Ibahrine Chapter 5 Culture Consumer Behavior
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  • 1. Chapter 5 Culture & Consumer Behavior American University of Sharjah College of Arts and Sciences Department of Mass Communication Dr. Ibahrine
  • 2. Chapter 5 Objectives Explain how advertising differs from the basic communication process Outline the consumer perception process & explain why “perception is everything” Describe how a consumer’s level of involvement with a product influences the decision-making process Describe the fundamental motives behind consumer purchases Explain how advertisers deal with cognitive dissonance Discuss various influences on consumer behavior
  • 3. Framework of cross-cultural consumer behavior Consumer behavior domains Attributes “ who” P rocesses “ how” Social processes Motivation , emotion Group processes Mental processes Cognition, learning Language, perception Attribution Information processing Communication Decision making Personality Self-concept Identity, image Attitude Lifestyle Product ownership and usage Adoption/diffusion of innovations Complaining behavior Brand loyalty Responses to advertising Media usage Source: Adapted from Manrai and Manrai (1996) Income Consumer The person Values, culture
  • 4. Consumer behavior
    • The study of the processes involved when people select, purchase, use or dispose of product, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy need and desires
  • 5. Consumer behavior
  • 6. Consumer behavior
    • SELF
  • 7. Consumer attributes
    • Concept of self
      • Self descriptions, self evaluations
      • Self enhancement, self esteem
    • Personality
      • Personality traits
    • Identity and image
    • Attitude
      • Relationship attitude-behavior
    • Lifestyle
  • 8. Consumer attributes
    • People buy product that are compatible with their SELF-CONCEPT
    • Or rather that enhance their “ideal-self|”
  • 9. The self-concept
    • The self consists of the body, family, possessions, moods, emotions, conscience, attitudes, values, traits, and social position
    • The self-concept plays a central role in behavior and psychological processes.
    • Major distinction between independent self and interdependent self; ‘me’ as a unique entity or ‘me’ as integrated in the social environment.
  • 10. The self-concept
    • The concept of self is rooted in individualism
    • A person is an autonomous entity
    • In the collectivist model of the self, persons are fundamentally interdependent with one another
    • A person is an interdependent entity
    • Real self vs ideal self
  • 11. Hierarchy of Effects Model 6- Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase Cognitive Affective Conative
  • 12. 7- The Hierarchy of Effects Model Message Strategies & Advertising Components
  • 13. Self-respect, self-esteem
    • Self-respect and self-esteem important US values targeted in marketing.
    • Self enhancement
    • Group enhancement
  • 14. Personality
    • Is the sum of the qualities and characteristics of being a person in individualistic cultures where the person is defined as an independent self-contained, autonomous entity who comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes (traits, abilities, motives and values)
  • 15. Personality
    • Basic assumptions of individualistic cultures:
      • People should distinguish from others
      • Cross-situational consistency
      • Personality traits are universal
    • In collectivistic cultures
      • Person is interdependent entity
      • Individual behavior is situational
      • Characteristics vary by social role
  • 16. Identity
    • Identity is the idea one has about oneself, one’s charactericti propreties, one’s own body and the values one considers important
  • 17. Identity
    • In Western societies, people tend to assess the identity of self and others based on personality traits
    • Age, occupation and material symbols
  • 18. Identity
    • In collectivist culture /societies, people are not used to do so
    • They assess themselves in terms of their ability to maintain harmonious relationships with others
    • One’s identity is the group: the family, neighborhood, school or the company where one works
  • 19. Image
    • Image is how others see and judge a person
  • 20. Body Image
    • In Western psychology, the body is viewed as part of the identity
    • Body esteem is related to self-esteem, and people attribute more desirable characteristics to physically attractive persons
    • Desirable appearance leads to greater self-esteem
  • 21. Body Image
    • In Japan, where people attribute success more to external than to internal sources
    • There is less emphasis on the body as a source of esteem
    • The development of self-esteem and happiness, external physical appearance is less important than success in social role performance
  • 22. self esteem
    • a Dove film - Girl's self-esteem
  • 23. Body Image
    • In IDV cultures gap between real and ideal self; search for ideal body; body esteem = self esteem
    • Models pose as independent persons
    • Asia: less emphasis on body as source of self-esteem
    • Cultural groups have different definitions of physical attractiveness
    • In collectivistic cultures physical appearance less important than success in social role performance
    • Models pose in ways to show dependency, harmony: open face, girlish pose
    • On magazine covers poses in US media defiant, reflect independence. In Asia open: dependence.
