Ibahrine Chapter 9 Culture And Advertising Appeals


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Ibahrine Chapter 9 Culture And Advertising Appeals

  1. 1. Chapter 9 <ul><li>Culture and </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising Appeals </li></ul>
  2. 2. APPEALS IN ADVETISING <ul><li>The appeal in advertising is a comprehensive concept </li></ul><ul><li>The appeal includes values and motives that define the central message </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal connects with some emotion that makes the product particularly attractive or interesting, such as security, esteem, fear, sex and sensory pleasure </li></ul>
  3. 3. APPEALS IN ADVETISING <ul><li>Emphasis on the price is an economy appeal </li></ul><ul><li>A status appeal is used for presenting quality and expressive products </li></ul><ul><li>The advertising style is the combination of appeal motives and basic advertising form and the execution </li></ul>
  4. 4. Value paradoxes in advertising <ul><li>Go-it-alone – belonging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDV: also families in advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COL: few families in advertising, or incomplete families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COL: for perfume also people alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equality - standing out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US: everyone has an equal change to become rich and be able to stand out of the crowd </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom – dependence/harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COL: it is difficult to be different - Lois-Spain </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of APPEALS BY DIMENSION <ul><li>Status symbols are less frequently used in small power distance cultures than in large power distance cultures where prestige is an important appeal </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples of APPEALS BY DIMENSION <ul><li>In large power distance cultures, the elder advises the younger </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of APPEALS BY DIMENSION <ul><li>In small power distance cultures, the younger advises the elder </li></ul>
  8. 8. Appeals individualism-collectivism <ul><li>IDV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct approach: You, We, I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping nice things for oneself [Magnum after dinner print ad and TV commercial, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alone can be relaxing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals part of groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain: Enjoyment in the group </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>In individualistic cultures people tend to be dressed in a direct and personalized way </li></ul><ul><li>Words like you, we, and I are frequently used </li></ul><ul><li>In individualistic cultures, the personal pronoun I is frequently used </li></ul>
  10. 10. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>Low-context communication is more textual </li></ul><ul><li>High-context communication is more visual </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet has changed this equation. </li></ul><ul><li>In the United States, technology has led to less copy </li></ul>
  11. 11. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures appeals focus on in-group benefits, harmony and family </li></ul><ul><li>These appeals are more effective </li></ul><ul><li>In individualistic cultures, advertising is more effective that appeals to individual benefits and preferences, personal success and independence </li></ul>
  12. 12. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures people like to share things </li></ul><ul><li>In individualistic cultures, people may keep the nice thing for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>The Ice cream brand magnum has used this approach in the German advertisement that says </li></ul><ul><li>“ I share many things, but not everything” </li></ul>
  13. 13. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures being alone means you have no friend and no identity </li></ul><ul><li>In individualistic cultures, people can enjoy a beer alone and being alone can even have a relaxing function </li></ul>
  14. 14. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>The configuration individualism and masculinity makes people have respect for those who stand out and are successful, </li></ul><ul><li>In the United States the cult of personality and obsession with celebrity and stardom is pronounced </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivistic cultures, celebrities are even more frequently used in advertising than in the United States </li></ul>
  15. 15. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>In Japan, the word talent (tarento) is used to describe most celebrities in the entertainment world </li></ul><ul><li>Star is reserved for those who are seen to have long-lasting popularity </li></ul><ul><li>The function of Tarento is to give the brand “face” in the world of brands with similar product attributes </li></ul>
  16. 16. I get, I choose
  17. 17. Spain: better in a group
  18. 18. Magnum after dinner The typical thing to share, but keeping it for oneself.
