• Like
  • Save
Ecrea3k Brengman Malaika Paper
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Ecrea3k Brengman Malaika Paper

on

  • 708 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
708
Views on SlideShare
708
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Ecrea3k Brengman Malaika Paper Ecrea3k Brengman Malaika Paper Document Transcript

    • Cultural differences reflected on the internet: a comparison between Belgian and Dutch e-commerce websites Malaika Brengman Malaika Brengman Department of Business Economics and Strategic Management Faculty of Economic, Social and Political Sciences, and Solvay Business School Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan 2 1050 Brussel Tel: +32 (0)2 629 20 65 Fax: +32 (0)2 629 20 60 E-mail: malaika.brengman@vub.ac.be
    • Cultural differences reflected on the internet: a comparison between Belgian and Dutch e-commerce websites Abstract The current research investigates whether cultural differences between Belgium and the Netherlands are actually reflected in their respective commercial websites. With this purpose e-commerce websites from both countries have been subjected to an elaborate content analysis. Results indicate that Belgian transaction-oriented websites reflect a higher degree of ‘Power Distance’ (i.e. appreciation for social inequality and hierarchy) in comparison to their Dutch counterparts. This is manifested in the exceeding amount of information they provide with regard to company hierarchy, the more frequent depiction of CEO’s and the more frequent use of proper titles. In comparison with Dutch websites, Belgian websites also appear to be more ‘Masculine’ (i.e. appreciation of more masculine values, such as the need for achievement and competition). This is reflected in the fact that they use superlatives more regularly, distinguish more often between the sexes and use explicit comparisons more often. Contrary to expectations, Belgian web shops do not seem to reflect a higher degree of ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ (i.e. the degree to which individuals tend to avoid risks) in comparison with their Dutch counterparts. Finally, as expected, no difference could be revealed in the degree of ‘Collectivism’ (i.e. importance attached to group ties) reflected in Belgian and Dutch websites. Keywords Internet communications, cultural differences, e-commerce, website design & localization
    • 1 – Introduction The growth of the internet as an international communication medium raises the question whether to standardize or to adapt international marketing communications via the World Wide Web. On the one hand, the internet is a mass-communication medium with worldwide accessibility, which may speak in favor of standardization. On the other hand, it is a very interactive medium, providing the opportunity to gather information on internet user segments, and making it practically possible to implement a high degree of audience adaptation. The current study investigates whether cultural differences between Belgium and the Netherlands are actually reflected in their respective commercial websites. 2 – Culture and cultural sensitivity of websites According to a socio-scientific approach, culture can be conceived as a mental predisposition in attitudes and behaviour, acquired and preserved by education and social relations. It is a collective phenomenon, with at its core a number of positive and negative values, which can, according to research by Hofstede (1980, 2001) and Trompenaers (1994), be summarized in 5 to 7 cultural dimensions. Having studied the convergence and divergence of consumer behaviour across countries for a long time, Marieke de Mooij (1998, 2000, 2004) argues that cultural differences are becoming even more pronounced with growing welfare and emphasizes that they should be taken into account to ensure the efficiency of global marketing strategies. Some recent academic research investigated more specifically the cultural sensitivity of websites and the need for localization or standardization.
    • On the one hand, some researchers are convinced that cultural factors have no influence on website perceptions and recommend standardization (Hermans and Shanahan, 2002; Sackmary and Scalia, 1999; Yang and Kang, 2002). Based on content analysis of non- commercial websites, De Troyer et al. (2006) even assume that the internet has promoted “the emergence of a cosmopolitan online culture, a hybrid culture overriding traditional cultural differences”. On the other hand, do studies by Fink and Laupase (2000), Luna et al. (2002), Fock (2000), Simon (2001), Kanso and Nelson (2002), Singh and Baack (2004) and Singh et al. (2004) demonstrate that the internet is not a culturally neutral medium. They confirm that there are intercultural differences in perception of website content and stress that values, image, themes and symbols should be adapted to local cultures. While the internet fosters globalization, the necessity of localized websites seems to have become more and more obvious (Plumley, 2000; Boston Consulting Group, 2000; Fletcher et al., 2004). According to Forrester Research, the more a website is transaction-oriented, the more it should be localized (Torris, 1998). Therefore, especially ‘e-retailers’, eager to enter foreign markets, should focus on the local customers. A locally adapted language, content and interface design may be needed to attract the attention of the local user and to win his confidence. According to Forrester Research localized websites can draw more attention and lead to more ‘stickyness’ and sales. Therefore they recommend profoundly localized websites (Fletcher et al., 2004).
