Plant-pollination networks and plant invasions

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Plant-pollination networks and plant invasions

  1. 1. Plant invasions: consequences forplant-pollinator interactionsIgnasi Bartomeus Roig • November 2008 •Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona • CREAF•nacho@creaf.uab.es•Advisor: Montserrat Vilà •
  2. 2. Mack et al.(2000)Ecol ApplicGlobalization Increase transport
  3. 3. Mack et al.(2000)Ecol ApplicGlobalization Increase transport21 million flights/day470 million tones/dayWorld Bank(2002)
  4. 4. IntentionalUnintentionalMack et al.(2000)Ecol ApplicGlobalization Increase transport21 million flights/day470 million tones/dayWorld Bank(2002)
  5. 5. IntentionalUnintentionalMack et al.(2000)Ecol ApplicGlobalization Increase transport21 million flights/day470 million tones/dayWorld Bank(2002)
  6. 6. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasionInvasion process:
  7. 7. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasionInvasion process:
  8. 8. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasionInvasion process:
  9. 9. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasionInvasion process:
  10. 10. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasionInvasive species characteristicsReproduction systemPre-adaptationsInvaded ecosystem characteristicsEmpty nichesLack of natural enemiesPerturbationsInvasion process:
  11. 11. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasionEcological impactsCompetitionEconomic impactsImpacts:Invasion process:
  12. 12. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasionEcological impactsCompetitionEconomic impactsImpacts:Invasion process:
  13. 13. IntroductionNaturalizationInvasion Loss of BiodiversityEcological impactsCompetitionEconomic impactsImpacts:Invasion process:
  14. 14. Network
  15. 15. NetworkPollination:MutualismEcological serviceEndangered
  16. 16. Traveset & Richardson(2006)TrEE
  17. 17. Traveset & Richardson(2006)TrEE
  18. 18. New InteractionsTraveset & Richardson(2006)TrEE
  19. 19. New InteractionsMutualisticnetworksTraveset & Richardson(2006)TrEE
  20. 20. New InteractionsMutualisticnetworksTraveset & Richardson(2006)TrEERosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoeachs, Cistus spp...
  21. 21. New InteractionsMutualisticnetworksTraveset & Richardson(2006)TrEERosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoeachs, Cistus spp...
  22. 22. Bjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsDirect effectsImpacts on native plants
  23. 23. Bjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsPollinator sharingDirect effectsImpacts on native plants
  24. 24. Bjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsVisits to nativesDirect effectsImpacts on native plants
  25. 25. Bjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsVisits to nativesDirect effectsImpacts on native plants
  26. 26. Bjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsVisits to nativesDirect effectsImpacts on native plants
  27. 27. Bjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsVisits to nativesDirect effectsImpacts on native plants
  28. 28. Bjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsPollen transportDirect effectsImpacts on native plants
  29. 29. Direct effectsCompetitionFacilitationCompetition No effectBjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsSeed setImpacts on native plants
  30. 30. Direct effectsCompetitionFacilitationCompetition No effectBjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsChittka & Schurkens(2001)NatureSeed setImpacts on native plantsFocal Plant studies:
  31. 31. Direct effectsCompetitionFacilitationCompetition No effectBjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsMoragues & Traveset(2005)Biol ConsSeed setImpacts on native plantsFocal Plant studies:
  32. 32. Direct effectsCompetitionFacilitationCompetition No effectBjerkens et al.(2007)Biol ConsTotland et al.(2006)J BotLarson et al.(2006)Biol ConsNilsen et al.(2008)Biol InvMuñoz & Cavieres (2008)J Ecolet al...Seed setImpacts on native plantsFocal Plant studies:
  33. 33. Study species:
  34. 34. South Africa s.XIXFast clonal growthHybrid8-10 cm pollen rich flowersGardening and soil fixationCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisStudy species:
  35. 35. South Africa s.XIXFast clonal growthHybrid8-10 cm pollen rich flowersGardening and soil fixationCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisOpuntia strictaCentral America s.XVI1.5 m high5 cm pollen richflowersOrnamentalStudy species:
  36. 36. South Africa s.XIXFast clonal growthHybrid8-10 cm pollen rich flowersGardening and soil fixationCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisOpuntia strictaCentral America s.XVI1.5 m high5 cm pollen richflowersOrnamentalImpatiens glanduliferaHimalayas s.XX2 m highAnnual4 cm nectar andpollen rich flowersStudy species:
  37. 37. Breeding system & pollen limitationEffects on plant-pollinators networksInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmas!Combined effects of invasion & landscapestructureObjectives:
