This paper discusses strategies to empower three constituencies (Future Internet, Living Labs, Smart Cities) to work together in establishing smart city urban innovation ecosystems. In doing so, these constituencies will share and jointly exploit their innovation assets and the opportunities of their key methodologies for research, innovation and valorization, such as Future Internet experimentation and Living labs open and user driven innovation, for the benefit of Smart Cities innovation and socio-economic development. A city can be defined as ‘smart’ when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance (Caragliu et al, 2009). The view we are proposing adds the characteristic of Smart Cities to be environments of open and user driven innovation that are continuously open for renewal and change.
Apollon - 22/5/12 - 16:00 - Smart Open Cities and the Future Internet
www.fireball4smartcities.eu Smart Cities as Innovation Ecosystems Sustained by the Future Internet - Landscape, cases, policies Mechelen, 22.05.2012 Hans Schaffers ESoCE Net & Aalto University School of Economics, CKIR Scientific Coordinator of FIREBALL
The “Smart City” concept We often consider – based on rankings - the Smart City as a reality Smart City: not a reality but an urban development strategy, and a mostly technology driven future vision Smart City is about how citizens are shaping the city, and how citizens are empowered to contribute to urban development Smart City is an urban laboratory, an urban “innovation ecology”, an accelerator and agent of change We are witnessing promising developments towards smarter cities What is the DNA of the Smart City?
The FIREBALL Project Cities increasingly transform into what can be called “urban innovation ecosystems“ Cities start experimenting the opportunities of the (Future) Internet through “living labs” approaches for engaging end- users in the innovation process FIREBALL aims to bring together Cities, Living Labs and Future Internet stakeholders to explore models and practices of how open innovation and user participation supports the experimentation and uptake of the Future Internet
FIREBALL Results Smart city vision, landscape Cases of “smart(er) cities” Smart city Future Internet - enabled “innovation ecosystems” Smart Cities roadmap and cities action plans Community building , creation of a Connected Smart Cities network Portal and web 2.0 tools
Smarter Cities Cases Intel Industry i-Transport hubs Smart clusters and Housing Districts sectors Thessaloniki: Technology districts and Smart Port district Intel CBD broadband deployment, relatively i-University uncoordinated. Governance i-Science challenges of digital cities, combining Parks and Incubators bottom-up and top-down planning; gaps in digital skills, creativity, entrepreneurship Oulu: Careful ecosystem building and nurturing (triple helix) , supported by diverse ICT systems, may support urban development. Amsterdam: Enabled by advanced infrastructure, partnerships and co- funded programs lie at the basis of formulating joint smart city strategies and shared innovation
Smarter Cities Cases Helsinki: innovation cluster policy, emphasis on open innovation and citizen participation. Instruments: competitions for innovations, innovation within pre-commercial procurement, living labs pilots, Open Data, public-private partnerships. Manchester: Neighborhood regeneration as starting point; digital infrastructure, citizen engagement, creation of “virtuous cycles” Barcelona: urban development policy, main components of the Smart City strategy include Smart districts, living labs initiatives, e-Services, Infrastructures and Open Data.