    • 3 – Cultural differences between Belgium and the Netherlands Local (Dutch and Belgian) companies assume that Belgium and the Netherlands (as neighbours with a common language) are the ideal countries to make their first steps towards international expansion. Often however in this case cultural differences tend to be ignored (Kotler et al., 2006). In their studies investigating cross-national cultural differences, Hofstede (1980, 2001) and Trompenaers (1994) have, nevertheless, discovered large differences in value-orientations between Belgium and the Netherlands (see table 1). “In fact, no two countries (…) with a common border and a common language are so culturally apart (…) as (Dutch) Belgium and the Netherlands” Geert Hofstede, 1980, p228 The Netherlands Belgium France Flanders Wallonia Power Distance Appreciation of social inequality and hierarchy 38 65 61 67 68 Masculinity The extent to which masculine values as assertiveness, competition, urge for achievement and success prevail in comparison to more 14 54 43 60 43 feminine values such as life quality, nurturing, helpfulness and solidarity Uncertainty Avoidance The degree to which individuals tend to avoid ambiguous situations and to take risks when 53 94 97 93 86 making decisions Individualism The degree to which ties between members of a community are rather loose (i.e. individualistic) 80 75 78 72 71 or tight (i.e. collectivistic) Table 1: Scores for The Netherlands, Belgium (Flanders & Wallonia) and France with respect to Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions (Hofstede, 1980, 2001)
    • Belgium scores, for instance, much higher than the Netherlands on the dimension ‘Power Distance’, concerning the relative appreciation of social inequality and hierarchy (B=65 versus Nl=38). Belgium also appears to score considerably higher on the dimension ‘Masculinity’, which reflects the urge for achievement, competition and assertive and aggressive behaviour, in comparison with the appreciation for modest and obliging behaviour and solidarity (B=54 versus Nl=14). Finally, Belgium also seems to score significantly higher on the dimension ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’, which is reflected in a higher number of rules, formal procedures and rituals (B=94 versus Nl=53). As a matter of fact, Hofstede (1980, p228) even claims that there are no two neighbouring countries with the same language that are so culturally different as (Dutch) Belgium and the Netherlands. With regard to the Belgian sub-regions of (Dutch-speaking) Flanders and (French-speaking) Wallonia, Hofstede (1980) argues that there are almost no cultural differences between them and that their cultures resemble in fact the French culture. Thus, although Belgium and the Netherlands share the same language, they obviously don’t share the same culture. The remarkable cultural differences between Flanders and the Netherlands have been confirmed in more recent studies (Claes and Gerritsen, 2006; see table 2 for an overview). Findings with regard to the cultural differences between Belgium and the Netherlands are also supported by several other researchers (Schwartz and Ross, 1995; Inglehart, 1997; Matthyssens and Wursten, 2003).
    • Hofstede Hofstede Orriëns Claes & Gerritsen Gerritsen (1980) (2001) (1998) (2004) (2001) IBM Managers Banking-sector Students ICT-sector ’60 -‘70 1990 1998 1998 2001 Power Distance +23 +16 +25 +18 +20 Masculinity +29 +21 +13 +18 +12 Uncertainty Avoidance +44 +53 +47 +47 +43 Individualism -2 -4 -26 -4 no data Table 2: Differences between Flanders and the Netherlands with respect to Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions as reported in several more recent studies (based on Gerritsen, 2001 and Claes & Gerritsen, 2004). These cultural dimensions seem, amongst others, to have an impact on internet adoption and use. Park (2000), for instance, found strong support for the hypothesis that internet-use is higher in ‘feminine’ cultures than in ‘masculine’ cultures. Comparing the internet penetration between Belgium and the Netherlands, our findings reveal that indeed already 65,9% of the ‘more Feminine’ Dutch population uses the internet, in comparison with only 48,7% of the ‘more Masculine’ Belgian population, which has an internet penetration rate which lies close to the European average of 49,8% (Internet World Stats, 2006).