  • 24. Dove campaign for real beauty
    • Unilever developed global “campaign for real beauty” for its personal care brand Dove
    • The real beauty ican be found only on the inside
    • Evey Women deseves to feel bautiful
    • Dove campaign for real beauty and pro-age campaign [films and print ads on CD and document on Dove campaign]
  • 25. Marketing metaphors
    • Personality and identity used as metaphors in marketing and branding
    • Companies have identities (Corporate identity)
    • Brands should have unique personalities with characteristics like people have
      • E.g. friendly, trustworthy
    • Differentiate versus the competition
    • And position versus competitive brands
    • Brand positions should be consistent
      • But: consumer take-out different from company input
  • 26. Marketing metaphors
    • The concepts of brand personality and brand identity are metaphors from individualistic cultures that are less understandable and less useful to collectivistic cultures
    • Katakana is the Japanese word for identity
    • It means to be aware of one-self as oneself but this awareness of self is based on connections with others
  • 27. Marketing metaphors
    • Jennifer Aaker found five brand personality factors in the United States that she labeled
    • Sincerity
    • Excitement
    • Competence
    • Sophistication
    • Ruggedness
  • 28. Marketing metaphors
    • Jennifer Aaker found five brand personality factors in the Japan and Spain that she labeled
    • Peacefulness
    • Passion
    • Passive Likeableness
    • Prestigious
    • Trustworthy
  • 29. Global brand positions across cultures Friendly Austria Denmark Germany Finland Sweden UK Norway Belgium Italy France Spain Netherlands PDI- UAI- UAI+ PDI+ Innovative Different Prestigious Turkey, Russia, Ukraine Switzerland Trustworthy
  • 30. Attitude
    • Western consumer behaviorists view an attitude as a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), object, advertisements, or issue
    • Attitudes have affective and cognitive components
    • The affective component includes feelings and emotions one experiences in response to an attitude object
    • The cognitive component includes attributes and functions of object
  • 31. Attitude
    • Western definition: attitudes help organize and structure one’s environment and provide consistency in one’s frame of reference
    • Individualists want consistency between their attitudes and behaviors
    • The behavior of consumers can be predicted from their attitudes towards products, services and brands and a purchase prediction is derived from a positive attitude
  • 32. Attitude
    • Collectivists cultures/Societies people form attitudes that fulfill their social identity functions, and there is not consistent relationship between attitude and future behavior
    • Shared experience influences brand attitude positively more than individualistic cultures
  • 33. Attitude
    • For assessing advertising effectiveness, advertisement tends to be measured and the information is used as an indication of buying intention
    • This is a logical practice in individualistic cultures
    • But the practice will not work the same way in collectivist cultures
  • 34. Lifestyle
    • Lifestyle is described in terms of shared values or tastes as reflected in consumption patterns
    • Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics
    • Personal characteristics are viewed as the raw ingredients to develop a unique lifestyle
    • Lifestyle is viewed more as a mental construct that explains actual behavior
  • 35. Lifestyle
    • Lifestyle represents the way one allocates income
    • Lifestyle descriptions include attitudes, values and behavioral elements
    • Lifestyles are country-specific
    • Culture overrides lifestyle: sharing ownership of some goods doesn’t make cultural groups or communities.
  • 36. Social processes
    • Needs, motivation, buying motives
    • Emotion, emotions in advertising
    • Group processes
      • In-group and out-group; reference group
      • Public vs private space
      • Opinion leaders
  • 37. Needs
    • Functional needs
    • Social needs: fashion, status brands
    • Product category related needs: e.g. purity in food and drink
    • Maslow categorized human needs in a hierarchy of importance
    • There is a little evidence to support Maslow’s hypothesis that there is a universal order among the nonphysiological goals
  • 38. Motivation
    • Motivation research seeks to understand the “why” of our behavior
    • Freud: culture-related
    • Buying motives; category & culture motives
      • Configurations of dimensions explain differences
      • Status: Power distance and masculinity
      • Car buying motives: Masculinity and uncertainty avoidance
      • Whisky: Power distance = social status need
    • Find explaining dimensions by correlating category data with all five dimensions
  • 39. Emotion
    • Process involving interaction cognition and physiology. Mind influences body, body influences mind.
