Ibahrine 5 Radio

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Ibahrine 5 Radio

  1. 1. RADIO 5 Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY in IFRANE SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES PROGRAM
  2. 2. Brief History <ul><li>The Birth of Commercial Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>The Commercialization of Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>The Depression Years and World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation and Change: 1945-1954. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and Stabilization: 1955-1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation and Specialization: 1990-Present . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Birth of Commercial Radio <ul><li>Big Business: </li></ul><ul><li>After the World War corporate America recognized the potential of radio. </li></ul><ul><li>The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was formed and acquired the assets of the US division of the Marconni Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Audience: </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Conrad built a radio transmitter in his garage and started broadcasting recorded music, reporting sports scores, and showcasing the musical abilities of his sons  he had attracted large number of audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Local department store started selling radio sets so that people could hear Conrad’s programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Westinghouse built the radio sets and received « free » advertising because of its connection with the station KDKA (the oldest station). </li></ul><ul><li>Better Receivers: </li></ul><ul><li>Radio receivers were powered by an assortment of large, bulky, and sometimes leaky batteries. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1926, new radios ran on household as fashionable piece of furniture. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1925 & 1930, 17 million radio sets were sold and radio was becoming a mass medium . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Commercialization of Radio <ul><li>Networks: </li></ul><ul><li>Linking radio stations into a network made good economic sense. </li></ul><ul><li>The first network was the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), a subsidiary of RCA, set up in 1926. </li></ul><ul><li>NBC got a competitor: Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). </li></ul><ul><li>By 1937, NBC had 111 affiliated stations, while CBS had 105. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Regulation: </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1920s, interference became a tremendous problem and the government lacked the authority to do anything  The congress acted to resolve the situation by passing the Radio Act of 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>This act set up the Federal Radio Commission a regulatory body that would issue licenses and try to clean up the chaos. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Depression Year and World War II <ul><li>FCC: </li></ul><ul><li>The most development for radio during the depression years was the formation of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934 which consolidated responsibilities for broadcast and wire regulation under a new seven member FCC. </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of FM: </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid 1930s, Edwin Howard Armstrong developed a frequency-modulated (FM) by his own. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1940, he had sold the rights to manufacture FM receiving sets to several companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Programs: </li></ul><ul><li>Network radio news grew during 1930s and live coverage of special events. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast from Europe on the eve of World War II kept listeners attached to their radio sets for the latest news. </li></ul><ul><li>World War II: </li></ul><ul><li>Radio did well during the War since the number of dollars spent on radio ads doubled from 1940 to 1945. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Innovation and Change: 1945-1954 <ul><li>Growth of FM: </li></ul><ul><li>In 1945, the FCC decided to give the rapidly expanding TV service the space formerly occupied by FM. The commission moved FM upstairs to the 88- to 108- MHz band. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of Television: </li></ul><ul><li>By 1948, TV took over the mass entertainment function served by network radio. </li></ul><ul><li>The percent age of local stations with network affiliations dropped from 97% in 1947 to only 50% by 1955. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Formats: </li></ul><ul><li>Local stations start adopting a specialized format, a sound that had distinctive appeal to a certain segment of the audience. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Growth and Stabilization: 1955-1990 <ul><li>Number of radio stations grew from 3343 in 1955 to more than 7000 in 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>The most significant development in radio during 1970s and 1980s was the emergence of FM. </li></ul><ul><li>The FCC passed the nonduplication rule that prevented an AM-FM combination from duplicating its AM content on its FM station. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, number of FM stations tripled. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consolidation and Specialization: 1990 - Present <ul><li>The essential event for radio in the 1990s was the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 . </li></ul><ul><li>Before the act, just $2 billion was spent on radio acquisitions. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996 the number hit $14.4 billion; and by 1997 $15.3 billion was spent. </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, radio has lost its local roots since most stations are owned by big companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Satellite radio has drained away listeners because people prefer to listen to their favorite music in their iPods. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Radio In The Digital Age
  10. 10. Interenet And Radio <ul><li>Internet is used to generate profits </li></ul><ul><li>Give access to the programmes of the radio station </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional over-the-air broadrcasters </li></ul><ul><li>Internet-only stations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Satellite Radio <ul><li>Satellite-to-car-radio digital service </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mobile Radio <ul><li>The digital world made the radio closer from us </li></ul><ul><li>More gadgets and options to receive radio are borne every day </li></ul>