    • 4 – Research 4.1 – Research question and hypotheses Are cultural differences in mentality between Belgium and the Netherlands reflected in their respective commercial websites? The current study investigates whether the cultural differences in mentality between Belgium and the Netherlands are being reflected in their respective commercial websites or not. The aim is thus to reveal whether the websites of online retailers of these respective neighbouring countries, also reflect the specific cultural values characteristic of these countries. Based on the review of the literature, we formulate more specifically the following hypotheses:  H1 – We propose that Belgian commercial websites will reflect a higher level of ‘Power Distance’ in comparison to their Dutch counterparts.  H2 – We assume that Belgian online retailers in comparison to Dutch ones will display a higher level of ‘Masculinity’.  H3 – We expect Belgian commercial websites to reflect a higher level of ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ in comparison to their Dutch counterparts.  H4 – We do not expect a significant difference in the level of ‘Collectivism’ reflected in Dutch or Belgian transaction-oriented websites, because both countries have a rather ‘individualistic’ orientation, in contrast to Eastern countries, for example, where more importance is attached to strong group and family ties.
    • 4.2 – Method To verify these hypotheses, an elaborate content analysis of commercial websites from both countries was performed (cf. Singh and Baack, 2004). For this purpose, coding schemes provided by Singh and Matuso (2002) have been used. These schemes make it possible to register in a quantitative way to what degree Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are being displayed in the website. To assess, for example, the level of ‘Masculinity’ reflected in the website, we verified whether the site contains quizzes or games, whether ‘hard’ sales techniques are being used (e.g. discounts, coupons,…), whether explicit comparisons are being made, whether the ‘effectiveness’ is emphasized of the products offered for sale, etc… (see tables 4-7). In the present study, 40 Dutch and 40 Belgian commercial websites have been analysed in a systematic way. For the Belgian websites, 20 Flemish and 20 Walloon sites were selected. We focused more specifically on five sectors, namely online sellers of clothing, books, music, computers and travel. For each of these sectors, 8 websites per country have been analysed (for Belgium evenly divided between Flemish and Walloon sites). Thus, we tried to overcome a shortcoming of the study by Singh and Baack (2004), who compared US and Mexican websites of U.S. Fortune 500 companies, without taking into account the specific sectors represented in both samples. In the current study the online retailers were identified through search engines (like Google, Alta Vista and Yahoo).
    • 4.3 - Results All online retailers studied, are assigned 4 summated scores that indicate to what extent their website reflects Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (respectively ‘Power Distance’, ‘Masculinity’, ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ and ‘Individualism’). Subsequently, we can calculate per country to what extent these cultural dimensions are reflected in the respective websites of that country. That way, we can evaluate the differences between the countries in the degree to which their websites reflect the respective cultural dimensions. The Netherlands Belgium Flanders Wallonia 5 4 3 2 1 0 e ity e m anc l in nc vis ist cu oida cti rD as Av lle e M y Co Pow int rta ce Un Figure 1: Scores with regard to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions reflected in Dutch and Belgian (Flemish & Walloon) commercial websites (cfr. Singh & Baack, 2004) The Belgium t-test Netherlands Flanders Wallonia t-test Power Distance (7 items) 1.50 2.40 1.90 2.90 n.s. p = .036 Masculinity (7 items) 2.80 3.53 2.90 4.15 p = .009 p = .014 Uncertainty Avoidance (9 items) 3.35 3.73 3.10 4.35 p = .002 n.s. Collectivism (8 items) 2.13 2.53 2.10 2.95 p = .050 n.s. Table 3: Scores with regard to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions reflected in Dutch and Belgian (Flemish & Walloon) commercial websites (cfr. Singh & Baack, 2004)
