Chapter  5 Culture &  Consumer Behavior American University of Sharjah  College of Arts and Sciences Department of Mass Co...
Chapter 5 Objectives Explain how advertising differs from the basic communication process Outline the consumer perception ...
Framework of cross-cultural  consumer behavior Consumer behavior domains Attributes “ who” P rocesses “ how” Social proces...
Consumer behavior <ul><li>The study of the processes involved when people select, purchase, use or dispose of product, ser...
Consumer behavior
Consumer behavior <ul><li>I AM WHAT I COSUME </li></ul><ul><li>SELF </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY  </li></ul>
Consumer attributes <ul><li>Concept of self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self descriptions, self evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Consumer attributes <ul><li>People buy product that are compatible with their SELF-CONCEPT </li></ul><ul><li>Or rather tha...
The self-concept  <ul><li>The self consists of the body, family, possessions, moods, emotions, conscience, attitudes, valu...
The self-concept  <ul><li>The concept of self is rooted in individualism  </li></ul><ul><li>A person is an autonomous enti...
Hierarchy of Effects Model 6- Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase Cognitive Affective Conative
7- The Hierarchy of Effects Model Message Strategies &  Advertising Components
Self-respect, self-esteem <ul><li>Self-respect and self-esteem important US values targeted in marketing. </li></ul><ul><l...
Personality <ul><li>Is the sum of the qualities and characteristics of being a person in individualistic cultures where th...
Personality <ul><li>Basic assumptions of individualistic cultures:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People should distinguish from o...
Identity  <ul><li>Identity is the idea one has about oneself, one’s charactericti propreties, one’s own body and the value...
Identity  <ul><li>In Western societies, people tend to assess the identity of self and others based on personality traits ...
Identity  <ul><li>In collectivist culture /societies, people are not used to do so </li></ul><ul><li>They assess themselve...
Image <ul><li>Image is how others see and judge a person </li></ul>
Body Image <ul><li>In Western psychology, the body is viewed as part of the identity </li></ul><ul><li>Body esteem is rela...
Body Image <ul><li>In Japan, where people attribute success more to external than to internal sources </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
self esteem <ul><li>a Dove film - Girl's self-esteem </li></ul>
Body Image <ul><li>In IDV cultures gap between real and ideal self; search for  ideal  body; body esteem =  self esteem </...
Dove campaign for real beauty <ul><li>Unilever developed  global “campaign for real beauty” for its personal care brand Do...
Marketing metaphors <ul><li>Personality and identity used as metaphors in marketing and branding </li></ul><ul><li>Compani...
Marketing metaphors <ul><li>The concepts of brand personality and brand identity are metaphors from individualistic cultur...
Marketing metaphors <ul><li>Jennifer Aaker found five brand personality factors in the United States that she labeled  </l...
Marketing metaphors <ul><li>Jennifer Aaker found five brand personality factors in the Japan and Spain that she labeled  <...
Global brand positions across cultures Friendly Austria Denmark Germany Finland Sweden UK Norway Belgium Italy France Spai...
Attitude <ul><li>Western consumer behaviorists view an attitude as a lasting, general evaluation of people (including ones...
Attitude <ul><li>Western definition: attitudes help organize and structure one’s environment and provide consistency in on...
Attitude <ul><li>Collectivists cultures/Societies people form attitudes that fulfill their social identity functions, and ...
Attitude <ul><li>For assessing advertising effectiveness, advertisement tends to be measured and the information is used a...
Lifestyle <ul><li>Lifestyle is described in terms of shared values or tastes as reflected in consumption patterns  </li></...
Lifestyle <ul><li>Lifestyle represents the way one allocates income </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle descriptions include attit...
Social processes <ul><li>Needs, motivation, buying motives </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion, emotions in advertising </li></ul><u...
Needs <ul><li>Functional needs </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs: fashion, status brands </li></ul><ul><li>Product category r...
Motivation <ul><li>Motivation research seeks to understand the “why” of our behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Freud: culture-rela...
Emotion <ul><li>Process involving interaction cognition and physiology. Mind influences body, body influences mind. </li><...
Culture and emotion <ul><li>Universal basic emotions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more abstract, the more universal </li></u...
Measurement of emotions & culture <ul><li>Recognition and judgment of expressions of emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measur...
Measurement of emotions & culture <ul><ul><li>Recognition of emotions:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans focus on mout...
Group processes <ul><li>Individualism: Individuals have unique personalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals must stand ...
