Ibahrine Chapter 8 Culture And Media

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  • The media mix is how each media vehicle will be utilized, and at what level, during a given campaign. For most campaigns, marketers will use different media vehicles since no single vehicle is suitable for every customer segment.
  • Ibahrine Chapter 8 Culture And Media

    1. 1. Chapter 8 <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>the Media </li></ul>
    2. 2. AN EVER-Changing Media Landscape <ul><li>MEDIA multitasking, parallel processing and perpetual partial attention </li></ul><ul><li>Watching television, working on the computer or on their mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest media junkies can be found in Malaysia (13 hrs a day), Thailand (12 hrs a day) and (Hong Long China, 12 hrs a day) </li></ul>
    3. 3. AN EVER-Changing Media Landscape <ul><li>The Internet has played a pivotal role in changing the way marketers and advertisers reach consumers </li></ul><ul><li>It has led to cross-media synergy </li></ul><ul><li>It has redefined integrated marketing communication </li></ul>
    4. 4. Media Mix TV Radio Print Internet Out of Home
    5. 5. Key Media Concepts <ul><li>Media Mix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way various types of media are strategically combined to create a certain kind of impact. </li></ul></ul>31/12/09
    6. 6. Key Media Players <ul><li>Media sales people work for a magazine or TV station; provide sales kits with information about audience and medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Media reps or brokers are people/companies who sell space and time for a variety of media, allowing the media buyer to place the buy with one order. </li></ul><ul><li>Media researchers compile audience measurement data, media costs, and availability data for the various media options. </li></ul>31/12/09
    7. 7. Key Media Players <ul><li>Media buyers implement the media plan by contracting for specific amounts of time or space, based on the plan developed by the media planner. </li></ul><ul><li>Media buying companies specialize in media research, planning, and buying. They may be a spin off from an advertising agency and now work for a variety of clients. </li></ul>31/12/09
    8. 8. AN EVER-Changing Media Landscape <ul><li>In the west, where consistency in messages is expected, marketers have to work hard to get a consistent message through, to speak with one voice </li></ul><ul><li>In the East and likely in their collectivistic cultures, messages may vary with the situation, but appropriateness to the context is important </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Media Plan <ul><ul><li>Identifies the best media to efficiently deliver an advertising message to a targeted audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A subsection within an advertising plan with its own objectives, strategies, and tactics. </li></ul></ul>31/12/09
    10. 10. AN EVER-Changing Media Landscape <ul><li>Media planning, also called channel planning nowadays, is defined as the organization of great variety of contact points between people and brands that the marketer can influence directly or indirectly </li></ul><ul><li>People shop while surrounded by a vast array of brand experiences that influence their association networks of brands </li></ul>
    11. 11. AN EVER-Changing Media Landscape <ul><li>Advertising seen on television, the Internet, cinema, and posters, in newspapers and magazines, and heard on radio </li></ul><ul><li>All these exposures leave some trace in consumers’ minds, which may play a part in influencing brand choice at the point of purchase </li></ul>
    12. 12. TELEVISION <ul><li>Broadcasting plays a significant role in the leisure activities of people </li></ul><ul><li>Penetration of television sets has convergence across countries </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in viewing times between countries are considerable </li></ul><ul><li>Television consumption varies by county </li></ul><ul><li>UAE </li></ul>
    13. 13. TELEVISION <ul><li>In the Western world, violence in television programs has increased; people in masculine cultures are more attracted to violent programs than people in feminine cultures </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivistic, polychronic cultures, the TV set tends to be on the whole day </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivistic and masculine cultures, television is even more integrated into daily life </li></ul>
    14. 14. TELEVISION <ul><li>How people watch TV alone, with friends, or with families is also related to culture </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of local preferences, many international TV channels have localized language and content </li></ul><ul><li>CNN International and MTV started as a global channels but have localized content and language </li></ul>
    15. 15. IPTV <ul><li>Sending TV signals via Internet is called Netcasting as compared to traditional broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV provides higher quality TV viewing, which is attractive to art-loving cultures like Spain, France and Italy, which were the early adopters </li></ul>
    16. 16. IPTV <ul><li>In the past, TV viewing was something to be enjoyed within the home </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivity and flexibility have increased and TV over broadband and TV over mobile </li></ul><ul><li>In cultures, where people are used to doing much in the public domain, mobile TV is embraced faster than in cultures where people prefer doing things in the privacy of the home </li></ul>
    17. 17. RADIO <ul><li>Radio sets are widely available in most homes </li></ul><ul><li>In individualistic cultures, everybody has his or her radio set or even more than one </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivistic cultures, one per family may be enough </li></ul>
    18. 18. PRESS MEDIA <ul><li>Cultural differences in using press media are similar to reading in general, which is an activity mostly of individualistic cultures of weak uncertainty avoidance and low power distance </li></ul>
    19. 19. THE MOBILE PHONE <ul><li>In many countries, the number of fixed lines has been declining slowly while the number of mobile subscription has been increasing </li></ul><ul><li>By 2005, Italy , Spain and United Kingdom, all had more mobile subscription than inhabitants, implying a growing number of users with multiple subscription </li></ul>