  38. 38. Breeding system andpollen limitationI CBartomeus I, Vilà M(Submited)
  39. 39. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CAsexual reproductionSelf compatibleGeneralistBaker(1967)Evolution
  40. 40. Breeding system and pollen limitationNew Interactions New InteractionsParcker and Haubenask (2002)OecologiaI CAsexual reproductionSelf compatibleGeneralistBaker(1967)Evolution
  41. 41. Study sites:Breeding system and pollen limitationOpuntia strictaCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisSuehs et al.(2004)HeredityI C
  42. 42. Study sites:Breeding system and pollen limitationOpuntia strictaCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisSuehs et al.(2004)HeredityI C
  43. 43. Study sites:Breeding system and pollen limitationOpuntia strictaCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisSuehs et al.(2004)HeredityI C
  44. 44. Kearns & Inouye(1993)5 Treatments:Forced out-crossingOpen pollinationAnemogamyFacilitated self-pollinationSpontaneous self-pollination40 flowers treatment x 3 siteBreeding system and pollen limitationI C
  45. 45. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  46. 46. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  47. 47. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  48. 48. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  49. 49. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  50. 50. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  51. 51. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  52. 52. Breeding system and pollen limitationI CSite 1Site 2Site 3ForcedOut-crossing
  53. 53. Breeding system and pollen limitationLow self-compatibility They need pollinatorsI C
  54. 54. Breeding system and pollen limitationLow self-compatibility They need pollinatorsSlightly pollen limitedHybridColeopteraI C
  55. 55. Breeding system and pollen limitationLow self-compatibility They need pollinatorsSlightly pollen limitedHybridColeopteraI CEfficient pollinatorsXilocopa violacea & Apis mellifera
  56. 56. Breeding system and pollen limitationLow self-compatibility They need pollinatorsSlightly pollen limitedHybridColeopteraI CEfficient pollinatorsXilocopa violacea & Apis mellifera
  57. 57. Effects on plant-pollinationnetworksI CBartomeus I, Vilà M & Santamaria L(2008)Oecologia
  58. 58. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  59. 59. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  60. 60. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  61. 61. Effects on plant-pollination networksCompetition with natives at a community levelPollinator sharingDecrease the number of visits to nativesChanges in the community structureNestednessCentralityStrengthI C
  62. 62. Effects on plant-pollination networksOpuntia strictaCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisI C
  63. 63. Effects on plant-pollination networksinix350x50I C
  64. 64. Effects on plant-pollination networksiniinix3x350x50I C
  65. 65. Effects on plant-pollination networksiniinix3x350x50I C
  66. 66. Effects on plant-pollination networksiniinix3x3We sample:All plant speciesAlong all the season50x50I C
  67. 67. Effects on plant-pollination networksPollinator species53 species to natives23 species to Carpobrotus (42%)I C
  68. 68. Effects on plant-pollination networksPollinator species53 species to natives23 species to Carpobrotus (42%)7 Visits nativesVisits27 Visits CarpobrotusI C
  69. 69. Effects on plant-pollination networks>70% natives increase nº visits in invadedplots (GLMM P<0.02)Pollinator species53 species to natives23 species to Carpobrotus (42%)7 Visits nativesVisits27 Visits CarpobrotusI C
  70. 70. Effects on plant-pollination networksPollinator species54 species to natives17 species to Opuntia (31%)I C
  71. 71. Effects on plant-pollination networks19% visitsXilocopaviolaceaPollinator species54 species to natives17 species to Opuntia (31%)I C
  72. 72. Effects on plant-pollination networks19% visitsXilocopaviolaceaPollinator species54 species to natives17 species to Opuntia (31%)6 Visits nativesVisits44 Visits OpuntiaI C
  73. 73. Effects on plant-pollination networks>60% natives decrease nº visits in invadedplots (GLMM P=0.04)19% visitsXilocopaviolaceaPollinator species54 species to natives17 species to Opuntia (31%)6 Visits nativesVisits44 Visits OpuntiaI C
  74. 74. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  75. 75. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  76. 76. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  77. 77. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  78. 78. Effects on plant-pollination networksI C
  79. 79. Effects on plant-pollination networksCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisPlantsPollinatorsI C
  80. 80. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednessBascompte et al.(2003)PNASI C
  81. 81. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednessBascompte et al.(2003)PNASI C