Barcelona smart city developmentLeading role of City Hall Smart city Strategy SC Management • Kiosks • 22@net • Barc activa • Internal gov • Tech park • Open data • Urban Lab • 3D projects SMART GOVERNA SMART • Strategic plan • Smart Districts: Creation of networks of NCE ECONOMY 22@Barcelona; triple actors, organisations, helix collaborations departments SMART LIVING SMART PEOPLE • Living Lab initiatives: Broadband network and• Municipal Police • Cibernarium 22@Urban Lab, Live, sensor data management• New incidents tools• Intel environments • Citilab Cornella Bdigital, i2Cat, Fablab, Creation of proof of Cornella concepts for systems and Smart city model: • Infrastructure building: applications traditional and new. Three pillars Integration of ICT. From Challenges • Ubiquitous fibre optic to Wi-Fi. Demand for human • New services to capital and skills infrastructures citizens: gov, quality of VC funding for innovation • Information from life, professional Low global connectivity sensors, open data, • Open data: sensors, open standard, and city Development of triple and citizens platform helix alliances • Human capital, actors, Collaboration between communities government departments
Thessaloniki smart city developmentICT transforming city activities and ecosystemsBroadband networks Apps and e-services: Planning for Smartby large companies Bottom-up initiatives district ADSL: 24/1 Mb City representation Development of wired City sectors and wireless networks Fibre optic net: 2,5 Gb City districts Free Internet to users 3G-HSDPA: 42 Mb Citizens. Aggregation / and business. collective content Wireless: free Smart environments City administration and (municipal nets) social services based on sensors Location-based services e-services suitable for City infrastructure and the community of each utilities district City management Training services for involvement of end-users Governance challenges: Three gaps to address (3)Digital skills gap - TRAINING (4)Creativity gap – LIVING LABS (5)Entrepreneurship gap – BUSINESS MODELS
Manchester smart city developmentDigital strategies and smart environments for urban renewalUrban regeneration Digital Strategy Toward Smart City Flagship initiatives Since mid-1980s the Started in 2008 and review East Manchester: a City Council embarked in 2011 with respect to regeneration challenge EU Digital Agenda and Eastserve: first Living Lab on city regeneration consulting with local Corridor Living lab NGA Drive economic change stakeholders. Main project through technology objectives: Next generation open Focus on neighborhood • Digital inclusion, access fibre optic generate skills and network focused action, creative tackle the divides Principles for Smart Cities city, and innovation • Digital industries, new Neighbourhood In 1990s Manchester employment, cluster of regeneration as starting point for a smart city telematics Partnership digital and creative Digital collaborations businesses through Living Labs Currently, e-services to address inequalities • Digital innovation: Putting people at the working with the future heart of the agenda and digital democracy Internet research An inclusive and Balance of top-down community to support sustainable approach to Manchester as Smart digital development and bottom-up actions City Exemplar projects
Helsinki smart city developmentLiving Labs and new clusters for smart city strategy A Porterian cluster in mobile technology is emerging in Helsinki. Clustering strengthens motivation, incentives, innovation, and enables externalities . The mobile applications cluster is sustaining Helsinki ‘s Smart City strategy Factor conditions: Demand conditions: Firm strategy: Supporting industries: Broadband, telecoms, Government demand, Companies within Broadband infrastructure, NOKIA, skilled banking , SMOPEC, global 3G nets, specialized workforce, start-ups transportation, etc markets, intense local service providers competitionCompetitions for Open Data apps as strategy for cluster development The Helsinki Regions made available public transportation data Apps4Finland makes data available related to environment and spatial information Competitions and Living Labs as drivers for the M-cluster development
Empowerment Examples Thessaloniki: emergence of developer communities: e-services and applications e.g. mobility services Oulu: PATIO (test user community tool): empower ordinary people to experiment new services Manchester: Digital City Test-Bed (as a vision) Barcelona: 22@Urban Lab: city as urban lab, pilot programs, use of public spaces, e.g. Open data Helsinki: competitions for innovative applications e.g. Apps4Finland; Innovative City program; Open Data business development initiatives
