g s p le o b W A i n a tr c r N fr s u tu e e o e b m R s v ro le l p M a a m n n g e t e p rt n O e io s y t m S s e s Ma a e e n n g m t C h g n a e Planning U p a c to e d te u m r s M a a m n n g e t e C lo e o e s p b m r l G ro up IT Inf rastru cture En d User O ut sou rce New Archit ecture Desig n & In frast ru ctu re C ore system s Def initi on Plann ing U pgrad e Cus tom er Service Cent re In itiat ives fo cused on m igrat ing t o t he n ew d elivery environ men t O ut sou rce P anni ng/Desig n l H elpd esk and Infrastructu re D eskto p Ot her Outsourcin g Bus in ess Un it Establi sh IT In itiat ives fo cused on Systems = “the city plan” Com pet ency Kiosk s im plem ent ing t he visio n Cent re P anni ng/desig n l Key Group Decision Telemetr y sy stems IT Co m ete ncy cen tre p Points etc focus Bus Arch’ture IT Architecture Fire and Planning Com ponent Scheduling Cash Shi pping Yarn Buyi ng Order Entry Management Accounting Com ponent I nventory Assortm ent P lanning Com ponent Knitting Tagging & P acking Knits Division Yankee Group Yarn Division AEI Corporate Saturn Group hope! Design Yarn Dyei ng Raleigh Seneca Plant Plant Business Business Locations Structure Architecture Governance Business Operating Environment System Design Program and IT Infrastructure = “the buildings” Design focus C ompet ency Centr e Initiatives Infr astructu re Initiatives O utsou rcing Initiatives Programme Architecture N ET WO RK El e tro n i c c Se rv c e De l i v ry i e I n te -c m p e n y W AN (i m l a ) r o p . Ou ts u rc e o n two rk e Plan ning/D esig n Initiatives Operamng tionsem Reco problemgnisa drepot rap G hicalI S Calmn agemnt P Conmagerfd fig.emntCapcy AnL alyseprogPb blem Da ta W a h o u e re s at D a c e n m o m a e t D u M g n t n Mang emnt Byp asnd /orfix Esc altepro blem .U B .U B . a W rehous e Intr anet/M ailnfm rastucevi ture usoid w C erS Diag nosepr blem Updat ecustom er ys A S W infraM strucg ren N s m te m e t Re solvepr blem OperatMng mentios and Upd atecus omer ChanMge gemnt C loseprb lem Gro u p I T I n fra tru c re s tu En d Us e r O u o u rc Ne w ts e Co re s s te s y m Arc h i e c tu De fi n ti o n re t i De s g n & i I n fra tru c tu s re Pl a n i n g n Up g ra ed Cu s m e to r Se i c Ce n e rv e tr I n i ti ti v s fo c u s d o n a e e m i g ti n g to th e n e ra w d e l v e l y e n / i ro n n e n i P an ni nv D esi m r g g t O u o u rc ts e He l p d s k a n d e I n r st r ct r e fa u u De s k p to Oth e nes r O u so t u r i g c n Es ta l i s I T b h B s u i s U i n t I n i ti ti v s fo c u s d o n a e e S s te y ms i m p e m n ti n esth e v i s o n l P l e ni ng/ g i n i Co m p te n y e c K o i s ks Key G roup Dec i s on i Ce n tre T le e me t y s r y s e t ms an d g Poi nts e c t I T C mp t e o e n cyc e t r e n Soln Outline Macro Design Micro Design Infr astructu re Initiatives O utsou rcing Initiatives Devt, etc. C ompet ency Centr e Initiatives Programme Architecture N ET WO RK El e tro n i c c Delivery Se rv c e De l i v ry i e I n te -c m p e n y W AN (i m l a ) r o p . Ou ts u rc e o n two rk e Plan ning/D esig n Initiatives Operamng tionsem Reco problemgnisa drepot rap G hicalI S Calmn agemnt P Conmagerfd fig.emntCapcy AnL alyseprogPb blem Da ta W a h o u e re s at D a c e n m o m a e t D u M g n t n Mang emnt Byp asnd /orfix Esc altepro blem .U B .U B . a W rehous e Intr anet/M ailnfm rastucevi ture usoid w C erS Diag nosepr blem Updat ecustom er ys A S W infraM strucg ren N s m te m e t Re solvepr blem OperatMng mentios Upd atecus omer ChanMge gemnt C loseprb lem Gro u p I T I n fra tru c re s tu En d Us e r O u o u rc Ne w ts e Arc h i e c tu Co re s s te s y m De fi n ti o n re t De s g n & i I n fra tru c tu s re i Pl a n i n g n Up g ra ed Cu s m e to r Se i c Ce n e rv e tr I n i ti ti v s fo c u s d o n a e e m i g ti n g to th e n e ra w d e l v e l y e n / i ro n n e n i P an ni nv D esi m r g g t O u o u rc ts e I n r st r ct r e fa u u He l p d s k a n d e De s k p to Oth e nes r O u so t u r i g c n Es ta l i s I T b h B s u i s U i n t I n i ti ti v s fo c u s d o n a e e S s te y ms Co m p te n y e c i m p e m n ti n esth e v i s o n l P l e ni ng/ g i n i K o i s ks Key G roup Dec i s on i Ce n tre T le e me t y s r y s e t ms an d g Poi nts e c t I T C mp t e o e n cyc e t r e n Soln Outline Macro Design Micro Design Devt, etc. Change Programs 4
  • 5. … with the intent of avoiding chaos… Even if an individual house is well architected, if each house is different (e.g. different electricity voltage, water pressure) then the city will not work… 5