  82. 82. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednessBascompte et al.(2003)PNASIsoclineI C
  83. 83. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednessBascompte et al.(2003)PNASN= 0.83IsoclineI C
  84. 84. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednessBascompte et al.(2003)PNASN= 0.83IsoclineI C
  85. 85. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednessBascompte et al.(2003)PNASN= 0.83IsoclineI C
  86. 86. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednesslián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingNestedness. Nestednessano, Melián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387N=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & Elberling2. Nestednesspte, Jordano, Melián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387N=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & Elberling2. NestednessN=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingNull model2. NestednessN=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingI C
  87. 87. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednesslián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingNestedness50% more nested than by randomNo differences in Nestedness for CarpobrotusInvaded communities more nested than uninvadedfor Opuntia.. Nestednessano, Melián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387N=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & Elberling2. Nestednesspte, Jordano, Melián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387N=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & Elberling2. NestednessN=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingNull model2. NestednessN=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingI C
  88. 88. Effects on plant-pollination networksNestednesslián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingNestedness50% more nested than by randomNo differences in Nestedness for CarpobrotusInvaded communities more nested than uninvadedfor Opuntia.. Nestednessano, Melián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387N=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & Elberling2. Nestednesspte, Jordano, Melián and Olesen (2003). PNAS 100: 9383-9387N=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & Elberling2. NestednessN=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingNull model2. NestednessN=1N=0.55N=0.742, P<0.01Olesen & ElberlingI C
  89. 89. Centrality: Degree & BetweennessPajek Softweare
  90. 90. Centrality: Degree & BetweennessHigh Degree-CentralityPajek Softweare
  91. 91. Centrality: Degree & BetweennessHigh Betweenness-CentralityPajek Softweare
  92. 92. Centrality: Degree & BetweennessHigh Betweenness-CentralityPajek Softweare
  93. 93. Centrality: Degree & BetweennessHigh Betweenness-CentralityDCCarpobrotus > DCnatives(0.3) (0.09)DCOpuntia > DCnatives(0.38) (0.08)BCCarpobrotus > BCnatives(0.33) (0.08)BCOpuntia > BCnatives(0.46) (0.06)Pajek Softweare
  94. 94. Effects on plant-pollination networksOpuntia strictaPlantsPollinatorsjiI CBascompte et al.(2006)Science
  95. 95. Effects on plant-pollination networksOpuntia strictaPlantsPollinatorsjidji = nºVji/nº VjDependence of j on i:I CBascompte et al.(2006)Science
  96. 96. Effects on plant-pollination networksOpuntia strictaPlantsPollinatorsjidji = nºVji/nº VjDependence of j on i:Si = ∑ djiStrength of i:I CBascompte et al.(2006)Science
  97. 97. Effects on plant-pollination networksOpuntia strictaPlantsPollinatorsjiSCarpobrotus > Snatives(6.5) (2.2)SOpuntia > Snatives(8.1) (2.1)Strengthdji = nºVji/nº VjDependence of j on i:Si = ∑ djiStrength of i:I CBascompte et al.(2006)Science
  98. 98. Effects on plant-pollination networksBoth invaders are generalists:Nº PollinatorsNº of visitsPosition in the networkI C
  99. 99. Effects on plant-pollination networksDifferent effects on plant comunity:Increase visits in Carpobrotus plotsDecrease visits in Opuntia plotsI C
  100. 100. Invasive pollen transfer tonative stigmasI CBartomeus I, Bosch J & Vilà M (2008) Annals of Botany
  101. 101. CompetitionFacilitationCompetition No effectInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  102. 102. CompetitionFacilitationCompetition No effectInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  103. 103. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasSharedpollinatorsI C
  104. 104. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasPollen loads in pollinator bodiesConspecific pollenInvasive > heterospecific native pollenSharedpollinatorsI C
  105. 105. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasPollen loads in pollinator bodiesConspecific pollenInvasive > heterospecific native pollenPollen deposition in native plantstigmasProportion of invasive pollenSharedpollinatorsI C
  106. 106. Effects on plant-pollination networksCarpobrotus aff. acinaciformisI C