Smart citizens and Open Data – Helsinki examples Tell-on-the-Map Smart city – service – map-based organisation in an Commentary tool, enabling a innovative dialogue environment between citizens and city Exploiting available information Apps4Finland competition – Idea incubators use city Helsinki Public data – Apps4Finland Transport competition Visualised Open interfaces are an Service Map: important step in the open information channel about development of offices and the City’s systems services
Smart city strategies implementation prospects and bottlenecks: SWOTStrengths Opportunities• Cultural heritage, attractiveness • Competitiveness of local clusters• Development strategies, planning • Exploiting service innovation• Broadband network deployment opportunities towards new business• Major development initiatives • Opportunities for local ICT sectors and entrepreneurship • Introducing participatory city planningWeaknesses Threats• Top down orientation to planning • Economic crisis, lack of resources• Lacking attention to concrete needs of • Vulnerable business models forcitizens and SMEs sustainability of public sector initiatives• Digital gaps • Low level of private investment in R&D• Lacking orientation on entrepreneurship and innovation• Weak policy and funding instruments • Weak institutional environments for• Impact and benefits measurement technology and innovation
Comparing the smart(er) city cases Helsinki Thessaloniki Manchester Oulu BarcelonaConcept Smart City Intelligent Cities Urban City of Social and cluster, Mobile regeneration Innovation urban growthStrategies Knowledge Building smart Tackling skills Technology Smart intensive districts and divides Ubiquitous districts, cluster building Agglomeration of Pro-active Oulu Urban Living Apps approach LabDrivers Strengthen the ICT and Economic Policy and Policies of city region infrastructure development strategies of hall; triple deployment Oulu helixChallenges Human capital Digital skills gaps Common Adapt policy Enhancing base Creativity gap digital agenda instruments collaboration; Entrepreneurship to create human capital gap business / skills, fundingInnovation Public private Innovation Living labs and Strong PPP City hallecosystem partnerships clusters local action programmes, leadership; Competition for Technology triple helix, Triple Helix innovation districts urban lab models
Smart Cities cases - lessons learned Smart city is more an urban strategy than an urban reality. Smart cities will appear through numerous bottom-up initiatives besides some strategic planning, and infrastructure development. Top-down planning and bottom-up initiatives should complement each other. City hall is sometimes dominant. Dilemmas of citizen engagement. Widespread use of pilots is preparing cities for initiative, experiment and learning Districts, neighborhoods, and clusters are fundamental elements of smart city strategy, because the city is a system of systems, and cities co-exist within cities. A smart city strategy involves all actors, organizations, communities, R&D, NGOs, clusters, and authorities. The partnership strategy should achieve a common vision, flagship projects, collaboration and synergy. Major challenges for successful smart city strategies deal with skills, creativities, user-driven innovation, entrepreneurship, VC funding, and management of intra-government rivalries. Lack of evidence on impact and effectiveness of smart city strategies.
Smart city innovation ecologiesenabled by “common assets” Future Internet testbeds as technology platforms Smart cities: policies, application pull, public data, citizens initiatives Living lab: User-driven playground for co- creating and validating innovative scenarios and services
Examples of evolving smart city “innovation ecologies” Bretagne: ImaginLab testbed explores advanced applications in living lab setting, offering wide range of services, enabled by advanced infrastructure, based on partnership business model Oulu: Octopus network, Innovation ImaginLab Kitchen, Open Web Lab, LearnLab, Ubiquitous Oulu and many more Barcelona: a diverse set of network infrastructures, facilities, initiatives (22@UrbanLab), living labs, projects, planning activities, partnerships Manchester: advanced infrastructure of open access fibre to premises; support creation of ; co-ownership approaches Manchester
Simple models for concurrent useof testbed and living labs facilities
Developing into a smart city requires “systemic change” An innovation roadmap is a tool for creating consensus and understanding about potential futures and about the pathways towards these futures Present Short term Mid term Long term Urban development Policies and strategies ICT-based solutions Technology developmentUnderstanding smart city dynamic development as “systemic change”requires understanding of interplays and co-evolution regardingtechnology developments, human behaviours, policies and strategiesLiving Labs, policy experiments may act as “niches”where opportunities are provided for limited scale innovation and learning(introduction, use, evaluation, modification -> wider scale adoption)
