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Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad
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Theory of multiple intelligences mea apr 2014 v6 murad

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A review of the literature identified articles on the importance of critical thinking in marketing classes (Celuch & Slama, 2000), but there was no literature of the online marketing classes. …

A review of the literature identified articles on the importance of critical thinking in marketing classes (Celuch & Slama, 2000), but there was no literature of the online marketing classes.
If critical thinking is the ultimate goal of adult education, as the literature suggests, how can educators teach the skill in an online marketing class in order to raise student comprehension?

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  • 1. Office of Research & Creative Scholarship May 30, 2014 Presented at the Marketing Educators’ Association 2014 Conference, April 22-24, 2014 San Jose, California Dr. Paula J. Zobisch and Dr. Andree C. Swanson Forbes School of Business at Ashford University Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 2. THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES: CAN WETEACH CRITICAL THINKING IN ONLINE MARKETING COURSES Dr. Paula J. Zobisch and Dr. Andree C. Swanson Forbes School of Business at Ashford University Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 3. The thought process… All Classes Business Courses Marketing Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 4. Background • “Many adults are ill prepared to live, work, and function effectively in our fast-paced and highly technical society (Vaske, 2001)” (Zobisch, 1995, p. 1) Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 5. Background “The challenge is how to develop the skills needed to be productive and informed members of a world market led by constant change. (Brookfield, 1987; Davis & Botkin, 1995; Glaser & Resnick, 1991; Halpern, 1993; Kerka, 1992; Paul, 1990; Sternberg, 1985)” (Zobisch , 1995, p. 2). Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 6. Problem Statement A review of the literature identified articles on the importance of critical thinking in marketing classes (Celuch & Slama, 2000), but there was no literature of the online marketing classes. If critical thinking is the ultimate goal of adult education, as the literature suggests, how can educators teach the skill in an online marketing class in order to raise student comprehension? Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 7. Teaching CriticalThinking in an Online Classroom • Limited literature exists on how to teach critical thinking in an online classroom. – Tyler and Loventhal (2011) suggested the need for academic rigor to bring credibility to online instruction for teaching critical thinking. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 8. Teaching CriticalThinking in an Online Classroom – Cooper (2000) suggested to discover students’ learning styles and to enhance classroom instruction with technology to aid in student success. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 9. Teaching CriticalThinking in an Online Classroom – Watrous-McCabe (2005) suggested a broad range of technologies are available to support online learning such as “web conferencing, online chats, blogs, discussion boards, interactive games, and Internet resources” (para. 23). Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 10. The challenge in the online marketing classroom Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 11. Marketing managers monitor the environmental influences and sort through a plethora of data. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 12. Marketers assess data and determine what is relevant. The process for assessing data is critical thinking. 93% of employers revealed critical thinking skills were valued above all other academic achievements (“It Takes More than a Major,” 2013). Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 13. Educators determine the most effective methods for teaching critical thinking in the online classroom. Importance of CriticalThinking to Marketing Source: moorelandumc.orgCopyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 14. Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Gardner (1983) identified eight intelligences – intelligences are more a potential for solving problems than a measurement of a single IQ score – by applying different intelligences, critical thinking skills can be taught in such a manner to increase student comprehension and success. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 15. Different Learning Styles Different Learning Styles • The most common learning styles are visual, auditory, and tactile (“Learning Styles,” n.d.). • The learning styles in combination with the multiple intelligences give educators insight into the preferred method of how their students process information. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 16. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences along with the learning styles for problem solving and decision making can enhance student comprehension of critical thinking skills. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 17. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Bodily-Kinesthetic: uses body to solve problems or understand (dancer, surgeon) Online: drag & drop, simulations, virtual labs Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 18. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Musical: rhythms and pattern to help understand (tapping a pencil, musician, composer) Online: adding audio files, background music to reinforce a theme, rhythm of voice Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 19. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Logical: Mathematical: uses numbers or logic Online:Venn diagrams, charts, tables, graphics, sequencing, logical ordering of information Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 20. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Verbal-Linguistic: language (verbal or written); reads to understand Online: crossword puzzles, discussion boards, email, online chats, articles Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 21. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Visual-Spatial: sense of space and navigational skill Online: flow charts, mind mapping, fishbone diagrams, pictorial explanations Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 22. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Interpersonal: interacts with others Online: online communities, online chats, web conferencing, email, discussion boards, group collaboration Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 23. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Intrapersonal: introspective Online: contemplative discussion questions, providing feedback, blogs, journals Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 24. Learning Styles with Multiple Intelligences Applying MI to the Online Classroom (Watrus-McCabe, 2005) Naturalist: connected to nature Online: relate a principle or concept to something in nature; provide activities that can be organized or classified or items that do not belong; graphical representation of visual branding diagrams Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 25. Conclusion • The intense global competition for the same consumers makes the critical thinking skills that are used in designing effective marketing strategies one of the few sustainable competitive advantages. • Specific activities using all of the multiple intelligences and learning styles will engage the marketing student in learning the critical thinking process. • Few techniques to apply the theory of multiple intelligences in the online classroom Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 26. What’s next? • More research specifically on teaching critical thinking in online marketing classes Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 27. References Brookfield, S. D. (1987). Developing critical thinkers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Celuch, K., & Slama, M. (2000). Student perceptions of a marketing course taught with the critical thinking approach. Marketing Education Review, 10(1), 57-64 Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2003). Business research methods (8th ed.). NewYork, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Davis, S., & Botkin, J. (1995). The monster under the bed. NewYork, NY: Simon and Schuster. Gardner, H. (1983, 1993). Frames of mind. NewYork, NY: Basic Books. Glaser, R., & Resnick, L. (1991). National research center on student learning (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED338704) Halpern, D. F. (1993). Assessing the effectiveness of critical-thinking instruction. Journal of General Education, 42(4), 239-254. It takes more than a major: Employer priorities for college learning and student success. (2013). Retrieved from www.aacu.org/leap/presidentialtrust/compact/2013_EmployerSurvey.cfm. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 28. References Paul, R. (1990). Critical thinking. Rohnert Park, CA: Center for CriticalThinking and Moral Critique. Sternberg, R. J. (1985).Teaching critical thinking, part 1: Are we making critical mistakes? Phi Delta Kappa, 67, 194-198. Tyler, C. E., & Loventhal, G. (2011). Can multiple intelligences enhance learning for higher education on-line instruction? Retrieved from http://www.g- casa.com/conferences/vietnam/paper/Tyler.pdf Vaske, J. M. (2001). Critical thinking in adult education: An elusive quest for a definition of the field. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Drake University, Des Moines, IA. Watrous-McCabe, J. (2005, July 25). Apply multiple intelligence theory to adult online instructional design. Retrieved from http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/258/applying-multiple-intelligence-theory-to- adult-online-instructional-design Zobisch, P. (1995). The theory of multiple intelligences and critical thinking. UMI Dissertation Express. Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 29. Biographies Dr. Paula Zobisch and Dr. Andree Swanson Forbes School of Business at Ashford University Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 30. Dr. Paula Zobisch • Assistant Professor, Forbes College of Business at Ashford University • Ph.D. Adult Education, Capella University; – MBA emphasis in Marketing, University of Central Oklahoma • Director of Marketing and Major Accounts Sales Manager, 3M Distributor, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 1989 – 2007 Copyright 2014, Dr. Paula Zobisch Copyright © ZSRS 2014
  • 31. Dr. Andree Swanson • Assistant Professor, Forbes College of Business at Ashford University • Ed.D. Educational Leadership, University of Phoenix – MA, Organizational Management, University of Phoenix – MHR, Human Relations, University of Oklahoma • Worked as a Dean of General Education, NationalTraining Manager, and the US government (DoD, USAF, & USA), corporations, and higher education. Copyright 2014, Dr. Andree Swanson Copyright © ZSRS 2014

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