    • Emotions are affective responses that are learned.
    • Emotions are integral wholes in which various components are linked together
      • Experience
      • Facial expression
      • Physiological response
    • Several elements of emotions are related to culture
  • 40. Culture and emotion
    • Universal basic emotions?
      • The more abstract, the more universal
    • Emotion and language
      • Most languages possess sets of emotion-labeling words
      • English: anger, fear, sadness, joy
      • Words linked with different experiences across cultures
    • Display rules and recognition
      • Display and recognition of emotions vary
      • Meaning and intensity of emotions vary
      • East Asian collectivists don’t display negative emotions
      • Expressions misunderstood across cultures
  • 41. Measurement of emotions & culture
    • Recognition and judgment of expressions of emotions
      • Measurement based on recognition of facial expressions
      • Absence of context (most measurements in laboratory situations)
      • Decoding measures vary: emotion terms used; content varies
      • Russell: Only happiness can be universally understood. Many emotions confused: disgust-contempt; sadness-contempt and fear; fear-surprise
  • 42. Measurement of emotions & culture
      • Recognition of emotions:
      • Americans focus on mouth,
      • USA: - :) & : (
      • Japanese focus on eyes:
      • Japan: ^_ ^ & ;_;
      • Smile universal expression of happiness?
    • Emotion-eliciting events
      • IDV: being alone can cause happiness;
      • COL: being alone can cause sadness (relationship problem)
  • 43. Group processes
    • Individualism: Individuals have unique personalities
      • Individuals must stand out, demonstrate they are different
      • Groups are sets of unique individuals, harmony not necessary
      • Role of opinion leaders and the media in decision making process
  • 44. Group processes
    • Collectivism: The dependent self in collectivistic cultures lives in harmony with the group and the environment; does not want to stand out.
      • In-group and out-group
      • Interdependence in in-group
      • Informal communication in decision making process
  • 45. Mental processes
    • Language, perception and memory
      • Visual – verbal
    • Categorization
      • Brand extension fit
    • Locus of control
      • Influences expression of behavior intention and decision making
    • Information processing
    • Decision making
      • Internal-external
  • 46. C onsumer behavior domains
    • Product acquisition, usage and ownership
      • Food, household products, personal products, clothing & footwear, household appliances, consumer electronics, luxury articles, communication technology, cars, leisure, finance
    • Complaining behavior
      • Differences individualism-collectivism
      • Legal action vs harmony
    • Brand loyalty
      • Influence individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance
    • Diffusion of innovations
  • 47. Adoption of innovations, USA Innovators Early adopters Early majority Late majority Laggards 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16%
  • 48. Consumer Behavior: Consumer Decision Process e
  • 49. Personal Processes: Consumer Perception
  • 50. Personal Processes: Learning and Persuasion Theories of Learning Cognitive Conditioning
    • Memory, thinking, problem solving
    • Trial and error
    • Relevant to complex purchases and learning from other people
    • Relevant to simple, everyday purchases
  • 51. Personal Processes: Elaboration Likelihood Model
  • 52. Personal Processes: Consumer Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Motivation: underlying forces driving decisions Insert ex. 5-5, p. 154 Maslow’s Hierarchy table Position = 0.35” horiz, 3.5” vertical Size = 8.2” WIDE Resolution = 300 dpi Needs are basic & often instinctive Wants are learned during lifetime
  • 53. Personal Processes: Consumer Motivation Rossiter & Percy’s fundamental motives Negative Motives: problem removal or avoidance Positive Motives: benefit, bonus or reward Insert ex. 5-6, p. 155 8 Purchase Motives Position = 0.5” horiz, 1.5” vertical Size = 4.6” TALL Resolution = 300 dpi
  • 54. Influences on Consumer Behavior Interpersonal Family Culture Society: Reference Groups & Opinion Leaders