Changes and developments Increasing deployment of broadband infrastructure and creation of open networks and open data repositories Many cities are developing Smart City strategies, in the context of urban development, sustainable growth, revitalisation, and innovation districts Increasing participation and empowerment of citizens in societal issues, using social media and open data on a wider scale Increasing interest for wider scale testing of services and solutions e.g. energy efficiency, healthcare, environment monitoring, mobility Diversity of technologies for smart city applications is becoming rapidly available (mobile broadband, cloud computing, open data, smart devices, content management, Web 2.0) User driven open innovation in cities (e.g. Crowd sourcing services based on sensor data) is gaining more attention All kinds of city managed data could become publicly available to promote crowdsourced services and bottom-up innovation (may also be misused)
Technologies for smart(er) citiesTechnology area Main developments in relation to smart citiesCloud computing Urban clouds reducing IT costs and providing platforms for small business applications and e-services Virtualization of physical spaces Standardisation of platforms and applications for smart citiesReal-world user IoT sensor networks in combination with Web 2.0, social media,interfaces, RFID crowdsourcing providing opportunities for collective intelligence Urban IoT platforms offering common framework for ambient sensor networksSemantic web, Open Data from various sources offer opportunities for advancedLinked data, intelligence e.g. Detect patterns, generate alerts, visualizeOntologies information, predict trends Semantic Web enhances opportunity to merge different categories of data Enables content and context fusion, immersove multi-sensory environments, location based context aware content Enhanced opportunities for user involvement and user generate content
Innovation roadmap for smart citiesREGIME & Future Internet Short term (2014) Medium term (2017) Long term (2022)Technological change -CLOUD: Virtualisation -CLOUD: Web platform -CLOUD: PaaS for smart cities(Dominant designs, emerging -CLOUD: IaaS for smart cities -CLOUD: SaaS for smart cities -CLOUD: Service integrationtechnologies, interoperability) - Content-context fusion -IoT: RFID -IoT: Multimodal sensors -IoT: Urban IoT platforms -IoT: Speech recognition -IoT: Location aware apps, -IoT: Cloud based ontologies -IoT: Open data apps -Content-centric networksIndustrial change -CLOUD: Large companies clouds, -CLOUD: Large cities clouds -CLOUD: Standardisation of smart city(Networks of technology developers, Google, MS, Amazon global clouds applications / serviceslobbying, standardisation) -IoT: Sensors into utilities and energy -IoT: Alliances of large companies and -IoT: Large scale applications networks major cities companiesSocial change -CLOUD: Reduction of IT costs -CLOUD: Security issues raised -CLOUD: Continuity of service(Behaviour, routines, values, -CLOUD: Disaster management -CLOUD: Learning curvepreferences, demand, end-users) addressed - IoT: Experimental facilities -IoT: Multiple city pilots -IoT: Large scale demand for sensor- -IoT: A few city pilots based city infrastructurePolicy change -CLOUD: Transition white papers -CLOUD: Pilots at city levels -CLOUD: Whole smart cities on the(Regulations, economic instruments, -CLOUD: Preparing to the cloud -CLOUD: Legal and regulatory reform Cloudgovernance, agreements)NICHES of Short term (2014) Medium term (2017) Long term (2022)radical noveltiesTechnological change -CLOUD: SaaS -CLOUD: PaaS -CLOUD: IaaS -IoT: Experimental facilities -IoT: M2M in city environments -IoT: Open / linked dataIndustrial change -CLOUD: Private and hybrid clouds -CLOUD: SaaS and PaaS in the main -CLOUD: Hosting of G city services domains of cities -IoT: IPv6 and HTML5 -IoT: Smart gird / smart meters in citiesSocial change -CLOUD: Pilot city applications in city -CLOUD: Large scale demand of smart utilities, districts, and gov city applications and services -IoT: Sensors for city environment -IoT: Embedded city intelligence proof of -IoT: Extended demand for sensor over alert concept city networksPolicy change -CLOUD: Government roadmaps to G -CLOUD: Standards development and services adoption -CLOUD: US reform of IT management -IoT: China encouraging technologies -IoT: FP8 IoT PPP for IoT -IoT: Harmonisation of frequency bands