  19. 19. Appeals Masculinity-Femininity <ul><li>Masculine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hype: Be the best, the greatest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The big Mac, King of clubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women can be tough </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Appeals Masculinity-Femininity <ul><li>Feminine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caring, softness, small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understatement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t show off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlapping roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men can be tender </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Appeals Masculinity-Femininity <ul><li>The combination of individualism and masculinity Anglo-German cultures leads to the strong need to win, to be successful and show it, combined with the wish to dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Being First </li></ul><ul><li>Be the best </li></ul><ul><li>We would like to set the record </li></ul><ul><li>Simply the best </li></ul><ul><li>A dream come true </li></ul>
  22. 22. Appeals Masculinity-Femininity <ul><li>In masculine cultures, status is important for demonstrating one’s success </li></ul><ul><li>To become the man or the woman of the year is the ideal for people in masculine culture </li></ul><ul><li>Another reflection of American culture is </li></ul><ul><li>Bigness </li></ul><ul><li>America is Land of big egos </li></ul><ul><li>Big cars </li></ul><ul><li>Big Mac </li></ul>
  23. 23. Appeals Masculinity-Femininity <ul><li>Feminine cultures are characterized by favoring caring, softness and the small </li></ul><ul><li>Much of Volvo advertising tends to focus on safety and family </li></ul><ul><li>In feminine cultures, showing off is negative </li></ul><ul><li>“ True refinement comes from within” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High <ul><li>Strong Uncertainty avoidance translates into the need for explanation, structure, testing, test reports, scientific proof and advice and testimonials by experts, but also into high technology and design </li></ul>
  25. 25. Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High <ul><li>Purity and freshness are important appeals for food products in high uncertainty avoidance cultures </li></ul><ul><li>In high uncertainty avoidance advertising, the consequence of manufacturer must be demonstrated </li></ul>
  26. 26. Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High <ul><ul><li>The brands are called experts to provide detail and deep scientific information about the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purity in food and drink, ‘natural, nature’ claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White = purity symbols in detergent advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process orientation, how things work </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High <ul><li>Testing and test reports are favored in strong uncertainty avoidance cultures </li></ul>
  28. 28. Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High <ul><li>Favorite German expressions are </li></ul><ul><li>Besten im Testen (The best in the test) </li></ul><ul><li>Testsieger (Testwinner) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical explanations about products can be very detailed for all sorts of products </li></ul>
  29. 29. Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High <ul><li>Fear appeals are more effective in high uncertainty avoidance cultures </li></ul><ul><li>than in low uncertainty avoidance cultures, where people are more responsive to benefits than to threats </li></ul>
  30. 30. Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High <ul><li>Design is a strong element of German and Italian advertising </li></ul><ul><li>German advertisements focus on technological aspects of design </li></ul><ul><li>The French and Spaniards are more art and fashion-oriented </li></ul>
  31. 31. Appeals Long/Short-term Orientation <ul><li>Short-term orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy now, don’t wait, instant pleasure [Radio rentals UK, CK, Haagen Dasz] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living now more important than thinking of tomorrow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving for later, thrift [Save energy Japan] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature symbols [Matsushita Japan, AST, Korean Air] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of education [Frisomel brainpower Vietnam] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term symbolism [Selex, LG] </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Appeals Long/Short-term Orientation <ul><ul><li>Harmony is a popular appeal in Asian adverting It is an indirect approach to build trust in the shop or company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuals and objects are used to please the eye. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The long-term orientation demand harmony and thus explains this advertising style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The objective is to please not to intrude a </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Appeals Long/Short-term Orientation <ul><ul><li>Loreal has a great idea with a central message worldwide, but consumers decide it is not congruent with their values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’Oreal has global advertising campaign with the central theme “ Because I am worth it “ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers in Asia read it as “ Because you are worth it” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they are not willing to say “ I am worth it” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So the company changed it accordingly </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Do great ideas travel? <ul><li>Most concepts do not travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not understood or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: freedom of choice, work where you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’Oréal: “Because I am worth it” changes into “because you are worth it” in Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some well-known, very strong brands can afford to develop strong advertising ideas and/or executions that do travel </li></ul>
  35. 35. Country-of-origin concept <ul><li>An appeal that travels to a certain extent is the country of origin appeal (COO) </li></ul><ul><li>The appeal is based on the combination of the product category and country of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Fashionable for clothes will relate to French origin </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of cars ill relate to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Whisky from Scotland </li></ul>
  36. 36. Humor <ul><li>Most humor doesn’t travel, it plays with conventions of societies that are culture-bound </li></ul><ul><li>Culture also influences the type of humor used </li></ul><ul><li>Humor in the United States and United Kingdom: pun, understatement, joke, the ludicrous, satire and irony </li></ul>