  107. 107. Carpobrotus39% plant cover36% of visitsFuchsine stained gelatineInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  108. 108. Carpobrotus39% plant cover36% of visitsFuchsine stained gelatine5 Plant species49% plant cover51% of visits10 pollinators(5 bees, 5 beetles)76% of visitsInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  109. 109. Carpobrotus39% plant cover36% of visitsFuchsine stained gelatine30 stigmas xspecies15 pollinators xinteraction5 Plant species49% plant cover51% of visits10 pollinators(5 bees, 5 beetles)76% of visitsInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  110. 110. Oxythyrea funestaCistus albidusInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  111. 111. Oxythyrea funestaCistus albidusInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasAndrena sp.Cistus salvifoliusI C
  112. 112. Oxythyrea funestaCistus albidusInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasAndrena sp.Cistus salvifoliusCistus monspeliensisI C
  113. 113. Oxythyrea funestaCistus albidusInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasAndrena sp.Cistus salvifoliusCistus monspeliensisLavandula stoechas Eucera spI C
  114. 114. Oxythyrea funestaCistus albidusInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasAndrena sp.Cistus salvifoliusCistus monspeliensisLavandula stoechas Eucera spI CSonchus tenerrimus Criptocephalus sp
  115. 115. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasApis melifera Bombus terrestrisAndrena sp.Anthidium sticticumHalictus gemmeusOxythyrea funestaCryptocephalus spMordella spOedemera spp.Psilothrix spI C
  116. 116. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasApis melifera Bombus terrestrisAndrena sp.Anthidium sticticumHalictus gemmeusOxythyrea funestaCryptocephalus spMordella spOedemera spp.Psilothrix spCistusLavandulaCarpobrotusI C
  117. 117. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasApis melifera Bombus terrestrisAndrena sp.Anthidium sticticumHalictus gemmeusOxythyrea funestaCryptocephalus spMordella spOedemera spp.Psilothrix spWe counted 139 063 pollengrainsAverage: 3 pollen species perindividualCistusLavandulaCarpobrotusI C
  118. 118. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasApis melifera Bombus terrestrisAndrena sp.Anthidium sticticumHalictus gemmeusOxythyrea funestaCryptocephalus spMordella spOedemera spp.Psilothrix spWe counted 139 063 pollengrainsAverage: 3 pollen species perindividualCistusLavandulaCarpobrotus73% carried invasive pollenI C
  119. 119. Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmasApis melifera Bombus terrestrisAndrena sp.Anthidium sticticumHalictus gemmeusOxythyrea funestaCryptocephalus spMordella spOedemera spp.Psilothrix spWe counted 139 063 pollengrainsAverage: 3 pollen species perindividualCistusLavandulaCarpobrotus73% carried invasive pollen23% of pollen was invasiveI C
  120. 120. Main ResultsInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  121. 121. Main ResultsInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  122. 122. Main ResultsInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  123. 123. Main ResultsInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  124. 124. 2 pollinators (bees):Dominant heterospecific > invasive (p < 0.001)6 pollinators:Dominant heterospecific ∼ invasive2 pollinators (beetles):Invasive > dominant heterospecific (p < 0.006)Invasive vs. heterospecific native pollenInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  125. 125. 2 pollinators (bees):Dominant heterospecific > invasive (p < 0.001)6 pollinators:Dominant heterospecific ∼ invasive2 pollinators (beetles):Invasive > dominant heterospecific (p < 0.006)Invasive vs. heterospecific native pollenInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  126. 126. All stigmas were coveredby pollenAverage: 2 pollen speciesper stigmaInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmas36% invasive pollenstigmasI C
  127. 127. All stigmas were coveredby pollenAverage: 2 pollen speciesper stigmaInvasive < heterospecific < conspecific (χ2, p < 0.0001)Invasive pollen transfer to native stigmas36% invasive pollenstigmasI C
  128. 128. 1) pollinatorspecies sharingInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  129. 129. 1) pollinatorspecies sharing2) effectivepollen transferInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  130. 130. 1) pollinatorspecies sharing3) low invasivepollen loads2) effectivepollen transferInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  131. 131. 1) pollinatorspecies sharing4) lower invasive pollen deposition3) low invasivepollen loads2) effectivepollen transferInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmasI C
  132. 132. 1) pollinatorspecies sharing4) lower invasive pollen deposition3) low invasivepollen loads2) effectivepollen transferInvasive pollen transfer to native stigmas...Floral constancy, morphology & temporal presentationI C
  133. 133. Combined effects of invasion& landscape structureI CBartomeus I, Vilà M & Setffan-Dewenter I(In preparation)
  134. 134. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I C
  135. 135. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I C
