User-centered design and business model of vouchers in an NFC world<br />
User-centred design in the NFC-Voucher project<br />Karin Slegers  VerónicaDonoso<br />Centre for User Experience Research...
UCD in the NFC-voucher project<br /><ul><li>Methods
Cultural probes
Interviews
Co-design
Cardsorting
Lofiprototyping
Expert review
Results:
Storyboard
Personas
User requirements
User-basedconceptual model
User feedback
Usabilityanalysis</li></li></ul><li>Cultural probes<br /><ul><li>Creative home assignments as a preparationfor later inter...
Goal:
Stimulateparticipants to thinkabouttheirmeal voucher use
Collectinformationabout context of use
Understandcurrentuse of meal vouchers</li></li></ul><li>Interviews<br /><ul><li>Individualsessions – future scenario
Goal:
Present and explainNFC-voucher (storyboard)
EvaluateNFC-voucher concept withusers</li></li></ul><li>Personas<br /><ul><li>Fictitiousarchetypicalusers, basedonreal use...
Goal:
Representusers: characteristics, routines, problems, needs & wants
Make user requirementstangible</li></li></ul><li>
Co-design<br /><ul><li>Individualsessions – co-design
Goal:
Explore the use of NFC-voucher
Brainstorm aboutinteractionwithNFC-voucher
Re-evaluate concept of NFC-voucher: “Whatwoulditbelike to useNFC-voucher?”</li></li></ul><li>Conceptual model<br /><ul><li...
Goal:
Represent look & behaviour of the system
Functionalities
Interactions
User interfaces</li></li></ul><li>Card sorting<br /><ul><li>Structure data in categoriesthatmakesense to the users
Goal:
Involveusers in creating the structure of the NFC-voucherapplication
Improve the structure of the NFC-voucherconceptual model</li></li></ul><li>Paper prototyping<br /><ul><li>Low-techusabilit...
Goal:
Findusability issues in anearly stage
Example of finding:
Usability problem: In the menu structure many tasks require too many actions and confirmations which make these tasks unne...
Recommendation: Users should be allowed to set many options regarding confirmation and security in the settings menu. The ...
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User-centred design in the NFC-Voucher project - Karin Slegers & Verónica Donoso (IBBT-CUO-KULeuven)

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  • Ping-ping scenario
  • (Tunznv) e-money licenseA trusted neutral third party as TSM ROI = participation in voucher revenues
  • Other service providers: bank, public transport company, voucher issuerReturn on investment
  • Other service providers: bank, public transport company, voucher issuerReturn on investment
  • User-centred design in the NFC-Voucher project - Karin Slegers & Verónica Donoso (IBBT-CUO-KULeuven)

    1. 1. User-centered design and business model of vouchers in an NFC world<br />
    2. 2. User-centred design in the NFC-Voucher project<br />Karin Slegers VerónicaDonoso<br />Centre for User Experience Research (CUO)<br />K.U. Leuven / IBBT<br />
    3. 3. UCD in the NFC-voucher project<br /><ul><li>Methods
    4. 4. Cultural probes
    5. 5. Interviews
    6. 6. Co-design
    7. 7. Cardsorting
    8. 8. Lofiprototyping
    9. 9. Expert review
    10. 10. Results:
    11. 11. Storyboard
    12. 12. Personas
    13. 13. User requirements
    14. 14. User-basedconceptual model
    15. 15. User feedback
    16. 16. Usabilityanalysis</li></li></ul><li>Cultural probes<br /><ul><li>Creative home assignments as a preparationfor later interviews
    17. 17. Goal:
    18. 18. Stimulateparticipants to thinkabouttheirmeal voucher use
    19. 19. Collectinformationabout context of use
    20. 20. Understandcurrentuse of meal vouchers</li></li></ul><li>Interviews<br /><ul><li>Individualsessions – future scenario
    21. 21. Goal:
    22. 22. Present and explainNFC-voucher (storyboard)
    23. 23. EvaluateNFC-voucher concept withusers</li></li></ul><li>Personas<br /><ul><li>Fictitiousarchetypicalusers, basedonreal user data
    24. 24. Goal:
    25. 25. Representusers: characteristics, routines, problems, needs & wants
    26. 26. Make user requirementstangible</li></li></ul><li>
    27. 27. Co-design<br /><ul><li>Individualsessions – co-design
    28. 28. Goal:
    29. 29. Explore the use of NFC-voucher
    30. 30. Brainstorm aboutinteractionwithNFC-voucher
    31. 31. Re-evaluate concept of NFC-voucher: “Whatwoulditbelike to useNFC-voucher?”</li></li></ul><li>Conceptual model<br /><ul><li>Visualisation of the NFC-voucher concept
    32. 32. Goal:
    33. 33. Represent look & behaviour of the system
    34. 34. Functionalities
    35. 35. Interactions
    36. 36. User interfaces</li></li></ul><li>Card sorting<br /><ul><li>Structure data in categoriesthatmakesense to the users
    37. 37. Goal:
    38. 38. Involveusers in creating the structure of the NFC-voucherapplication
    39. 39. Improve the structure of the NFC-voucherconceptual model</li></li></ul><li>Paper prototyping<br /><ul><li>Low-techusabilitytestingwith paper mock-ups
    40. 40. Goal:
    41. 41. Findusability issues in anearly stage
    42. 42. Example of finding:
    43. 43. Usability problem: In the menu structure many tasks require too many actions and confirmations which make these tasks unnecessarily complex.