    • 4.3.1 – Power Distance We assumed that Belgian websites would reflect a higher level of ‘Power Distance’ in comparison to their Dutch counterparts. Our findings (illustrated in figure 1) seem to confirm this hypothesis. The summated score over all websites on the 7 items reflecting ‘Power Distance’ (see table 3) amounts to 2.40 for Belgium in comparison with 1.50 for the Netherlands, a significant difference according to the t-test (p=.036). The Belgium χ 2-test 2 Netherlands Flanders Wallonia χ -test Power Distance (%) (%) (%) (%) Company Hierarchy Information 7.5 32.5 25 40 n.s. p = .005 Pictures of CEO’s 2.5 20 25 15 n.s. p = .014 Quality Information and Awards 20 27.5 25 30 n.s. n.s. Vision Statement 25 40 20 60 p = .011 n.s. Rank or Prestige of the Company 22.5 30 5 55 p = .001 n.s. Pride of Ownership appeal 65 47.5 45 50 n.s. n.s. Proper Titles 7.5 42.5 45 40 n.s. p < .000 Table 4: Scores with regard to Hofstede’s cultural dimension “Power Distance”, reflected in Dutch and Belgian (Flemish & Walloon) commercial websites (cfr. Singh & Baack, 2004) When we take a look at the individual items (see table 4), we notice that significantly more Belgian than Dutch online retailers give information about their company hierarchy (respectively 32,5% versus 7,5%; χ2-test, p=.005). Moreover, whereas in 20% of the Belgian websites CEO’s are depicted, this appears to be the case in only 2,5% of the Dutch websites (χ2-test, p=.014). Finally, in considerably more Belgian than Dutch websites appropriate personal titles are being used (42,5% versus 7,5%; χ2-test, p<.000). These findings
    • demonstrate clearly that a higher level of ‘Power Distance’ is reflected in the Belgian commercial websites, compared to their Dutch counterparts. Whereas, within Belgium, the level of ‘Power Distance’ reflected in Flemish commercial websites seems to be considerably lower than the level reflected in Walloon sites, this difference between both sub-regions appears in general not to be significant (see table 3). From the results, conveyed in table 4, we can, however, clearly establish that in more Walloon than Flemish websites, a company vision statement is provided (respectively 60% compared to 20%; χ2-test, p=.011) and that in more Walloon than Flemish websites the ranking and prestige of the company is emphasized (55% versus 5%; χ2-test, p=.001), thus unexpectedly revealing some higher level of ‘Power Distance’ reflected in Walloon websites. 4.3.2 – Masculinity We assumed that Belgian commercial websites would be more likely to reflect ‘Masculinity’, while Dutch sites would appear more ‘Feminine’. Our findings (illustrated in figure 1) seem to support this hypothesis. The summated score over all websites on the 7 items indicative for ‘Masculinity’ (see table 3), amounts to 3,53 for Belgium, compared to 2,80 for the Netherlands. A t-test reveals that this difference is in fact significant (p=.014). When we examine the individual items more carefully (see table 5), we can establish that significantly more Belgian than Dutch online retailers are using superlatives in their websites (respectively 65% versus 35%; χ2-test: p=.007). More Belgian websites, in comparison with Dutch ones, distinguish clearly between the sexes (42,5% versus 20%; χ2-test, p=.026). Furthermore, it becomes apparent that only Belgian online retailers are using explicit comparisons in their websites (12,5% versus 0%; χ2-test, p=.027). These results illustrate clearly that Belgian websites reflect a higher level of ‘Masculinity’ than their Dutch
    • counterparts. When we examine the individual items that reflect ‘Masculinity’, however, we notice one exception. More Dutch sites appear to emphasize the effectiveness of their products than Belgian sites (respectively 85% versus 65%; χ2-test, p=.035). The Belgium χ 2-test 2 Netherlands Flanders Wallonia χ -test Masculinity (%) (%) (%) (%) Quizzes and games 10 22.5 20 25 n.s. n.s. Hard Sell Approach 57.5 72.5 65 80 n.s. n.s. Explicit Comparisons 0 12.5 0 25 p = .024 p = .027 Realism Theme 72.5 72.5 75 70 n.s. n.s. Product Effectiveness 85 65 65 65 n.s. p = .035 Use of Superlatives 35 65 40 90 p = .001 p = .007 Clear Gender Roles 20 42.5 25 60 p = .027 p = .026 Table 5: Scores with regard to Hofstede’s cultural dimension “Masculinity”, reflected in Dutch and Belgian (Flemish & Walloon) commercial websites (cfr. Singh & Baack, 2004) When we take a look at the differences within Belgium between Flemish and Walloon sites, we notice that the earlier reported distinction in reflected ‘Masculinity’ between Belgian and Dutch websites is almost solely a reflection of the higher level of ‘Masculinity’ displayed in Walloon sites. In comparison to Flemish e-commerce sites, Walloon e-retailers use superlatives considerably more often in their websites (90% versus 40%; χ2-test, p=.001). They also seem to make explicit comparisons more often (25% versus 0%; χ2-test, p=.024) and they make more often clear distinctions between the sexes (60% versus 25%; χ2-test, p=.027). Table 3 shows clearly that the summated score, over all the websites of the 7 items that reflect ‘Masculinity’, amounts to 2,90 for Flanders and differs in this respect hardly from the Dutch summated score of 2,80. Wallony, on the other hand, attains a significantly higher score on reflected ‘Masculinity’, namely 4,15 (t-test, p=.009).