  • 6. …so that Enterprise Architecture can be thought of asboth a link and a chain! Putting it bluntly… “Enterprise Architecture constrains the individual project, for the benefit of the Enterprise”“Freedom within the law [without which] We gain civil rights in return forthe life of man [would be] solitary, poor, accepting the obligation to respect andnasty, brutish and short.” defend the rights of others, giving up some freedoms to do so. Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 John Locke, 1632 - 1704 6
  • 7. Agenda What is Enterprise Architecture Why, when and how to introduce EA Links between EA and Solution Architecture Rational System Architect as the EA tool 7
  • 8. All EAs have a “framework” – a means of organising,managing and communicating the architecture Prelim: Framework and Principles TOGAF A Architecture Vision H B Architecture Business Change Architecture Management C G Implementation Information Governance Requirements System Architectures F FEAF Migration D Planning Technology E Architecture Opportunities and Solutions Strategy Information Business Business Opportunity Technology Technology Strategy Availability Strategy Enterprise wide focus Enterprise Architecture Business IT Architecture Architecture Planning - Processes - Applications - Information - Information - People - Technology - Locations Transition Plan Project focus Business Operating Environment and IT Infrastructure Design and Delivery EA3 IT Solutions IBM 8
  • 9. The EA environment consists of: Enterprise Architecture Elements Strategic Alignment - Explicit linkages to IT and Business Strategies in order to support and implement those strategiesStrategy Principles – Fundamental rules upon which the Enterprise Architecture is based Architecture Vision – Represents the governing ideas and directions for a target Enterprise Architecture Measurements - Measuring the EA benefits and return on investment to prove its value Framework – Structure of the EA, set of conventions for ensuring consistent notation, terminology and semantics to describe EAArtifacts Models / Patterns - Overall EA context, diagrams and views; Assemblies of Components for communications and guidance Components / Standards – Basic Architecture building blocks, defining reusable functionality or services Management Processes - Processes required to manage, use and update the Enterprise ArchitectureGovernance Roles – Key roles and responsibilities necessary to effectively manage and use the Enterprise Architecture Organization – Position and reporting structure of the EA Roles Current Environment - An understanding of the organizations current operating environmentRoadmap Gap Analysis - An assessment of the gaps between the Current installed IT environment, and the Target IT environment Transition Plan - Transition initiatives required to effect transformation from the Current state to the Target state 9
  • 10. TOGAF ADM Prelim: Framework and Principles A Architecture Vision H B Architecture Business Change Architecture Management C G Implementation Information Governance Requirements System Architectures F Migration D Planning Technology E Architecture Opportunities and Solutions 10
  • 11. EA helps visualize the organization in context Enterprise Strategies & Direction Projects & Business Processes & Services Orgs & Initiatives People Applications Data IT Infrastructure & Services With EA, you can see how the strategies, goals, components, and associated technologies are interrelated 11
  • 12. Enterprise Architecture in PracticeA Maturity QuestionCost Reduction Standardization Broaden Scope Actionable EAWhat do we have? Develop standards Meet business Develop business and recommended needs by linking IT strategyNeed all of it? best practices (e.g. to business Value propositions,Consolidate to technology stacks, Managing capabilities, reduce costs? server platforms) architectures resources?Desire for impact Seeking outside IT Refine into to-be analysis repeatability Increasing focus Encourage IT Compare to as-is on business evolution architecture and Create transition business plan Focusing on IT processes scope only Execute A range of EA goals & scope 12
  • 13. What are the benefits of EA? There is value from intangible things  Common vision & principles between the business and IT  Retention of Intellectual Property within an Organization  Promotes healthy discussion bringing issues and concern out in the open  Enhanced communications  Common language  Centralized information  Technology inventory  Abstract information for decision making  Increased knowledge base 13
  • 14. What are the benefits of EA? But there are also tangible benefits  Cost avoidance/reduction  Avoid purchase of incompatible architectures  Shortened development/deployment time  Leverage installed architecture  Reduce duplication and waste  Reduced support and maintenance costs  Reduce user support costs  Mitigate risk of project rework  Reduce learning cycle But the value proposition is how does EA support today’s real world business initiatives… 14