Group processes <ul><li>Collectivism: The dependent self in collectivistic cultures lives in harmony with the group and th...
Mental processes <ul><li>Language, perception and memory  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual – verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cat...
C onsumer behavior  domains <ul><li>Product  acquisition,  usage  and ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food, household prod...
Adoption of innovations, USA Innovators Early  adopters Early  majority Late majority Laggards 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16%
Consumer Behavior: Consumer Decision Process e
Personal Processes: Consumer Perception
Personal Processes: Learning and Persuasion Theories of Learning Cognitive Conditioning <ul><li>Memory, thinking,   proble...
Personal Processes: Elaboration Likelihood Model
Personal Processes: Consumer Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Motivation:  underlying forces driving decisions Inser...
Personal Processes: Consumer Motivation Rossiter & Percy’s fundamental motives Negative Motives:  problem removal or avoid...
Influences on Consumer Behavior Interpersonal Family Culture Society: Reference Groups & Opinion Leaders
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Ibahrine Chapter 5 Culture Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Culture & Consumer Behavior American University of Sharjah College of Arts and Sciences Department of Mass Communication Dr. Ibahrine
  2. 2. Chapter 5 Objectives Explain how advertising differs from the basic communication process Outline the consumer perception process & explain why “perception is everything” Describe how a consumer’s level of involvement with a product influences the decision-making process Describe the fundamental motives behind consumer purchases Explain how advertisers deal with cognitive dissonance Discuss various influences on consumer behavior
  3. 3. Framework of cross-cultural consumer behavior Consumer behavior domains Attributes “ who” P rocesses “ how” Social processes Motivation , emotion Group processes Mental processes Cognition, learning Language, perception Attribution Information processing Communication Decision making Personality Self-concept Identity, image Attitude Lifestyle Product ownership and usage Adoption/diffusion of innovations Complaining behavior Brand loyalty Responses to advertising Media usage Source: Adapted from Manrai and Manrai (1996) Income Consumer The person Values, culture
  4. 4. Consumer behavior <ul><li>The study of the processes involved when people select, purchase, use or dispose of product, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy need and desires </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consumer behavior
  6. 6. Consumer behavior <ul><li>I AM WHAT I COSUME </li></ul><ul><li>SELF </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY </li></ul>
  7. 7. Consumer attributes <ul><li>Concept of self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self descriptions, self evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self enhancement, self esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity and image </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship attitude-behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consumer attributes <ul><li>People buy product that are compatible with their SELF-CONCEPT </li></ul><ul><li>Or rather that enhance their “ideal-self|” </li></ul>
  9. 9. The self-concept <ul><li>The self consists of the body, family, possessions, moods, emotions, conscience, attitudes, values, traits, and social position </li></ul><ul><li>The self-concept plays a central role in behavior and psychological processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Major distinction between independent self and interdependent self; ‘me’ as a unique entity or ‘me’ as integrated in the social environment. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The self-concept <ul><li>The concept of self is rooted in individualism </li></ul><ul><li>A person is an autonomous entity </li></ul><ul><li>In the collectivist model of the self, persons are fundamentally interdependent with one another </li></ul><ul><li>A person is an interdependent entity </li></ul><ul><li>Real self vs ideal self </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hierarchy of Effects Model 6- Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase Cognitive Affective Conative
  12. 12. 7- The Hierarchy of Effects Model Message Strategies & Advertising Components
  13. 13. Self-respect, self-esteem <ul><li>Self-respect and self-esteem important US values targeted in marketing. </li></ul><ul><li>Self enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Group enhancement </li></ul>
  14. 14. Personality <ul><li>Is the sum of the qualities and characteristics of being a person in individualistic cultures where the person is defined as an independent self-contained, autonomous entity who comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes (traits, abilities, motives and values) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Personality <ul><li>Basic assumptions of individualistic cultures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People should distinguish from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-situational consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits are universal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In collectivistic cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person is interdependent entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual behavior is situational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics vary by social role </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Identity <ul><li>Identity is the idea one has about oneself, one’s charactericti propreties, one’s own body and the values one considers important </li></ul>
  17. 17. Identity <ul><li>In Western societies, people tend to assess the identity of self and others based on personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>Age, occupation and material symbols </li></ul>
  18. 18. Identity <ul><li>In collectivist culture /societies, people are not used to do so </li></ul><ul><li>They assess themselves in terms of their ability to maintain harmonious relationships with others </li></ul><ul><li>One’s identity is the group: the family, neighborhood, school or the company where one works </li></ul>
  19. 19. Image <ul><li>Image is how others see and judge a person </li></ul>
  20. 20. Body Image <ul><li>In Western psychology, the body is viewed as part of the identity </li></ul><ul><li>Body esteem is related to self-esteem, and people attribute more desirable characteristics to physically attractive persons </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable appearance leads to greater self-esteem </li></ul>