    • 4.3.3 – Uncertainty Avoidance We hypothesized that Belgian transaction-oriented websites would reflect a higher level of ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ than their Dutch counterparts. Our findings (illustrated in figure 1), however, do not seem to support this hypothesis. The summated score over all the sites of the 9 items that reflect ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ does not prove to be significantly different between Belgium and the Netherlands (see table 3). Within Belgium, however, there appears to be a considerable difference between Flemish and Walloon sites. Walloon sites seem to reflect significantly more ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ than Flemish ones (respective scores of 4,35 and 3,10; t-test, p=.002). The Belgium χ 2-test Netherlands Flanders Wallonia χ2-test Uncertainty Avoidance (%) (%) (%) (%) Customer Service 90 95 95 95 n.s. n.s. Secure Payment 70 70 50 90 p = .007 n.s. Guided Navigation 82.5 87.5 75 100 p = .024 n.s. Tradition Theme 20 25 20 30 n.s. n.s. Local Stores 52.5 57.5 50 65 n.s. n.s. Local Terminology 2.5 5 0 10 n.s. n.s. Free Trials and Downloads 2.5 27.5 15 40 n.s. p = .002 Customer Testimonials 12.5 5 5 5 n.s. n.s. Toll Free Numbers 2.5 0 0 0 n.s. n.s. Table 6: Scores with regard to Hofstede’s cultural dimension “Uncertainty Avoidance”, reflected in Dutch and Belgian (Flemish & Walloon) commercial websites (cfr. Singh & Baack, 2004) When we take a look at the individual items (see table 6), we notice that more Belgian sites offer free downloads and trials than Dutch ones (27,5% versus 2,5%; χ2-test, p=.002). Within Belgium, especially Walloon sites seem to offer this possibility (40% compared to 15%
    • Flemish sites), however this difference appears not to be significant. Still, more Walloon than Flemish online retailers appear to emphasize the security of payments on their sites (90% versus 50%; χ2-test, p=.007) and the possibility of guided navigation (100% versus 75%; χ2- test, p=.024), confirming the higher level of reflected ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’. 4.3.4 – Collectivism We assumed that there would be no significant difference in the level of ‘Collectivism’ reflected in Belgian and Dutch e-commerce websites. Our findings (illustrated in figure 1) seem to support this hypothesis. The summated score over all websites of the 8 items that reflect ‘Collectivism’ does not appear to be significantly different between Belgium and the Netherlands (see table 3). When we consult the individual items (see table 7), we do notice however that more Belgian sites appear to offer loyalty programs than Dutch sites (40% versus 20%; χ2-test, p=.043). The Belgium χ 2-test 2 Netherlands Flanders Wallonia χ -test Collectivism (%) (%) (%) (%) Community Relations 7.5 2.5 0 5 n.s. n.s. Clubs or Chat room 15 27.5 30 25 n.s. n.s. Newsletter 57.5 57.5 60 55 n.s. n.s. Family Theme 27.5 45 25 65 p = 0.012 n.s. Country Specific Information 22.5 12.5 10 15 n.s. n.s. Symbols & Pictures of Nation 10 17.5 5 30 p = .046 n.s. Loyalty Programs 20 40 45 35 n.s. p = 0.043 Links to Local Web sites 52.5 50 35 65 n.s. n.s. Table 7: Scores with regard to Hofstede’s cultural dimension “Collectivism”, reflected in Dutch and Belgian (Flemish & Walloon) commercial websites (cfr. Singh & Baack, 2004)
    • Within Belgium, we notice that Walloon sites seem to reflect more ‘Collectivism’ than Flemish ones (respective scores of 2,95 versus 2,10; t-test, p=.050). More Walloon than Flemish commercial websites appear to make use of family themes (65% versus 25%; χ2-test, p=.012), and symbols and images of national identity (30% versus 5%; χ2-test, p=.046), pointing to a higher level of ‘Collectivism’ reflected. 5 – Conclusion According to the literature, there are major cultural differences between Belgium and the Netherlands, which should be taken into consideration with respect to marketing communications (e.g. FEM, 1998; Gerritsen, 2002; Claes & Gerritsen, 2006). The current study demonstrates that these cultural differences in mentality between Belgium and the Netherlands are also reflected in their respective commercial websites. The websites of Belgian online retailers seem, as could be expected, to reflect a higher level of ‘Power Distance’ in comparison to their Dutch counterparts. This is manifested by the exceeding frequency to which they provide information with regard to company hierarchy, the more