    20. 20. THE MOBILE PHONE <ul><li>Countries have converged with respect to mobile phone penetration, how people use the mobile, for which purpose, and how they pay for it varies with technological development and with culture </li></ul><ul><li>In some countries, people prefer subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>In others, they prefer pre-paid </li></ul><ul><li>In the collectivistic, high power distance cultures, people use it more to network and to talk to friend and family frequently </li></ul>
    21. 21. THE MOBILE PHONE <ul><li>On a train in Italy everybody is talking to everybody on their mobile phones, and loudly </li></ul><ul><li>In individualistic cultures where people communicate in a different way and cherish privacy, people use mobile phone more to inform each other </li></ul>
    22. 22. An Information Explosion, On the Go <ul><li>Music, books, x-rays and home videos all contribute to a sea of information </li></ul><ul><li>Internet users increasingly obtain information from mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Instant messaging and text messaging create new frontier for marketers </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs, podcasts and beyond create new challenges for reaching audience </li></ul>
    23. 23. THE WORLD-WIDE WEB <ul><li>The Internet by its very nature is a global communication channel </li></ul><ul><li>You can reach customers everywhere in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth and individualism are the primary determinants of the structure of international hyperlink flows </li></ul>
    24. 24. THE WORLD-WIDE WEB <ul><li>Companies of individualistic and feminine cultures use more com domains </li></ul><ul><li>Companies from collectivistic and masculine cultures tend to adopt country domains </li></ul><ul><li>The basic roles of the Internet are information (search for, compare and buy) </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment (games and online video) </li></ul><ul><li>Social (emails, social networks and chat rooms) </li></ul>
    25. 25. THE WORLD-WIDE WEB <ul><li>Companies of individualistic and feminine cultures use more com domains </li></ul><ul><li>Companies from collectivistic and masculine cultures tend to adopt country domains </li></ul><ul><li>The basic roles of the Internet are information (search for, compare and buy) </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment (games and online video) </li></ul><ul><li>Social (emails, social networks and chat rooms) </li></ul>
    26. 26. WEB.2.0 <ul><li>The “new” Web </li></ul><ul><li>Applications and technologies that allow users to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create, edit, and distribute content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>share preferences, bookmarks, and online personas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participate in virtual lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build online communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YouTube, Photobucket, Flickr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. E-COMMERCE <ul><li>Companies of individualistic and feminine cultures use more com domains </li></ul><ul><li>Companies from collectivistic and masculine cultures tend to adopt country domains </li></ul><ul><li>The basic roles of the Internet are information (search for, compare and buy) </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment (games and online video) </li></ul><ul><li>Social (emails, social networks and chat rooms) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Types of E-commerce <ul><li>Classified by nature of market relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-to-Consumer (B2C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-to-Business (B2B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classified by type of technology used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer (P2P) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile commerce (M-commerce) </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Web 2.0 Features and Services <ul><li>Blogs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Web page that typically contains a series of chronological entries by its author, and links to related Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Really Simple Syndication (RSS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to have digital content automatically sent to them; typically used for news </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Podcasting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio presentation stored as an audio file and available for download from Web </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Web 2.0 Features and Services <ul><li>Wiki: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows user to easily add and edit content on Web page </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New music and video services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videocasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video on demand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Telephony: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) and Internet’s packet-switched network to transmit voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Web 2.0 Features and Services <ul><li>Internet television (IPTV) </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Online software and Web services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web apps, widgets and gadgets, digital software libraries, distributed storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M-commerce applications </li></ul>
    32. 32. THE SOCIAL AND ENTERTAINMENT ROLES OF THE INTERNET <ul><li>The creation of social networking and entertainment sites build on the interactive power of the internet </li></ul><ul><li>This has caused a shift in control of media from publishers to consumes, better pronsumers </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated content has a huge impact on the traditional media and advertising </li></ul>
    33. 33. THE SOCIAL AND ENTERTAINMENT ROLES OF THE INTERNET <ul><li>The creation of social networking and entertainment sites build on the interactive power of the internet </li></ul><ul><li>This has caused a shift in control of media from publishers to consumes, better pronsumers </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated content has a huge impact on the traditional media and advertising </li></ul>
    34. 34. THE SOCIAL AND ENTERTAINMENT ROLES OF THE INTERNET <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures, people are expected to make fewer contacts with strangers than in individualistic cultures </li></ul>