  21. 21. Body Image <ul><li>In Japan, where people attribute success more to external than to internal sources </li></ul><ul><li>There is less emphasis on the body as a source of esteem </li></ul><ul><li>The development of self-esteem and happiness, external physical appearance is less important than success in social role performance </li></ul>
  22. 22. self esteem <ul><li>a Dove film - Girl's self-esteem </li></ul>
  23. 23. Body Image <ul><li>In IDV cultures gap between real and ideal self; search for ideal body; body esteem = self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Models pose as independent persons </li></ul><ul><li>Asia: less emphasis on body as source of self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural groups have different definitions of physical attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivistic cultures physical appearance less important than success in social role performance </li></ul><ul><li>Models pose in ways to show dependency, harmony: open face, girlish pose </li></ul><ul><li>On magazine covers poses in US media defiant, reflect independence. In Asia open: dependence. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dove campaign for real beauty <ul><li>Unilever developed global “campaign for real beauty” for its personal care brand Dove </li></ul><ul><li>The real beauty ican be found only on the inside </li></ul><ul><li>Evey Women deseves to feel bautiful </li></ul><ul><li>Dove campaign for real beauty and pro-age campaign [films and print ads on CD and document on Dove campaign] </li></ul>
  25. 25. Marketing metaphors <ul><li>Personality and identity used as metaphors in marketing and branding </li></ul><ul><li>Companies have identities (Corporate identity) </li></ul><ul><li>Brands should have unique personalities with characteristics like people have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. friendly, trustworthy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differentiate versus the competition </li></ul><ul><li>And position versus competitive brands </li></ul><ul><li>Brand positions should be consistent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But: consumer take-out different from company input </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Marketing metaphors <ul><li>The concepts of brand personality and brand identity are metaphors from individualistic cultures that are less understandable and less useful to collectivistic cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Katakana is the Japanese word for identity </li></ul><ul><li>It means to be aware of one-self as oneself but this awareness of self is based on connections with others </li></ul>
  27. 27. Marketing metaphors <ul><li>Jennifer Aaker found five brand personality factors in the United States that she labeled </li></ul><ul><li>Sincerity </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Ruggedness </li></ul>
  28. 28. Marketing metaphors <ul><li>Jennifer Aaker found five brand personality factors in the Japan and Spain that she labeled </li></ul><ul><li>Peacefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Passion </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Likeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Prestigious </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthy </li></ul>
  29. 29. Global brand positions across cultures Friendly Austria Denmark Germany Finland Sweden UK Norway Belgium Italy France Spain Netherlands PDI- UAI- UAI+ PDI+ Innovative Different Prestigious Turkey, Russia, Ukraine Switzerland Trustworthy
  30. 30. Attitude <ul><li>Western consumer behaviorists view an attitude as a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), object, advertisements, or issue </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes have affective and cognitive components </li></ul><ul><li>The affective component includes feelings and emotions one experiences in response to an attitude object </li></ul><ul><li>The cognitive component includes attributes and functions of object </li></ul>
  31. 31. Attitude <ul><li>Western definition: attitudes help organize and structure one’s environment and provide consistency in one’s frame of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Individualists want consistency between their attitudes and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior of consumers can be predicted from their attitudes towards products, services and brands and a purchase prediction is derived from a positive attitude </li></ul>
  32. 32. Attitude <ul><li>Collectivists cultures/Societies people form attitudes that fulfill their social identity functions, and there is not consistent relationship between attitude and future behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Shared experience influences brand attitude positively more than individualistic cultures </li></ul>
  33. 33. Attitude <ul><li>For assessing advertising effectiveness, advertisement tends to be measured and the information is used as an indication of buying intention </li></ul><ul><li>This is a logical practice in individualistic cultures </li></ul><ul><li>But the practice will not work the same way in collectivist cultures </li></ul>
  34. 34. Lifestyle <ul><li>Lifestyle is described in terms of shared values or tastes as reflected in consumption patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics </li></ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics are viewed as the raw ingredients to develop a unique lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle is viewed more as a mental construct that explains actual behavior </li></ul>
  35. 35. Lifestyle <ul><li>Lifestyle represents the way one allocates income </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle descriptions include attitudes, values and behavioral elements </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyles are country-specific </li></ul><ul><li>Culture overrides lifestyle: sharing ownership of some goods doesn’t make cultural groups or communities. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Social processes <ul><li>Needs, motivation, buying motives </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion, emotions in advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Group processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-group and out-group; reference group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public vs private space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion leaders </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Needs <ul><li>Functional needs </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs: fashion, status brands </li></ul><ul><li>Product category related needs: e.g. purity in food and drink </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow categorized human needs in a hierarchy of importance </li></ul><ul><li>There is a little evidence to support Maslow’s hypothesis that there is a universal order among the nonphysiological goals </li></ul>