    44. 44. Recommendation: Users should be allowed to set many options regarding confirmation and security in the settings menu. The default settings should match the choice of the majority of users</li></li></ul><li>Expert review – heuristicevaluation<br /><ul><li>Usabilityinspectionmethod
    45. 45. Goal:
    46. 46. Identification of usability problems based on established human factors principles
    47. 47. Provide recommendations for design improvements</li></li></ul><li>General recommendations<br />System status<br /><ul><li>Provide essential feedback on both the cell phone and on the cash desk or card reader
    48. 48. Provide feedback about status of NFC-connections and transaction processes
    49. 49. Messages concerning security, authorisation, etc. should be very clear</li></ul>Match between system and the real world<br /><ul><li>The interface of and interaction with the phone application should match those of the phone itself</li></ul>User control and freedom<br /><ul><li>Both users and cashiers should be able to cancel a transaction at all times. System recovery from such cancellations should be quick
    50. 50. The user should be able to spend an unlimited amount of meal vouchers at once</li></ul>Error prevention<br /><ul><li>It should be clear to the user where, how and how long he/she should place the cell phone</li></ul>Flexibility & efficiency of use<br /><ul><li>Steps in the payment process should not take longer than a few seconds. Long steps should be accompanied by clear feedback </li></li></ul><li>Notdoneyet…<br /><ul><li>Usability tests withrealusers
    51. 51. Field tests</li></li></ul><li>016/323652<br />t<br />karin.slegers@soc.kuleuven.be<br />e<br />veronica.donoso@soc.kuleuven.be<br />e<br />Centre for User Experience Research (CUO)<br />Parkstraat 45, bus 3601<br />3000 Leuven<br />Belgium<br />http://www.kuleuven.be/cuo<br />
    52. 52. NFC VoucherBusiness Modelling<br />WouterDegadt<br />IBBT – SMIT<br />Media, Market & Innovation<br />
    53. 53. Overview<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />17<br /><ul><li>SMIT within the project
    54. 54. eVoucher classification and ecosystem
    55. 55. Value network
    56. 56. Implementation scenarios
    57. 57. Business case</li></li></ul><li>SMIT within the project<br />NFC-Voucher<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />18<br />
    58. 58. Short project intro<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />19<br /><ul><li>Paper meal voucher scheme in Belgium
    59. 59. 250.000.000 meal vouchers issued per year
    60. 60. Prepaid payment system for food
    61. 61. Fiscally attractive
    62. 62. Disadvantages
    63. 63. Handling (all parties)
    64. 64. Storage: archiving regulation
    65. 65. Deterioration of paper
    66. 66. Lost vouchers not reimbursed</li></li></ul><li>Project goals<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />20<br /><ul><li>Migration to eVouchers (electronic vouchers)
    67. 67. Storage on NFC-enabled phone
    68. 68. Payment using existing terminals
    69. 69. Customer enabling
    70. 70. Offline payments
    71. 71. Offline beneficiary-to-beneficiary payment transaction
    72. 72. Proof of concept implementation
    73. 73. Nokia 6313
    74. 74. Nokia 6212</li></li></ul><li>SMIT workload overview<br /><ul><li>Study of existing business models for comparable NFC-enabled mobile transactions
    75. 75. Theoretical and practical analysis of the actors in various pilots according to a business model framework
    76. 76. SOTA
    77. 77. Elaboration of NFC-Voucher BM
    78. 78. Definitions
    79. 79. Ecosystem
    80. 80. Different business models and scenario’s
    81. 81. Most valuable business case?</li></ul>Media, Market & Innovation<br />21<br />
    82. 82. Paper voucher - parties<br /><ul><li>Issuer: issues vouchers
    83. 83. Customer: employer
    84. 84. Beneficiary: employee
    85. 85. Affiliate: shop, store</li></ul>Media, Market & Innovation<br />22<br />
    86. 86. Electronic voucher ecosystem<br />NFC-Voucher<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />23<br />
    87. 87. Actor analysis: e-payment<br /><ul><li>Payer: the customer or buyer of the goods or services
    88. 88. Payee: the merchant or seller of the goods or services
    89. 89. Issuer: the party interacting with the payer in the payment process. The issuer is generally a financial institution
    90. 90. Acquirer: the party interacting with the payee in the payment process. The acquirer is also generally a financial institution
    91. 91. Arbiter: an extra party that might be involved in the payment process for dispute resolution</li></ul>Media, Market & Innovation<br />24<br />
    92. 92. Actor analysis: NFC ecosystem (1)<br /><ul><li>Direct customer: the employer
    93. 93. Indirect customer: the employee, the beneficiary</li></ul>He uses the mobile device for mobile communications and mobile NFC services. The customer subscribes to an MNO and uses mobile NFC services. The cost of the NFC-enabled handset is allocated to the customer. The handset is to be equipped with a compliant UICC smart card, which is provided by the mobile network operator. <br /><ul><li>Issuer: the issuer is responsible for the creation of the voucher, the agreements with the partners and the allocation of voucher value</li></ul>Media, Market & Innovation<br />25<br />