    35. 35. THE SOCIAL AND ENTERTAINMENT ROLES OF THE INTERNET: The BLOG <ul><li>Weblog or blog is an online space regularly updated presenting the opinions or activities of one or a group of individuals and displayed in reverse chronological order </li></ul>
    36. 36. THE SOCIAL AND ENTERTAINMENT ROLES OF THE INTERNET: The BLOG <ul><li>Japanese was the most used blogging language followed by English </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese blogs are dominated by hobby and recreational blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Companies use blogs for various purposes and in various business areas </li></ul>
    37. 37. THE SOCIAL AND ENTERTAINMENT ROLES OF THE INTERNET: The BLOG <ul><li>It may increase the company’s reputation for being open and concerned with its customers and environment or may help in rebuilding damaged reputation by entering he market debate with different side of the story </li></ul>
    38. 38. Internet advertising <ul><li>Different approaches for different roles of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Internet motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research (information seeking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate (connect, e-mail, friends, family, others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surf (entertainment, online gaming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IDV: information; COL: communication </li></ul><ul><li>Main advertising formats: e-mail, banner ads, viral marketing </li></ul>
    39. 39. Internet advertising <ul><li>Aspect of online advertising is its ability to offer targeted, personalized, measurable campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Internet advertising can serve several purposes such as to provide a brand reminder message to people visiting a website </li></ul><ul><li>It can also serve a way to entice people to visit the advertisers site by clicking on a banner or button to the website </li></ul>
    40. 40. Internet advertising <ul><li>The different roles of the Internet ask for different approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Those who access the internet for information must be approached with different from those who seek entertainment or social communications </li></ul>
    41. 41. Internet advertising <ul><li>The main formats used for internet adverting are </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Banner ads </li></ul><ul><li>Viral marketing </li></ul>
    42. 42. Internet advertising <ul><li>One of the attractive features of E-mail advertiising is that is inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: The blasting of millions of unsolicited emails messages to emails boxes has become highly irritating </li></ul>
    43. 43. Internet advertising <ul><li>The banner ads is the oldest form of advertising on the word web </li></ul><ul><li>Banners functions as traditional advertisements' </li></ul><ul><li>They can raise brand awareness </li></ul><ul><li>They can serve as a direct marketing device because of he click through function </li></ul>
    44. 44. Viral Marketing <ul><ul><li>The terms viral marketing, guerilla marketing or buzz marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to the idea that people will pass on and share striking and entertaining content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is also called user-generated content (UGC) </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Viral Marketing <ul><li>These viral commercials often take the form of funny video clips, or interactive Flash games, images, or text </li></ul><ul><li>Viral marketing can use e-mail to circulate a message among family and friend, but it mostly uses social networks </li></ul>
    46. 46. Viral Marketing <ul><li>User generated content (UGC): people pass on and share striking and entertaining content </li></ul><ul><li>Axe : The Axe Effect: Getting girls has never been easier, thanks to the AXE effect. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Viral Marketing <ul><ul><li>TV commercials are exchanged on the internet, discussed in blogs and shared via YouTube </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Ad Format: Acceptability and Effectiveness <ul><li>Acceptability of ad formats varies across countries and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, larger formats were more readily accepted </li></ul><ul><li>In the Dutch view, the less intrusive and smaller the better and ads that are too bold and flashy are regarded as less appealing </li></ul><ul><li>The larger banner ads are more effective in generating click-through than the smaler sized banners </li></ul>
    49. 49. Web Site Design <ul><li>Cultural adaptation enhances ease of use and favorable attitudes toward web site </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites reflect values of country of origin </li></ul><ul><li>High-context cultures more animation and moving people </li></ul><ul><li>Differences East-West re interactive communication styles </li></ul>
    50. 50. Web Site Design <ul><li>Japanese websites exhibit clear gender roles and are rich in colors and aesthetics with pictures of butterflies, cherry blossoms or other nature scenes </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Websites are direct, text-heavy, informative, logical, success-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>High-context cultures use more animation and images of moving people than low-context cultures and images promote values characteristic of collective culture </li></ul>
    51. 51. Web Site Design <ul><li>In high-context cultures where people are more motivated by social interaction, online marketers should generate more consumer interaction such as discussion forums and chat rooms </li></ul><ul><li>In low-context cultures where people search for information, online marketers should emphasize information features such as keyword search and virtual product display </li></ul>
    52. 52. Web Site Design <ul><li>Web design includes creating ads that run on the web as well as the Web site itself </li></ul><ul><li>Banner ads are designed more like outdoor boards than conventional print ads because their small space puts intense requirements on the designer to make the ad communicate quickly and yet attract attention and curiosity to elicit a click-through response </li></ul>