frequent depiction of CEO’s and the more frequent use of proper titles of address. Although the level of reflected ‘Power Distance’ does not seem to differ significantly between Flemish and Walloon sites, more Walloon than Flemish sites appear to provide a company vision statement and emphasize the ranking and prestige of the company, revealing unexpectedly some higher level of ‘Power Distance’ reflected in Walloon commercial websites. As expected, Belgian e-commerce websites also appear to be more ‘Masculine’ than their Dutch counterparts, which is reflected in the fact that they use superlatives more regularly, that they distinguish more often between the sexes and that they use explicit comparisons
    • more often. Walloon sites, however, seem to be almost exclusively responsible for these detected differences, as they do also significantly differ from Flemish sites in this regard. On the other hand, Dutch websites do appear to emphasize the effectiveness of their products more often than Belgian sites, possibly indicating that the Netherlands are getting more ‘Masculine’ (cfr. Gerritsen, 2001). Contrary to our expectations, Belgian web shops do not seem to reflect a higher degree of ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ in comparison to their Dutch counterparts. We notice, nevertheless, that more Belgian sites offer free downloads and trials than Dutch ones. This is especially apparent for Walloon sites, which seem to reflect a higher degree of ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ than the Flemish ones, which is also manifested in the fact that they emphasize the security of payments on their sites and the possibility of guided navigation more often. Although, as expected, no difference in ‘Collectivism’ between Belgian and Dutch e- commerce sites could be revealed, we do notice that more Belgian sites offer loyalty programs than Dutch ones. Within Belgium, Walloon sites appear to reflect more ‘Collectivism’ than Flemish websites, which is apparent from the fact that they seem to make more use of family themes and symbols and images of national identity. 6– Discussion The present study did not investigate the effectiveness of locally adapted commercial websites. In a subsequent phase of this research project, an experimental study will be carried out to investigate this crucial question. At this point, however, we did establish that there are important cultural differences between Belgium and the Netherlands, but also between Flanders and Wallonia, which appear to be reflected in their respective e-commerce websites.
    • If online retailers wish to exploit the possibilities of the internet to attract consumers on the other side of the border, they may want to take this into consideration. References Boston Consulting Group, 2000. The Race for online Riches: e-retailing in Europe, February, http://www.dad.be/library/pdf/BCG1.pdf Claes M-T. & Gerritsen M., 2004. “Nederland en Nederlandstalig België: buren met verschillende culturen” (The Netherlands and Dutch speaking Belgium: Neighbours with Different Cultures) in Claes & Gerritsen: “Culturele waarden en communicatie in internationaal perspectief”(Cultural Values and Communication from an International Perspective), Bussum: Uitgeverij Coutinho, chapter 4. Claes M-T. & Gerritsen M., 2006. “Waarom Vlamingen van Venus komen en Nederlanders van Mars” (Why the Flemish come from Venus and the Dutch from Mars), Uitgeverij Meulenhoff (in press). de Mooij M., 1998. “Global marketing and advertising”, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. de Mooij M., 2000. The future is predictable for international marketers. International Marketing Review, 17 (2), 103-113. de Mooij M., 2004. "Consumer Behavior and Culture. Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising ", Sage Publications, Inc. USA and UK. (360 p). De Troyer O., Mushtaha A.N., Stengers H., Baetens M., Boers F., Casteleyn S. & Plessers P., 2006. “On Cultural Differences in Local Web Interfaces”, Journal of Web Engineering, Vol. 5., No.3., p246-264. Financiëel Economisch Magazine FEM, 1998. “Cultuurclash tussen Nederland en België” (Culture Clash between the Netherlands and Belgium), July 11th. Fink D. & Laupase R., 2000. “Perceptions of Web Site Design Characteristics”: A Malaysian/Australian Comparison”, Internet Research, 10, 1, p44-55. Fletcher R., Bell J. and R. McNaughton, 2004. International e-Business Marketing, Thomson Learning, London.
