Ibahrine Chapter 9 Culture And Advertising Appeals
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Ibahrine Chapter 9 Culture And Advertising Appeals






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Ibahrine Chapter 9 Culture And Advertising Appeals Ibahrine Chapter 9 Culture And Advertising Appeals Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 9
    • Culture and
    • Advertising Appeals
    • The appeal in advertising is a comprehensive concept
    • The appeal includes values and motives that define the central message
    • Appeal connects with some emotion that makes the product particularly attractive or interesting, such as security, esteem, fear, sex and sensory pleasure
    • Emphasis on the price is an economy appeal
    • A status appeal is used for presenting quality and expressive products
    • The advertising style is the combination of appeal motives and basic advertising form and the execution
  • Value paradoxes in advertising
    • Go-it-alone – belonging
      • IDV: also families in advertising
      • COL: few families in advertising, or incomplete families
      • COL: for perfume also people alone
    • Equality - standing out
      • US: everyone has an equal change to become rich and be able to stand out of the crowd
    • Freedom – dependence/harmony
      • COL: it is difficult to be different - Lois-Spain
    • Status symbols are less frequently used in small power distance cultures than in large power distance cultures where prestige is an important appeal
    • In large power distance cultures, the elder advises the younger
    • In small power distance cultures, the younger advises the elder
  • Appeals individualism-collectivism
    • IDV
      • Direct approach: You, We, I
      • Keeping nice things for oneself [Magnum after dinner print ad and TV commercial,
      • Alone can be relaxing
    • COL
      • Individuals part of groups
      • Spain: Enjoyment in the group
    • In individualistic cultures people tend to be dressed in a direct and personalized way
    • Words like you, we, and I are frequently used
    • In individualistic cultures, the personal pronoun I is frequently used
    • Low-context communication is more textual
    • High-context communication is more visual
    • The Internet has changed this equation.
    • In the United States, technology has led to less copy
    • In collectivistic cultures appeals focus on in-group benefits, harmony and family
    • These appeals are more effective
    • In individualistic cultures, advertising is more effective that appeals to individual benefits and preferences, personal success and independence
    • In collectivistic cultures people like to share things
    • In individualistic cultures, people may keep the nice thing for themselves
    • The Ice cream brand magnum has used this approach in the German advertisement that says
    • “ I share many things, but not everything”
    • In collectivistic cultures being alone means you have no friend and no identity
    • In individualistic cultures, people can enjoy a beer alone and being alone can even have a relaxing function
    • The configuration individualism and masculinity makes people have respect for those who stand out and are successful,
    • In the United States the cult of personality and obsession with celebrity and stardom is pronounced
    • In collectivistic cultures, celebrities are even more frequently used in advertising than in the United States
    • In Japan, the word talent (tarento) is used to describe most celebrities in the entertainment world
    • Star is reserved for those who are seen to have long-lasting popularity
    • The function of Tarento is to give the brand “face” in the world of brands with similar product attributes
  • I get, I choose
  • Spain: better in a group
  • Magnum after dinner The typical thing to share, but keeping it for oneself.
  • Appeals Masculinity-Femininity
    • Masculine
      • Hype: Be the best, the greatest
      • Show off
      • The big Mac, King of clubs
      • Role differentiation
      • Women can be tough
  • Appeals Masculinity-Femininity
    • Feminine
      • Caring, softness, small
      • Understatement
      • Don’t show off
      • Overlapping roles
      • Men can be tender
  • Appeals Masculinity-Femininity
    • The combination of individualism and masculinity Anglo-German cultures leads to the strong need to win, to be successful and show it, combined with the wish to dominate
    • Being First
    • Be the best
    • We would like to set the record
    • Simply the best
    • A dream come true
  • Appeals Masculinity-Femininity
    • In masculine cultures, status is important for demonstrating one’s success
    • To become the man or the woman of the year is the ideal for people in masculine culture
    • Another reflection of American culture is
    • Bigness
    • America is Land of big egos
    • Big cars
    • Big Mac
  • Appeals Masculinity-Femininity
    • Feminine cultures are characterized by favoring caring, softness and the small
    • Much of Volvo advertising tends to focus on safety and family
    • In feminine cultures, showing off is negative
    • “ True refinement comes from within”
  • Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High
    • Strong Uncertainty avoidance translates into the need for explanation, structure, testing, test reports, scientific proof and advice and testimonials by experts, but also into high technology and design
  • Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High
    • Purity and freshness are important appeals for food products in high uncertainty avoidance cultures
    • In high uncertainty avoidance advertising, the consequence of manufacturer must be demonstrated
  • Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High
      • The brands are called experts to provide detail and deep scientific information about the product
      • Purity in food and drink, ‘natural, nature’ claims
      • White = purity symbols in detergent advertising
      • Process orientation, how things work
  • Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High
    • Testing and test reports are favored in strong uncertainty avoidance cultures
  • Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High
    • Favorite German expressions are
    • Besten im Testen (The best in the test)
    • Testsieger (Testwinner)
    • Technical explanations about products can be very detailed for all sorts of products
  • Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High
    • Fear appeals are more effective in high uncertainty avoidance cultures
    • than in low uncertainty avoidance cultures, where people are more responsive to benefits than to threats
  • Appeals Uncertainty Avoidance High
    • Design is a strong element of German and Italian advertising
    • German advertisements focus on technological aspects of design
    • The French and Spaniards are more art and fashion-oriented
  • Appeals Long/Short-term Orientation
    • Short-term orientation
      • Buy now, don’t wait, instant pleasure [Radio rentals UK, CK, Haagen Dasz]
      • Living now more important than thinking of tomorrow
    • Long-term orientation
      • Saving for later, thrift [Save energy Japan]
      • Nature symbols [Matsushita Japan, AST, Korean Air]
      • Importance of education [Frisomel brainpower Vietnam]
      • Long-term symbolism [Selex, LG]
  • Appeals Long/Short-term Orientation
      • Harmony is a popular appeal in Asian adverting It is an indirect approach to build trust in the shop or company.
      • Visuals and objects are used to please the eye.
      • The long-term orientation demand harmony and thus explains this advertising style
      • The objective is to please not to intrude a
  • Appeals Long/Short-term Orientation
      • Loreal has a great idea with a central message worldwide, but consumers decide it is not congruent with their values
      • L’Oreal has global advertising campaign with the central theme “ Because I am worth it “
      • Consumers in Asia read it as “ Because you are worth it”
      • Because they are not willing to say “ I am worth it”
      • So the company changed it accordingly
  • Do great ideas travel?
    • Most concepts do not travel
      • Not understood or
      • Misunderstood
      • Examples: freedom of choice, work where you want
      • L’Oréal: “Because I am worth it” changes into “because you are worth it” in Asia
    • Some well-known, very strong brands can afford to develop strong advertising ideas and/or executions that do travel
  • Country-of-origin concept
    • An appeal that travels to a certain extent is the country of origin appeal (COO)
    • The appeal is based on the combination of the product category and country of origin
    • Fashionable for clothes will relate to French origin
    • Quality of cars ill relate to Germany
    • Whisky from Scotland
  • Humor
    • Most humor doesn’t travel, it plays with conventions of societies that are culture-bound
    • Culture also influences the type of humor used
    • Humor in the United States and United Kingdom: pun, understatement, joke, the ludicrous, satire and irony