Implementing the development process towards local digitalMajor issues Phases agendas 1. Inception: 2. Definition 3. Operation 4. SustainabilityInfrastructure Identify availability User requirements Implementation plan Plan for futureand resources: and access defined and agreed; agreed and operation agreed withaccess and requirements infrastructure operational; user infrastructure andavailability accessible and groups established resource owners agreements in place and workingCollaboration Identify partners Analyse benefits vs Collaboration Evaluation of benefits,and business and conditions for costs and agree processes monitored costs and risks togethermodels collaboration justification and and supported during with lessons learned arrangements for the experimentation and plans for future collaboration operation based on thisInnovation and Agree aims, Innovation should be Management plan Identify results andproject objectives, benefits clearly defined, agreed with benefits for partnersdefinition of innovation prepared and monitoring and and stakeholders planned planned resultsInvolvement and Identify partners Roles of partners and Co-creation evolving in Commitment for futuresupport and stakeholders stakeholders agreed practice participationStakeholder Agree process for Matching of needs User groups Co-production potentialengagement engagement together with established linked to identified and agreed experience and/or partners and between users, expertise stakeholders partners and stakeholders
Summary roadmap towards a smarter city, example ManchesterDevelopments and changes Future vision Challenges and gaps Future solutions and innovation needsDigital infrastructure: Connected cities: Sustainable business cases: Ubiquitous smart cityCorridor digitisation fibre •Extending fibre and wireless •Implementing new mutuals infrastructures:project across the city region & social enterprises •Infinite bandwidth, zeroLow Carbon Open Data •Developing new mutual •Co-production of services latency (IBZL)(LoDaNet) project and business models •Everyone, everything,wireless roll-out everywhereSmart City strategy: Collective intelligence: Innovation economy: Innovation culture:•Innovation legacy from •Capacity building •Investment in digital •Inspiration & aspirationKnowledge Capital •Access to skills infrastructure •Convergence of digital,Innovation Boardroom •Matching skills to jobs •Internet Hub creative and technical•Digital inclusion initiatives •Open data networks •Incubation of new start-ups •Mutual aid•Green & DigitalCitizens engagement: Co-production: Digital inclusion: Open and participative•Smart Citizens in Smart •Test-beds for new services •Barriers to access innovation systems:Cities – SMARTiP project •Developing new delivery •Trust & privacy issues •Co-creating and sharing of•Peoples Voice Media & models •Incentives for engagement new assetscommunity reporters •Support for new skills & •Sustaining commitment •People as sources of training interactive data and servicesInnovation test-bed: Common assets: Technology push: New partnerships:•Manchester Living Lab •Open data and services •Dangers of “smart city in a •Four P’s: public, private,•Corridor projects •Accessible and affordable box” people partnerships•Manchester Digital connectivity •Corporate resistance to •Smart open systems•Sharp project change •Co-production •Legacy systems
Challenges for next years Networks of Future Internet testbed facilities and living labs within and across smart cities and regions may become the backbone of European innovation ecologies and value networks – Horizon 2020 Capabilities and resources, including experiment facilities , user oriented methodologies, service offerings and collaboration models enabling access and use of facilities and services should evolve Smart Cities are environments to experiment technologies and applications, however the potential for business creation and entrepreneurship should be stimulated (e.g. DAIR, Canada) Open innovation and citizen empowerment requires finding new balances between top-down steering and bottom-up initiative Assessment of the impact and benefits of “smarter cities” in terms of value created for citizens. There is a lack of evidence showing impact, how can we achieve and measure the impact and value added of smart city initiatives?
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Call for Papers: Smart Applications for Smart Cities: NewApproaches to InnovationSpecial issue of the Journal of Theoretical and AppliedElectronic Commerce ResearchGuest Editors: Hans Schaffers, Carlo Ratti and Nicos KomninosFull paper submission: May 2012Publishing: December 2012Information: www.jtaer.com
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