  • 15. Business Initiatives IT Planning Business Planning Application Landscape Rationalisation/ Application Portfolio Management Business Transformation Mergers and Acquisitions Outsourcing Governance, Compliance & Regulation Cost Reduction Standardization Broaden Scope Actionable EA  What do we have?  Develop standards and  Meet business needs by  Develop business strategy recommended best linking IT to business  Need all of it?  Value propositions, practices (e.g. technology  Managing architectures capabilities, resources?  Consolidate to reduce stacks, server platforms) outside IT costs?  Seeking repeatability  Refine into to-be  Increasing focus on  Desire for impact analysis  Encourage IT evolution  Compare to as-is business architecture and business processes  Create transition plan  Focusing on IT scope only  Execute Cost focus Value focus Value focus 15
  • 16. Agenda What is Enterprise Architecture Why, when and how to introduce EA Links between EA and Solution Architecture Rational System Architect as the EA tool 16
  • 17. From EA to Solutions Purpose, objective, vision, etc. Enterprise Transition Governance Architecture Planning Are we still Are our target Models moving in the architectures still right direction? right? Building blocks, rules, patterns,These are the constraints things we Are we doing these should do Are we consistently things the way we said viewing and reporting on we want them done? product architectures? This is the way things should be Project architected Prioritization Projects Project & Planning Project 17
  • 18. Business Transformation Merger & Acquisition Design & Development Strategic Outsourcing Business Process Management Modernisation Package ImplementationIT Planning Intent Custom Application DevelopmentBusiness PlanningOutsourcing Project Smart Scoping External Design Internal Design Build Cycle Deployment Project StrategyPrioritisation & planning Risk Reduction Smart Balance TCO with TCA Design, Compliance & Governance Dev’t, Del’y Smart Planning Enterprise’s EA helps you do EA helps you do the right things Architecture things right 18
  • 19. Enterprise Architecture vs. Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture is the formal organization (design or layout) of the components, structures and processes required or relevant to the attainment of the goals and visions invested or envisioned in an enterprise. Enterprise Architecture Solution architecture aims to address specific problems and requirements, usually through the design of specific information systems or applications. 19
  • 20. Agenda What is Enterprise Architecture Why, when and how to introduce EA Links between EA and Solution Architecture Rational System Architect as the EA tool 20
  • 21. Rational System Architect System Architect is a graphical analysis tool with an integrated repository to support the modelling of organisations from Strategic Objectives through Business Process and Data to IT Systems and underlying infrastructure. The key concept is of create once, reuse many to provide the single version of the truth. This allows a true understanding of impact across the whole enterprise. Communication and collaboration between the wider architecture stakeholders through online access, auto-generation of Busine reports and flexible analysis tools. ss Visualise change, identify gaps, simulate what-ifs and append analytics. 21
  • 22. WhatSupports Complete Architecture Frameworks Citizen Perception 6 Reduce Fear of Crime 1 Record High Levels of Citizen Satisfaction With Police Service 3 Record High Levels of Citizen Hardware ModelsModels & Application Data & ABBs Conceptual & Logical Models & & ABBs Organisation Models ABBs Perception Quality of Life ABBs  Crime Investigation & Reduction Technology Reference Models User Models & ABBs Business Structure & ABBs Strategy & Direction 4 Reduce Overall Level 18 Meet Government Objectives 15 Support for Physical Data Models & ABBs Victims & Witnesses FunctionalMaps & ABBs Strategy of Crime Models 5 Narrow the Justice Gap Promoting Safety and Security 7 Increase Feeling of Public Safety 8 Increase Availabilty of Police Officers on 12 Reduce Risk of Injury and Litigation Enterprise Direction Process Models & ABBs Diagrams Operational Duties 14 Protect Vulnerable Citizens Use of Resources Business Architecture Information Architecture 9 Promote Ethnic Representation 10 Reduce Levels of Sickness & Retirement 11 Promote Cross Constabulary Collaboration 13 Reduce Administrative Bureaucracy 16 Information Sharing 17 Accountability Application Architecture Technology ArchitectureThis does not represent any specific framework For Example 22
