Ibahrine Chapter 2
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  • 1. Chapter Two
    INTERNET FUNDAMENTALS: OPERATIONS, MANAGEMENT
  • 2. 2-2
    Learning Objectives
    The basics of Internet operations
    To gain a perspective on how and why the Internet operates so smoothly
    To identify World Wide Web attributes
  • 3. 2-3
    Cisco and the Internet’s Infrastructure
    What is Cisco’s contribution to the Internet?
  • 4. 2-4
    Cisco and the Internet’s Infrastructure
    What is Cisco’s contribution to the Internet?
    Cisco Systems is the undisputed worldwide leader in the manufacture and sale of internet data-networking equipment and software
    A good place to begin learning how the Internet works is with the role played by Cisco’s many internet related products:
    Routers
    Switches
    Remote
    Access Servers
    Security Systems
  • 5. 2-5
    How The Internet Works
    Routers
    Are sophisticated computers and routing protocols embedded in the software that runs them
    They are also called the Internet’s traffic cops
  • 6. 2-6
    How The Internet Works
    Servers
    Servers are computers and software that runs them
    They serve data, by storing files that other computers can access
  • 7. 2-7
    How The Internet Works
    Software
    is a set of programs that can run one, many or millions of computers
    They create files and documents
  • 8. 2-8
    How The Internet Works
    Internet services
    Email
    FTP File Transfer Protocol: A set of message formats or rules that enable a user to transfer files to and from another computer over a TCP/IP network
  • 9. 2-9
    How The Internet Works
    The information superhighway or infobahn was a popular term used through the 1990s to refer to digital communication systems and the internet telecommunications network
    Al Gore, United States Senator and later Vice-President, strongly influenced the term
  • 10. 2-10
    How The Internet Works
    Barriers
    Affordability
    Lack of open access
    Lack of freedom of speech
    Undercapacity
    Complexity
    Incompatible laws
    Lack of privacy
    Security
    Irresponsible use
    Can everyone use the Internet?
    Should marketers want everyone online?
    How vulnerable is the Internet?
  • 11. 2-11
    Internet Management
    Who manages the Internet
    Emarketing occurs on a global electronic network shared by millions of computers
    Given its size, it would be easy to assume that a powerful central international management system maintains the stability of the matrix and get all members to cooperate and coordinate their efforts
  • 12. 2-12
    Internet Management
    Instead, the Internet management is highly fluid, with changing contributors and highly distributed, with shifting power centers
    The U.S. government did not disappear from internet management
    It takes part in international initiatives that deal with such cross-border internet issues as jurisdiction, privacy and cyper-terrorism
    Jurisdiction
    It oversee issues related to U.S. internet operation, including spam, gambling and online pornography
  • 13. 2-13
    Internet Management
    Today, the Internet is run by no single entity, yet it is not unmanaged chaos online
    Key U.S. government agencies continue to regulate U.S. online activities
    The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
    The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  • 14. 2-14
    Internet Management
    Voluntary professional organizations
    A number of voluntary professional committees run the technical side of the Internet
    Much of the work is coordinated by the Internet Society (ISOC)
    The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
    Is an industry-supported organizations that develops standards for the WEB
    It is dedicated to maintaining the web interoperability and growth
  • 15. 2-15
    Internet Management
    The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
    It was created by the U.S. government
    It is a nonprofit corporation responsible for allocating IP addresses and managing the domain name system
    ICANN accredits companies that register domain names for business and organizations
  • 16. 2-16
    Internet Management
    Self-regulation
    Another mechanism for managing the Internet activities is self-regulation, which frequently is undertaken to forestall the need for government regulation
    Another form of internet self-regulation is industry-specific
  • 17. 2-17
    Internet Management
    Like every system operating on the Internet matrix, the Web adheres to the TCP/IP protocol
    It also requires a unique protocol, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), for exchanging HTML files, including webpages, images, text, sound, video and graphics
    • It
  • 2-18
    Internet Management
    Web pages are distinguished by
    • Adjustable size (larger or smaller to fit a computer screen)
    • 18. Scroll pages
    • 19. Link within pages
    • 20. Link to other pages, sites
    • 21. Multipage displays
    • 22. Arrangement of text
    • 23. Graphics
    • 24. Design (bright, colorful, interesting and highly creative)
    • 25. Multimedia elements
    • 26. Hypertext links
    • 27. It
  • 2-19
    How The Web Works
    The Web facilitates marketing exchanges through links, real time interactivity, 24/7/365 access, personalization, customization, and relationships
    Web pages and sites create marketing opportunities
    Web addresses are marketing tools
    URLs, domains, and names
    Portals
    The Web brings marketing offers directly and personally to target markets
  • 28. 2-20
    How The Web Works
    Hyperlinks are hypertext connections
    Links help make the Web interactive and useful
    A link is a connection from a word, image or object to another area within a page
  • 29. 2-21
    How The Web Works
    Some sites are so complicated and poorly organized that it takes too long for visitors to drill down to a destination page
    Content on some web pages is hard to understand or is not informative
  • 30. 2-22
    How The Web Works
    Web pages and sites create marketing opportunities
    Web addresses are marketing tools for building awareness and directing visitors to a site
    All locations on the Internet and web have an address
    Websites are accessed using the Internet protocol (IP) and a Unique Resource Locator (URL)
  • 31. 2-23
    How The Web Works
    Domains and names were introduced to simplify internet addressing by allowing the substitution of words for numbers
    The Domain Name System (DNS) established a hierarchical order for top level and secondary-level domains
    Top level names = edu. Com, net, gov and the two digit Country Codes (CC)
    Secondary level names = second level domain appear directly before the Country Code
    www.co.uk.
