Ecrea3d Opgenhaffen Michael Ppt

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  • 1. ‘Speaking of meta' Questioning the internet as homogeneous and global news medium M. Opgenhaffen Lessius University College Symposium Myth of Global Internet - Free University of Brussels, 2007
  • 2. Convergence Convergence in modern journalism:  "has erased the boundaries between print, television, radio and online technologies“ (Boczkowski & Ferris, 2005)  "Unification of functions" (Yoffie, 1999)  "a growing similarity in news presentation through various media" (Seib, 2001)  "the internet will be all“ (Owen, 1999)
  • 3. General belief • On the internet – Everything is ‘the internet’ – Everything is accessible The internet is considered and studied as one, big, homogeneous and global news medium ? ? ? Myth or reality ? ? ?
  • 4. 1. Everything is the internet? • No distinct media online? – Digital news papers, blogs, e-mail, discussion fora, web tv, web radio, podcasts, rss-feeds, … – Each medium has its own ‘media logic’, own ‘medium specificity’ • Better: – ‘medium of media’ (Levinson, 1999) – ‘Multimedium’ (Jankowski & Hanssen, 1996) – ‘metamedium’ (Adams & Clarck, 2001)
  • 5. Content analysis • Online coverage of elections in 2006 + 2007 (Belgium) • measuring distinct sub-media and characteristics Internet as meta-medium Convergent medium Convergent medium Convergent medium (e.g. digital news paper) (e.g. portal site) (e.g. news site) Sub-medium Sub-medium Sub-medium Sub-medium Sub-medium Sub-medium (e.g. news blog, paper in pdf, discussion forum, web tv, web radio, rss-feed, mail-alert)
  • 6. 2. Everything is accessible? • Global infrastructure • Everybody is a journalist (cfr. citizen journalism) (Non-)official news from all around the world is accessible through the internet - Do news consumers access this information? - Do they know how to access and process?
  • 7. Access or use? • 4 types of access (Van Dijk, 1999; 2003) Usage access (e.g. news vs. entertainment) Skills access (e.g. lack of information retrieval skills) Material access (e.g. lack of internet) Mental access (e.g. lack of motivation)
  • 8. Digital divide in use • Shift from – digital divide in access – digital divide in use of online (news) media • Access to global news ≠ use of global news
  • 9. Online survey • 789 college students (18-24) (64% response rate) • June – September 2007 • 100% access to internet • 0% never / 0.3% < 1 year / 81.6% > 5 jaar • Based on content analysis: use of online news media (+ online applications)
  • 10. Use of (foreign) news media ≥1 Never / Mean Std.dev. time/day unknown (0-5) Digital newspaper 18% 22.5% 1.96 1.54 [foreign newspaper] [12,93%] TV/Radio-site 11.5% 21.6% 1.75 1.37 [foreign tv/radio-site] [2.91%] News blog 1.3% 84.6% 0.35 0.86 [foreign news blog] [2.53%] Rss-feeds 3.7% 96% 0.25 0.93 [foreign rss-feeds] [2.28%] News forum 0.9% 87.6% 0.23 0.71 [foreign fora] [1.14%] Usenet 0.3% 95,3% 0.17 0.41 [foreign usenet] [0.25%] News mail 3.6% 54,3% 1.01 1.26 [foreign news mails] [5.44%]
  • 11. Conclusions • Internet ≠ homogeneous medium  meta-medium with (convergent and distinct) sub-media • Access to global news ≠ use of global news  Variance in online media use  Very low usage of foreign news media