  136. 136. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structureInvasionI C
  137. 137. Landscape contextCombined effects of invasion & landscape structureInvasionI C
  138. 138. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I CSteffan-Dewenter et al.(2002)Ecology
  139. 139. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I CSteffan-Dewenter et al.(2002)Ecology
  140. 140. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I CSteffan-Dewenter et al.(2002)Ecology
  141. 141. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I CSteffan-Dewenter et al.(2002)Ecology
  142. 142. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I CWestphal et al.(2003)Ecol Lett
  143. 143. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I CWestphal et al.(2003)Ecol Lett
  144. 144. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I CWestphal et al.(2003)Ecol Lett
  145. 145. X 14 sites in a landscape gradientCombined effects of invasion & landscape structure17% of natural cover71% of natural coverGrasslandAgricultural fieldsHuman activity areaLandscape sites at 3000 m radii.ForestI C
  146. 146. X 14 sites in a landscape gradientCombined effects of invasion & landscape structure17% of natural cover71% of natural coverGrasslandAgricultural fieldsHuman activity areaLandscape sites at 3000 m radii.ForestI C100m 100mBefore Impatiens flowering periodRaphanus sativuspotsImpatiensstands
  147. 147. X 14 sites in a landscape gradient100m 100mDuring Impatiens flowering peakCombined effects of invasion & landscape structure17% of natural cover71% of natural coverGrasslandAgricultural fieldsHuman activity areaLandscape sites at 3000 m radii.ForestI C100m 100mBefore Impatiens flowering periodRaphanus sativuspotsImpatiensstands
  148. 148. Log (proportion of agricultural land cover)Log(numberofbumblebeesvisits)01221 1.5Combined effects of invasion & landscape structureBefore Impatiens floweringDuring Impatiens floweringR2= 0.25; p< 0.003I C
  149. 149. Log (proportion of agricultural land cover)Log(numberofbumblebeesvisits)01221 1.5Combined effects of invasion & landscape structureBefore Impatiens floweringDuring Impatiens floweringR2= 0.25; p< 0.003I C
  150. 150. aabc0510152025303540Before /Non-invadedBefore /InvadedDuring /Non-invadedDuring /Invadedvisits to nativesNumberofvisitstothecommunitybvisits to invaderCombined effects of invasion & landscape structure I C
  151. 151. aabc0510152025303540Before /Non-invadedBefore /InvadedDuring /Non-invadedDuring /Invadedvisits to nativesNumberofvisitstothecommunitybvisits to invaderCombined effects of invasion & landscape structure I C
  152. 152. aabc0510152025303540Before /Non-invadedBefore /InvadedDuring /Non-invadedDuring /Invadedvisits to nativesNumberofvisitstothecommunitybvisits to invaderCombined effects of invasion & landscape structure I C
  153. 153. 05101520253035404550% Fruit setNº VisitsRaphanus potsCombined effects of invasion & landscape structureBefore /Non-invadedBefore /InvadedDuring /Non-invadedDuring /InvadedI CNºVisits/%Fruitset
  154. 154. 05101520253035404550% Fruit setNº VisitsRaphanus potsCombined effects of invasion & landscape structureBefore /Non-invadedBefore /InvadedDuring /Non-invadedDuring /InvadedI CNºVisits/%Fruitset
  155. 155. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure I C
  156. 156. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure1) Social bees increase inagricultural areas beforethe invasive plant flowering2) No effect on wild beesI C
  157. 157. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structure4) Native plants do notdecrease visitation, nor seed set3) Impatiens attracts mainlybumblebees1) Social bees increase inagricultural areas beforethe invasive plant flowering2) No effect on wild beesI C
  158. 158. Combined effects of invasion & landscape structureImpatiens mask offthe landscape effect4) Native plants do notdecrease visitation, nor seed set3) Impatiens attracts mainlybumblebees1) Social bees increase inagricultural areas beforethe invasive plant flowering2) No effect on wild beesI C
  159. 159. CompetitionFacilitationNo effectConclusions
  160. 160. CompetitionFacilitationNo effectCarpobrotusConclusions
  161. 161. CompetitionFacilitationNo effectImpatiensConclusions
  162. 162. CompetitionFacilitationNo effectOpuntiaConclusions
  163. 163. CompetitionFacilitationNo effect mask offlandscape contextImpatiensConclusions
  164. 164. CompetitionFacilitationNo effect mask offlandscape contextImpatiensConclusions
  165. 165. CompetitionFacilitationNo effect mask offlandscape contextImpatiensConclusions
  166. 166. Take home messagePlant-pollinator networks are complex &the invasion outcome is difficult to predict.However, invasive plants cause significant changeson the networks.
  167. 167. Thank you for your attentionAnd special Thanks to collaborators: Montse Vilà, JordiBosch, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Lab colleges: Jara Andreu,Nuria Gasso, Salva Blanch, Belén Sanchez and CREAFfriends.

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