  • 32. 2-24
    How The Web Works
    In 2002, seven names were added:
    Aero (air transport industry)
    Biz. (business)
    Coop (Cooperation)
    Info (unrestricted use)
    Museum (Museums)
    Name (individual)
    Pro (lawyers and other professions)
  • 33. 2-25
    How The Web Works
    The net regulator ICANN has "internationalised domain names" in non-Latin characters
    Egypt and Saudi Arabia have announced their intentions to apply for the first Arabic domains
    Egypt new domain name would be ".masr" written in the Arabic alphabet
  • 34. 2-26
    How The Web Works
    International companies are advised to register their domain names in all the countries where they operate and in the languages of the customers in their target market
    Domain names are valuable property and care should go into their construction and protection
  • 35. 2-27
    How The Web Works
    For domain names to have a marketing value
    They must be carefully worded, descriptive, clear, memorable and legally protected
    The longer the name, the less likely it is to be remembered
    Short names that evoke the image of he site are more engaging
    Before registering, the name should be checked to see weather it is already trademark protected
  • 36. 2-28
    How The Web Works
    Cypersquatter someone who registers famous names in “bad faith” to sell for profits or otherwise exploit
    Famous names are trademark
    The U.S. Anticypersquatting Consumer Protection Act of 1999 criminalizes the unauthorized use of trade-mark protected names in Internet domain addresses
    It remains to be seen how effective this will be in stopping worldwide names market
  • 37. 2-29
    How The Web Works
    Portals
  • 38. The State of Being Digital
    Something is digital when all of its properties and information are stored as a string of zeroes and ones
    Those zeroes and ones are called bits
    Everything on the Internet is digital
    The falling cost of digital technology is one of the most powerful forces in the modern economy
  • 39. Being Digital
    NOCOLAS NEGROPENTE
  • 40. Understanding Moore’s Law
    Intel co-founder Gordon Moore observed that each generation of computer memory chips – released about every 18 months – could pack the same technology into half the space
    Source: AP/World Wide Photos
  • 41. Understanding Moore’s Law
    Moore’s Law applies broadly to computing and technology costs
    Computer speed since the 1970s has increased roughly 75 billion times
    The cost of technology and storage, meanwhile, has dropped sharply
  • 42. Putting Moore’s Law to Work
    Sun Microsystems as early as 1995 saved hundreds of thousands of dollars by moving to online customer support
    Online software distribution saved Sun an estimated $1.5 million per quarter compared to traditional distribution
  • 43. Digital Environments
    Technology allows users to create virtual spaces to display information, tell stories, educate or amuse
    For marketers, new ways to reach consumers and promote a product
  • 44. Key Features of Digital Environments
    Procedural: Computers must be taught what to do in a digital environment
  • 45. Key Features of Digital Environments
    Participatory: Effectiveness depends on ease of consumer use and interactive potential
  • 46. Key Features of Digital Environments
    Encyclopedic: Low cost allows almost endless storage capacity
  • 47. Digital Convergence
    Cheap and powerful digital technology has contributed to the merging of industries, technology and content
  • 48. Digital Convergence
    One crucial area: convergence of computing, communications and media content
  • 49. Digital Convergence
    When barriers between industries fall, marketers have greater flexibility to choose the best medium for the pitch
  • 50. </END>