  38. 38. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation research seeks to understand the “why” of our behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Freud: culture-related </li></ul><ul><li>Buying motives; category & culture motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurations of dimensions explain differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status: Power distance and masculinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car buying motives: Masculinity and uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whisky: Power distance = social status need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find explaining dimensions by correlating category data with all five dimensions </li></ul>
  39. 39. Emotion <ul><li>Process involving interaction cognition and physiology. Mind influences body, body influences mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are affective responses that are learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are integral wholes in which various components are linked together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several elements of emotions are related to culture </li></ul>
  40. 40. Culture and emotion <ul><li>Universal basic emotions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more abstract, the more universal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotion and language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most languages possess sets of emotion-labeling words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English: anger, fear, sadness, joy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words linked with different experiences across cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Display rules and recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display and recognition of emotions vary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning and intensity of emotions vary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asian collectivists don’t display negative emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressions misunderstood across cultures </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Measurement of emotions & culture <ul><li>Recognition and judgment of expressions of emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement based on recognition of facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of context (most measurements in laboratory situations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding measures vary: emotion terms used; content varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russell: Only happiness can be universally understood. Many emotions confused: disgust-contempt; sadness-contempt and fear; fear-surprise </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Measurement of emotions & culture <ul><ul><li>Recognition of emotions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans focus on mouth, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA: - :) & : ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese focus on eyes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan: ^_ ^ & ;_; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smile universal expression of happiness? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotion-eliciting events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDV: being alone can cause happiness; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COL: being alone can cause sadness (relationship problem) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Group processes <ul><li>Individualism: Individuals have unique personalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals must stand out, demonstrate they are different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are sets of unique individuals, harmony not necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of opinion leaders and the media in decision making process </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Group processes <ul><li>Collectivism: The dependent self in collectivistic cultures lives in harmony with the group and the environment; does not want to stand out. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-group and out-group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependence in in-group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal communication in decision making process </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Mental processes <ul><li>Language, perception and memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual – verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Categorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand extension fit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences expression of behavior intention and decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal-external </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. C onsumer behavior domains <ul><li>Product acquisition, usage and ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food, household products, personal products, clothing & footwear, household appliances, consumer electronics, luxury articles, communication technology, cars, leisure, finance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complaining behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences individualism-collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal action vs harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion of innovations </li></ul>
  47. 47. Adoption of innovations, USA Innovators Early adopters Early majority Late majority Laggards 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16%
  48. 48. Consumer Behavior: Consumer Decision Process e
  49. 49. Personal Processes: Consumer Perception
  50. 50. Personal Processes: Learning and Persuasion Theories of Learning Cognitive Conditioning <ul><li>Memory, thinking, problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Trial and error </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant to complex purchases and learning from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant to simple, everyday purchases </li></ul>
  51. 51. Personal Processes: Elaboration Likelihood Model
  52. 52. Personal Processes: Consumer Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Motivation: underlying forces driving decisions Insert ex. 5-5, p. 154 Maslow’s Hierarchy table Position = 0.35” horiz, 3.5” vertical Size = 8.2” WIDE Resolution = 300 dpi Needs are basic & often instinctive Wants are learned during lifetime
  53. 53. Personal Processes: Consumer Motivation Rossiter & Percy’s fundamental motives Negative Motives: problem removal or avoidance Positive Motives: benefit, bonus or reward Insert ex. 5-6, p. 155 8 Purchase Motives Position = 0.5” horiz, 1.5” vertical Size = 4.6” TALL Resolution = 300 dpi
  54. 54. Influences on Consumer Behavior Interpersonal Family Culture Society: Reference Groups & Opinion Leaders
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