    • Fock, H., 2000. Cultural influences on marketing communication on the World Wide Web. Paper presented at the Multicultural Marketing Conference, Hong Kong, September. Gerritsen M., 2001. Cultuur als spelbreker. De communicatieve gevolgen van cultuurverschillen tussen Vlaanderen en Nederland (Culture as a Spoilsport. The Communicative Consequences of Cultural Differences Between Flanders and the Netherlands), publication of Speech at the Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Friday September 28th 2001, Nijmegen. Gerritsen M., 2002. Cultuur als spelbreker. De communicatieve gevolgen van cultuurverschillen tussen Vlaanderen en Nederland. (Culture as a Spoilsport. The Communicative Consequences of Cultural Differences Between Flanders and the Netherlands) Tijdschrift voor Taalbeheersing (Journal of Applied Linguistics), 24 (1), 50-62. Hermans M. Ch. & K.J. Shanahan, 2002. “The Reification of Levitt: Advertising preferences for Mexican and American online consumers”, Developments in Marketing Science, 25, p147. Hofstede G., 1980. “Culture’s consequences. International differences in work related values”, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Hofstede G., 2001. "Culture's consequences. Comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organizations across nations", 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Internet World Stats, 2006. “Internet Usage in European Union”, Miniwatts Marketing Group, available at http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats9.htm. Inglehart R., 1997. “Modernization and Postmodernization. Cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies”, Princeton University Press, Princeton. Kanso A. & R. Nelson, 2002. “Advertising localization overshadows standardization”, Journal of Advertising Research, Jan/Feb, p79-89. Kotler P., Armstrong G., Saunders J., Wong V., Broere F., 2006. “België en Nederland, dat is toch zo’n beetje hetzelfde?” (Belgium and the Netherlands, they appear to be very similar, don’t they?), in Principes van Marketing, (Dutch adaptation of Principles of Marketing), 4th edition, Pearson Education Benelux, Amsterdam, p189-190. Luna, D., Peracchio, L. A., & de Juan, M. D., 2002. Cross-cultural and cognitive aspects of Web site navigation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30 (4), 397-410.
    • Matthyssens P. & Wursten H., 2003. “Internal Marketing”, in "Cross-cultural Marketing", Rugimbana R., Nwankwo S. eds., Thomson Learning, p243-256. Orriëns D., 1998. “Nederland en Vlaanderen: een wereld van verschil! Een onderzoek naar de culturele verschuivingen tussen Nederland en Vlaanderen tussen het einde van de jaren ’60 en 1998” (The Netherlands and Flanders, Worlds Apart! Research with regard to the Cultural Shifts between the Netherlands and Flanders between the end of the Sixties and 1998), Master’s thesis International Business Communication, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen. Park H., 2000. “A cross-cultural analysis of internet connectivity”, Journal of Current Research in Global Business, fall, p 97-107. Plumley D.J., 2000. “Global eCommerce: The market, challenges and opportunities”, Bowne Global Solutions, January. Sackmary B. & L. Scalia, 1999. “Cultural patterns of World Wide Web business sites: a comparison of Mexican and US companies”, paper presented at the Seventh Cross- Cultural Consumer and Business Studies Research Conference, Cancun, Mexico. Schwartz S.H. & Ros M., 1995. “Values in the West: A theoretical and empirical challenge to the Individualism-Collectivism cultural dimension”, World Psychology, 1, 91-122. Simon, S. J., 2001. The impact of culture and gender on Web sites: An empirical study. Database for Advances in Information Systems, 32(1), 18-37. Singh N., 2002 “Analysing Cultural Sensitivity of Websites. A Normative Framework.”, Journal of Practical Global Business, April, http://www.expandglobal.com/journal/Jour_2/journalv1_p32.pdf Singh N. and Hisako Matsuo, 2002. “A Framework to Measure Cultural Values on the Web.” E-Business Review, Vol. 2, March. Singh N. & D. W. Baack, 2004. “Website adaptation: a cross-cultural comparison of US and Mexican websites”, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 9 (4), July. Singh, N., Furrerr O., Ostinelli M., 2004. “To Localize or to Standardize on the Web: Empirical Evidence from Italy, India, Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland.” Multinational Business Review Torris Th., 1998. “JIT Web Localization”, Forrester Research, July.
    • Trompenaers F., 1994. “Riding the waves of culture. Understanding diversity in global business”, New York: Professional Publishing. Yang C.C.K. & Y. Kang, 2002. “The influence of cultural factors on consumers’ reaction to Internet advertisements”, Developments in Marketing Science, Sanibel Island, 25, p148-151.