    94. 94. Actor analysis: NFC ecosystem (2)<br /><ul><li>MNO: provides the full range mobile services to the customer
    95. 95. Service Provider: provides contactless services to the customer; several forms:
    96. 96. A specific form is the Application Service Provider (ASP). A functional or specialist ASP delivers a single application such as transaction processing
    97. 97. The voucher service provider will be responsible for the end distribution of the (branded) voucher
    98. 98. Retailer/Merchant: they accept contactless payments. The merchant provides goods and services (food or non-food)</li></ul>Media, Market & Innovation<br />26<br />
    99. 99. Actor analysis: NFC ecosystem (3)<br /><ul><li>Trusted Service Manager (TSM): securely distributes and manages the Service Providers services to the MNO customer base
    100. 100. Handset, NFC Chipset and UICC Manufacturer: produce Mobile NFC/Communication devices and the associated UICC hardware
    101. 101. (Terminal) Reader Manufacturer + security components and Electronic Cash Register: produces NFC reader devices
    102. 102. Application developer: designs and develops the mobile NFC applications </li></ul>Media, Market & Innovation<br />27<br />
    103. 103. Value network<br />NFC-Voucher<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />28<br />
    104. 104. Value network – service flows<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />29<br />
    105. 105. Content stream<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />30<br />
    106. 106. Value network – service flows<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />31<br />
    107. 107. Value network – financial flows<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />32<br />
    108. 108. Some definitions<br /><ul><li>Voucher aggregation: the bundling of vouchers with possible advertising or branding (coupons)
    109. 109. Voucher service provider: is responsible for the distribution of vouchers
    110. 110. Application service provider: delivers a single application such as transaction processing</li></ul>MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />33<br />
    111. 111. implementation scenarios -Platform for a tsm<br />NFC-Voucher<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />34<br />
    112. 112. Issuer centric<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />35<br />ISSUER<br />MNO<br />
    113. 113. MNO centric<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />36<br />ISSUER<br />MNO<br />
    114. 114. MNO integration scenario<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />37<br />ISSUER<br />MNO<br />
    115. 115. TSM scenario<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />38<br />ISSUER<br />MNO<br />TSM<br />
    116. 116. Theoretical specifications to the role of the TSM<br /><ul><li>TSM: his clients will include mobile operators, banks, transport companies, advertisers and other service providers
    117. 117. eVoucher case: clients are advertisers and MNO
    118. 118. Different scenarios are dependent on the power a TSM holds:
    119. 119. MNO as TSM
    120. 120. Bank or e-money license as TSM in NFC e-payment services
    121. 121. Voucher issuer as TSM
    122. 122. A trusted neutral third party as TSM</li></ul>MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />39<br />
    123. 123. TSM implementation implications <br /><ul><li>TSM securely distributes and manages the Service Providers services to the MNO customer base
    124. 124. TSM could prevent a possible MNO domination
    125. 125. TSM could be the neutral platform for industrial power equilibrium and better customer support
    126. 126. TSM increases complexity, but also neutrality and independence
    127. 127. Original service responsibility and accountability of issuer can be averted by the take-up of a TSM</li></ul>MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />40<br />
    128. 128. Business case<br />NFC-Voucher<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />41<br />
    129. 129. Business case NFC-voucher<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />42<br />
    130. 130. Business case NFC-voucher<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />43<br />EMPLOYEE<br />PERSONAL BUSINESS CASE<br />CAPEX<br />NFC handset, SIM<br />OPEX<br />Monthly subscription<br />SERVICE PROVIDER<br />CAPREV<br />CAPEX<br />Application development, backend<br />Revenues from companies, the employers<br />OPREV<br />OPEX<br />Application maintenance, customer support<br />MNO<br />CAPREV<br />CAPEX<br />Adaptation to new NFC opportunities<br />OPREV<br />OPEX<br />Network costs, customer support, billing<br />Monthly fees from customers<br />MERCHANT<br />CAPREV<br />CAPEX<br />POS NFC readers, cash register adaptation<br />Customer service, client data profiling<br />OPREV<br />OPEX<br />Personnel <br />Increased sales, coupons<br />
    131. 131. Thank you!Any questions?<br />Wouter.degadt@vub.ac.be<br />MEDIA, MARKET & INNOVATION<br />44<br />
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