Hail: Emerging Research and Impact-Resistant Roofing Resources
Hail Impact Testing at the IBHS Research Center Tanya M. Brown, Ph.D. Research Engineer, IBHS Research Center email@example.com
Background & Motivation• More than 75% of cities in the continental U.S. experience at least one hailstorm each year • $1.2 billion in damages to structures & crops in the 1990’s • A single hailstorm in DFW metroplex caused $1.1 billion in 1995 • A long-lived thunderstorm with a path length of over 360 miles caused over $1.5 billion in damages in Kansas, Missouri, and Illinois in 2001 
Background & Motivation• In April, 2009 NWS changed the criteria for severe hail from ¾ inch to 1 inch in diameter • Hail damage: – 1 inch in diameter for shingles and other roofing materials  – ¾ to 1 inch in diameter for aircraft – 1.6 inch in diameter for crops 
Code Development: Steel Ball Testing• Density of approximately 0.9 g/cm3 (same as pure ice)• Balls dropped from a height necessary to duplicate the kinetic energy of hailstones of identical diameter• Assumptions : – Each hailstone is spherical – Hailstones do not deform on impact – Some recovery of impact material is allowed• Problems: – One study found only 58% of hailstones were spherical , while another found only 75% , remaining stones were conical or irregularly shaped – Largest hailstones are often conglomerates of smaller stones• UL 2218  & ASTM 3746 (modified) 
Code Development: Ice Ball Testing• Density of approximately 0.9 g/cm3 (same as pure ice)• 1950’s: Ice balls launched at roofing materials• 1960’s: Ice ball testing expanded to include testing of wall materials• 1980’s: Haag Engineering developed & published procedures for evaluating hail damage & determining repair difficulty • 1990’s: Experiments with more kinds of roofing materials, and varying the angle of impact to account for wind-blown hail• Problems: – Ice balls are harder and denser than natural hailstones – Ice balls do not have the air bubbles & layer structure seen in natural hailstones• FM 4473 
Goals & Objectives for Hail Testing at the IBHS Research• Reduce the impact ofCenter structures by hailstorms to increasing the resilience of building products & materials, particularly roof & siding materials – Methodologies to accurately create artificial hailstones – Methodologies to create conglomerate hailstones – Methodologies to test both vertically-falling and wind-blown hail impacts – Laboratory testing & analysis of materials impacted by artificial hailstones – Development of a rubric outlining various damage states & failures with respect to replacement/insurance claims – Development/refinement of laboratory testing methods – Post-disaster field studies – Understand spatial effects of hailfalls
Artificial & Conglomerate Hailstones• Initial testing for sizes of 1” - 3” in diameter• Density experiments – Chemical composition • Tap water • Distilled water • Soda water – Freezing conditions • Changing freezing temperature • Freezing in layers – Using compacted crushed/shaved ice• Conglomerate stones – Fusing small artificial hailstones together – Fusing broken pieces of large artificial hailstones together
References1. Changnon, S.A. (1996). Climatology of Hail Risk in the United States, Publication CRR-40, Changnon Climatologist, Mahonet, IL.2. Changon, S.A. (1999). “Data and Approaches for Determining Hail Risk in the Contiguous United States,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, 38, 1730-1739.3. Changon, S.A., and Burroughs, J. (2003). “The Tristate Hailstorm: The Most Costly on Record,” Monthly Weather Review, 131, 1734-1739.4. National Weather Service Quad Cities, IA/IL, (April 2009). “What is a ‘Severe’ Thunderstorm?” <http:// www.crh.noaa.gov/dvn/?n=oneinchhail>5. Marshall, T.P., Herzog, R.F., Morrison, S.J., and Smith, S.R. (2002). “Hail Damage Threshold Sizes for Common Roofing Materials,” 21st Conference on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX.6. Gringorten, I.I. (1971). Hailstone Extremes for Design, AFCRL-72-0081, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, MA.7. Schleusener, R., and Jennings, P.C. (1960). “An Energy Method for Relative Estimates of Hail Intensity,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 41(7), 372-376.8. Weickmann, H. (1953). “Observation Data on the Formation of Precipitation in Cumulonimbus Clouds,” Thunderstorm Electricity, University of Chicago, 66-138.9. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (2002). Impact Resistance of Prepared Roof Covering Materials, UL 2218, Northbrook, IL.10. ASTM International, (2002). Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Bituminous Roofing Systems, ASTM 3746, West Conshohocken, PA.11. Marshall, T.P., and Herzog, R.F. (1999). “Protocol for Assessment of Hail-Damaged Roofing,” Proceedings of the North American Conference on Roofing Technology, Toronto, Canada, 40-46.12. FM Approvals, (2005). Specification Test Standard for Impact Resistance Testing of Rigid Roofing Materials by Impacting with Freezer Ice Balls, FM 4473, Johnston, RI.
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