  • 23. WhatSupports Complete Architecture Frameworks Strategy & Direction Business Objective Achieve Higher Add Conference Earn 5-Star Rating Host 12 Objects linked across Sales Facilities to Hotels from hotels.com Conferences and in 6 Largest bySept 1, 2006 Seminars per Markets by Sept 1, yearin 6 Largest Type: Business Objective 2008 Type: Business Objective Type: Business Objective Markets bySept 1, Type: Business Objective 2008 Increase Number of Increase Number of Increase Increase domains Reservations to Return Guests to Occupancy Rate to Vacationers by 10% 1000 a day by July 60 percent by June 80 percent by July Per Year 1, 2006 1, 2006 1, 2006 Type: Business Objective Type: Business Objective Type: Business Objective Type: Business Objective Number of Reduce # of Complaints Employees Leaving received in2Q 2006 Company with Should Be 20 rating over 4 by Jan percent lessthan Type: Business Objective 1, 2006 Type: Business Objective 2Q 2004 Business Architecture Information Architecture BPMN Process Accept Payment De tails Advis e Customer Ca lculate Ro om Price C heck Ava ilability of Family Room Che ck Availab ility of Standard Room Check Cr edit Details Entity Type: BPMN Process Ty pe: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pro cess Type: BPMN Proce ss Type: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pr ocess Customer Guest Overseas Customer Ch eck Check R oom Check Cu stomer Custo mer Custome r Rese rvation De tails Availab ility Tra velers Cre dit Agrees to Terms Confirms Reserv ation R ejects Ter ms Type: Entity Type: Entity Type: Entity Type: BPMN Process Ty pe: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pro cess Type: BPMN Proce ss Type: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pr ocess Exa mine Mak e Ma ke Full Ro om No Notify Cu stomer N otify Custo mer Rese rvation Cancella tion R ate Charge of Credit Problem o f Inavailab ility D ate Char ge Property Receptionist Reservation Type: BPMN Process Ty pe: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pro cess Type: BPMN Proce ss Type: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pr ocess Type: Entity Type: Entity Type: Entity Notify Traveler OK Process_1 Prov ide Client Prov ide Provisiona lly of Cred it Problem with Custome r with Book Roo m Res ervation Reserv ation N umber Numb er Type: BPMN Process Ty pe: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pro cess Type: BPMN Proce ss Type: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pr ocess Shift Travel Agent UK Customer Releas e Room Reserve R oom Send Credit Send N otification Send Notification Store Customer Details to of Credit of Cre dit Details Agency Ap proval Rejec tion Type: BPMN Process Ty pe: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pro cess Type: BPMN Proce ss Type: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pr ocess Type: Entity Type: Entity Type: Entity Store Traveler Take Cus tomer Take Traveler Agrees Trave ler Traveler Owner De tails Details R eservation Details to Terms Rejects Terms Reques t Reservation Room Vehicle Type: BPMN Process Ty pe: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pro cess Type: BPMN Proce ss Type: BPMN Process Type : BPMN Pr ocess Type: Entity Type: Entity Type: Entity Application Architecture Application Credit Card Customer Hy perion Booking Maintenance Type: A pplication Ty pe: Application Type: Application Reservations SAP S iebel Type: A pplication Ty pe: Application Type: Application Technology Architecture Technology .NET EMail Fax Type: Type: Type: Technology Technology Technology Letter PC Terminal Type: Type: Type: Technology Technology Technology Windows 2000 Windows XP Type: Type: Technology Technology 23
  • 24. HowTailoring System Architect To Build An EA Select Frameworks BPMN Select Notations & Metamodels Hotel Reception Reservati on Reserved Room Send Confirmation To Customer System Provide Customer Agrees to Reserve Room Customer with Customise Notations, Metamodels and attributes Reserve Room Reservation Send Credit Number Confirm Details to Agency Notify Customer of Credit Rejection Notify Customer Customer and Payment Details of Credit Problem Payment OK Payment Not OK eTOM Business Process Framework Credit Accounts Credit OK? Yes - Credit OK Agency Level 0 View of Level 1 Processes Send CEO Level View Check Credit XOR Notification of Details Credit Approval Customer No - Credit Not OK Send Notification of Operations Credit Rejection  Simulation Strategy, Infrastructure & Product Operations Fulfillment Assurance Billing Strategy & Infrastructure Product Support & Commit Lifecycle Lifecycle CSC Catalyst Readiness Management Management Marketing & Offer Management Customer Relationship Management Sales Store Customer Details Notify Inavailability to Client Wait for Confirmation Room Not Available Type Service Development & Management Service Management & Operations  BPEL External Primary Resources Management Business Process Modelling Resource Development & Management Resource Management & Operations Check Room Availability Available Room Provisionally Book Room Type Internal Primary Reception Supply Chain Development & Management Supplier/Partner Relationship Management Process Reservation  BPMN Customer Requests Reservation Request (Process Map) Event Type System Architect Tue Aug 28, 2001 23:49 External Actual Comment Enterprise Management Strategic & Brand Management, Stakeholder & External Disaster Recovery, Enterprise Planning Market Research & Relations Management Security & Fraud Advertising Management Financial & Asset Management Human Resources Management Research & Development, Technology Enterprise Quality Management, Process & IT Planning & Architecture IDEF Make Cancellation Acquisition Charge Reservation Examine Period to Cancelled Accom Date Before Go to Level 1 View of 3.3 After Level 2 Processes 3.1 3.2 Make Percentage Release Room Inform Customer Room Rate X Change & 3 Manage Customer Payment Required 3.4 J2 3.6 3.8 Cancellation (IDEF3 Process Flow) System Architect Fri Feb 09, 2001 18:56 Make Full Room Inform Customers Inform Company Comment Rate Change Company You may use Simlation for this 3.5 3.7 3.9 process. 24
  • 25. TOGAF Meta-model 25
  • 26. Importing Building Blocks (Auto Discovery / Harvesting) Diagrams Industry Standard Models Visio Other tools CSV Network Objects CMDB and topologies System UML Models XMI Architect SAP Process & data Models Database Reverse Other Sources Engineer via macro Database Schema IBM Software Integrations 26
  • 27. HowAnalyse Relationships Tabular Reports Explorer Diagrams Internal Actor Transaction Processing Policy setting and business analytics External Actor Authorisations Transaction Management Card Scheme Settlement Payments Campaign Management Credit Risk Management Customer / Product Fraud Analytics & Control Heatmaps BEAMS IM / IM L9 L6 CAMServer- UKC Account Services CID Chordiant (CCCD) Clear Comm erce Debt Manager BIW Analytics Falcon-UKC (TSYS) Fraud Referrals Hunter I FCPS UK Cards (Application Landscape) System Architect Wed A 16, 2006 16:00 ug Comment Comms/XL Epay Falcon-UKC Access (Bcard) Databases KAPS Key Demise Planned > start 2006 Customer Recruitment Account Servicing Demise Planned > start 2007 Application Processing Sales and Recruitment Collections & Recoveries Customer Contact Customer Dialogue Customer ID&V Demise Planned > start 2008 M anagement Definition System Fate = Ma o j r BECAS CCNApps CCNApps/GUI KAFT Debt Manager Lost & Stolen iDTV iDTV CID Chordiant Account Upgrade (CCCD) Services Sy stem F e = at New Access CreditCare Craw CRM ley Chordiant Account Sy stem F e = at Stay Databases (CCCD) Services CID Chordiant (CCCD) Chargebacks Account Services Complaints Financial Exceptions Loyalty Product Processing IM / IM L9 L6 Correspondence & fulfilment Correspondence (out-bound) Correspondence Capture Fulfilment Capscan Doc 1 (TSYS) ABT BECAS Astron CMS-UKC (akaEdotech) M/Text-UKC CCNApps CCNApps/GUI Communisis Equation Digis Information management Customer Inf ormation Historical Information IM / IM L9 L6 Customer CIS BIW M/Text-UKC IM / IM L9 L6 Debt Manager BIW System Change Management Product Conf iguration Operational Management Intranet BEAMS IM / IM L9 L6 Operations Optimisation Aim Call 27
  • 28. CommunicateReporting and Publishing What How Generate Work Products, Reports, Plans  From System Architect using the etc into capabilities  MS Word  Out of the box reports  MS Excel  Macros  MS Powerpoint  Ad-hoc reports  Report generator  Interchange languages (BPEL, XMI,  Out of the box capabilities OMB300) ………………………  Static Web Site  SA/Publisher Add On tool  Dynamic Portal  SA/XT Add On tool 28
  • 29. Summary Upstream: Doing the right things  Identifying, funding & resourcing the most important programmes, in line with the business strategy and within the investment budget, in the right sequence, and with effective programme management and control. Downstream: Doing things right  Ensuring the solutions delivered by these programmes meet the needs of the business, work within the existing IT environment and contribute towards the realisation of the enterprise’s IT strategy. 29
  • 30. Hvala! 30