CYBER EXCLUSION AS
SOCIAL EXCLUSION:
South-East European
Experience
Zoran Kostov
St. Cyril and Methodius University
Skopje...
Methodological challenges

   Non-standardised definitions for the
    key indicators
   Limited, outdated, non-standard...
The information inequality

   Information gap
   Knowledge gap
   Digital divide
   Cyber exclusion

   Systematic c...
Cyber exclusion

   Cyber space as social space

   Cyber exclusion as social exclusion:
    digital divide beyond the t...
SEE-WB cyber exclusion
indicators
   External exclusion
    - Internet users
    - Internet hosts
   In-country exclusio...
Internet users per 100
inhabitants
35                                      Albania
30
                                    ...
Internet hosts per 10.000
inhabitants
400                                      Albania
350
300                            ...
Age distribution of
Internet users
100%
 90%
 80%
 70%
 60%                                             Over 45
 50%      ...
Gender distribution of
Internet users
100%

 90%

 80%

 70%

 60%
                                                       ...
Residence distribution of
Internet users
 100%
 90%
 80%
 70%
 60%
                                          Rural
 50%
  ...
Widening the debate

   Income as an anchor determinant
   Infrastructure
   Literacy

   Beyond access: basic human r...
Income as an anchor
determinant (1)

 Alb.
                        Internet users per
B&H
                        aggregat...
Income as an anchor
determinant (2)

 Alb.

B&H

 Cro.
                            Internet users per 1
                  ...
Infrastructure (1)


 Alb.

B&H

 Cro.                        Telephone
                             subscribers as
      ...
Infrastructure (2)

  Alb.

 B&H

  Cro.                           Internet users as
                                 pers...
Literacy

   Computer (technological)
   Information
   Contextual (adaptive)
   Media creativity
   Social competenc...
Digital divide’s new frontier

   Beyond access
    - Processing speed
    - Quality of connection
    - Supporting servi...
Reaching social inclusion

   Effective use of information resources
    as a precondition for overcoming the
    cumulat...
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Ecrea3e Zoran Kostov Ppt

  1. 1. CYBER EXCLUSION AS SOCIAL EXCLUSION: South-East European Experience Zoran Kostov St. Cyril and Methodius University Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  2. 2. Methodological challenges  Non-standardised definitions for the key indicators  Limited, outdated, non-standardised data  Various types of sources (private/commercial, governmental, international/inter-governmental, NGOs etc.)
  3. 3. The information inequality  Information gap  Knowledge gap  Digital divide  Cyber exclusion  Systematic colonization of social knowledge by the rich nations
  4. 4. Cyber exclusion  Cyber space as social space  Cyber exclusion as social exclusion: digital divide beyond the technical interpretations  The lack of access to ICT reproduces other kinds of inequalities in the society at large
  5. 5. SEE-WB cyber exclusion indicators  External exclusion - Internet users - Internet hosts  In-country exclusion - Age - Gender - Residence
  6. 6. Internet users per 100 inhabitants 35 Albania 30 Bosnia & 25 Herzegovina 20 Croatia 15 Macedonia 10 Serbia & 5 Montenegro 0 Europe 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
  7. 7. Internet hosts per 10.000 inhabitants 400 Albania 350 300 Bosnia & Herzegovina 250 Croatia 200 150 Macedonia 100 Serbia & 50 Montenegro 0 Europe 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
  8. 8. Age distribution of Internet users 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Over 45 50% 36 - 45 40% Below 36 30% 20% 10% 0% Croatia Macedonia Serbia & EU25 Montenegro
  9. 9. Gender distribution of Internet users 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Female 50% Male 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Bosnia & Croatia Macedonia Serbia & EU25 Herzegovina Montenegro
  10. 10. Residence distribution of Internet users 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Rural 50% Urban 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Albania Bosnia & Croatia Herzegovina
  11. 11. Widening the debate  Income as an anchor determinant  Infrastructure  Literacy  Beyond access: basic human right, not a goal for itself
  12. 12. Income as an anchor determinant (1) Alb. Internet users per B&H aggregate of 100.000 USD of GNI Cro. per capita Mac. Internet hosts per 1 million USD of S&M GDP Eur. 0 2 4 6
  13. 13. Income as an anchor determinant (2) Alb. B&H Cro. Internet users per 1 computer Mac. S&M Eur. 0 1 2 3 4
  14. 14. Infrastructure (1) Alb. B&H Cro. Telephone subscribers as percentage of Mac. population S&M Eur. 0 50 100 150
  15. 15. Infrastructure (2) Alb. B&H Cro. Internet users as persentage of telephone Mac. subscribers S&M Eur. 0 10 20 30 40
  16. 16. Literacy  Computer (technological)  Information  Contextual (adaptive)  Media creativity  Social competence  English language
  17. 17. Digital divide’s new frontier  Beyond access - Processing speed - Quality of connection - Supporting services  Usage gap - Usage patterns - Accessible content
  18. 18. Reaching social inclusion  Effective use of information resources as a precondition for overcoming the cumulative marginalisation from production, consumption, social networking and decision-making.
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