    53. 53. Web Site Design <ul><li>The graphics should be simple </li></ul><ul><li>Use one or two typefaces and avoiding ALL CAPs and letter spacing that distorts the words </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing the information is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of legibility, black type on a high-contrast background usually is the best </li></ul>
    54. 54. Web Site Design <ul><li>All the design elements : type and graphic should be big enough to see on the smallest screen </li></ul><ul><li>Clear navigation: users should be able to move through the site easily </li></ul><ul><li>Eye tracking research found out that if the navigation is cluttered or unclear, viewers will give up and move onto some other sites </li></ul>
    55. 55. Web Site Design <ul><li>Users who visit a site regularly should be able to customize the site to fit their own interests and navigation patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Web video is becoming a new business opportunity for businesses that want to use videos to display their products </li></ul>
    56. 56. Organization International Media Planning <ul><li>Countries vary with respect to their Media Landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Media plans of the home country cannot be used in another country </li></ul><ul><li>Media Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Media costs measured differently </li></ul><ul><li>Cost and effectiveness of media vary </li></ul><ul><li>Media conditions vary too much for centralized planning and buying </li></ul>
    57. 57. Organization International Media Planning <ul><li>The cost per Gross Rating Point (GRP) to reach the same target group </li></ul><ul><li>A media configuration successful in one market may not work in other markets </li></ul><ul><li>The number of channels available, </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing time </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of advertising clutter </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in television measurement techniques </li></ul>
    58. 58. Organization International Media Planning <ul><li>Advertising or media agencies have proprietary media effectiveness tools to measure variety of means of communication by product category </li></ul>
    59. 59. Organization International Media Planning <ul><li>Tying in to Internet search makes companies become more aware of what consumers want and allows them to respond to consumer wants in a more sophisticated way </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet allows for better consumer insight to tie into different behavioral profiles </li></ul>
    60. 60. Organization International Media Planning <ul><li>What is consumer insight? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a profile? </li></ul>
    61. 61. Organization International Media Planning <ul><li>Finding the most effective media mix for each different country requires experts who know the national media landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Centralizing planning and implementation is possible only when media conditions are similar across markets </li></ul><ul><li>International media planning is still frequently relegated to specialty teams </li></ul>
    62. 62. A Shift for Marketing <ul><li>From “Selling the Brand” – The old model emphasized on mass production and a promoting a distinct brand </li></ul><ul><li>To “Managing the Consumer” – Online marketing puts focus on the customer’s individualized interests and demands </li></ul>
    63. 63. The value of a complete network rises rapidly, but not every link shares the same value
    64. 64. Branding by Domain Name <ul><li>Reinforce branding </li></ul><ul><li>Build traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate consumer behavior and mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Memorability matters </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity counts </li></ul>
    65. 65. Branding by Domain Name SOURCE: Bloomberg News/Landov Alternate names should help drive traffic to main site
    66. 66. Enhancing Brand Meaning <ul><li>Online images and content reinforce brand personality and imagery </li></ul>
    67. 67. Enhancing Brand Meaning <ul><li>Online images and content reinforce brand personality and imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Digital content transforms a brand into an authority </li></ul>
    68. 68. Enhancing Brand Meaning <ul><li>Online images and content reinforce brand personality and imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Digital content transforms a brand into an authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stain Detective at Tide.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily pollen counts at Allegra.com </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Enhancing Brand Meaning <ul><li>Online images and content reinforce brand personality and imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Digital content transforms a brand into an authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stain Detective at Tide.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily pollen counts at Allegra.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online responses offer a swift, and lasting, response to brand crises </li></ul>
    70. 70. Enhancing Brand Meaning <ul><li>Pairing traditional media campaigns with Web advertising helps drive customer response to a brand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billboards, television have wide reach but limited information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet lacks wide reach but provides deep content, elaboration, reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “handoff” strategy recognizes strengths and weaknesses of each media type </li></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Forging Brand Relationships <ul><li>Online content can deepen consumer attachment to a specific brand </li></ul>
    72. 72. Forging Brand Relationships <ul><li>Online content can deepen consumer attachment to a specific brand </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy drives brand connections and can be highlighted through online and multi-media content </li></ul>
    73. 73. Forging Brand Relationships <ul><li>Online content can deepen consumer attachment to a specific brand </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy drives brand connections and can be highlighted through online and multi-media content </li></ul><ul><li>Brand communities place special emphasis on a brand or product and are powerful purchasers </li></ul>
    74. 74. Forging Brand Relationships Brands as socially negotiated constructs

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