  13. 13. User-Generated Content <ul><li>Everyone can participate in broadcasting </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Defining Features of the </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organization of the Radio Industry <ul><li>Made of three steps : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Programming <ul><li>Programming can be split into two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network: An organization composed of interconnecting broadcasting stations that cuts costs by airing programs, meaning diffusing the same program in different stations at the same time . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syndicated Programming: It is when the same program is diffused in different times on the stations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>However, the distinction is no longer meaningful because stations use the two types in an interlinked way. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Radios were emphasizing on network programming but then they moved to news and public affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in the beginning of the century, network programming had a mild resurrection in radio stations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. AM Signals <ul><li>AM signals travel farther than FM signals. </li></ul><ul><li>They are classified by channels: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear : single dominant station that is designated to provide service over a wide area. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional : channel shared by many stations that serve fairly large areas. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local : shared by a large number of stations that broadcast only to their local communities. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Technology <ul><li>AM: Amplitude Modulation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A method of transmitting signals, such as sound or digital information, in which the value of the signal is given by the amplitude of a high frequency carrier wave. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FM: Frequency Modulation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A method of transmitting signals, especially in radio broadcasting, in which the value of the signal is given by the frequency of a high frequency carrier wave. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. FM Signals <ul><li>FM signals have the advantage of producing better sound qualities than AM. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also less likely to be affected by outside interferences. </li></ul><ul><li>They are divided into classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class A and Class B are less powerful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class C is the most powerful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Digital Radio <ul><li>Much of radio station’s operation is automated. </li></ul><ul><li>0’s and 1’s represent various sound frequencies and the digital receiver translates these numbers into sound waves. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Format <ul><li>Format is a way to organize radio stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Format is a type of consistent programming designated to appeal to a certain segment of the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>The format gives a station a distinctive personality and shapes the target and its specific advertisement. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Three basic categories of radio format: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>News /Talk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Music <ul><li>It is the largest category and is divided to many subdivisions and variations. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes many types according to the target listeners: contemporary music for adults, R’n’B and Hip Hop for teens and country music for more mature people. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ethnic <ul><li>Those formats aim for special audiences that are defined primarily by race and nationality. </li></ul><ul><li>For example stations for Hispanic minority or for French-speaking people. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Format Homogenization <ul><li>Radio stations sound the same insofar as they have all the same programs. </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons behind this homogenization is the consolidation of the industry since what works for one market is likely to work in another. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also cheaper to program the same music from market to market. </li></ul><ul><li>And finally, radio has become so competitive that programming decisions are based on the recommendations of program consultants and on surveys and focus groups. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Voice Tracking <ul><li>We notice the rise of voice tracking. </li></ul><ul><li>Voice tracking makes use of a single DJ who prerecords song intros and extros and chatter for music programs on several different stations. </li></ul>
  28. 28. News / Talk Format <ul><li>National, regional and local news reports are broadcast periodically throughout the day. </li></ul><ul><li>The talk format requires the attention of the audience in order to follow the program. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Noncommercial Radio <ul><li>Many of the radios were founded by educational institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>After this, commercial broadcasters bought those stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Most noncommercial radio stations are owned by educational institutions or private foundations and they are financed by taxes, foundations and listener donations. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ownership in the Radio Industry <ul><li>We noticed a consolidation that left the industry controlled by a few big media companies. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Producing Radio Programs <ul><li>Departments and Staff: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmental structure of a radio station depends on its size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two top management positions: general manager and the program director. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the sales dep.: the sales manager and the station’s sales force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The news department. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The engineering department. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Producing Radio Programs <ul><li>Putting together a program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This section concentrates on how radio programs are produced for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talk shows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All news </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Putting together a program: <ul><li>Music format: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A format wheel is generally the first step while putting together a program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music is structured to flow from one segment to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talk format: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The makeup of the audience is taken into account in producing talk shows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing a talk show requires equipment like speaker telephones and extra telephone lines, or the telephone screener </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Putting together a program (Cont’) <ul><li>All-news format: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The all-news station also works with a programming wheel like that of the music format. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The news wheel shows the spacing between headlines, weather, news, sports, business reports, and commercials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A large staff is involved in producing the all-news format including anchor-persons, a managing editor, local reporters, editors, rewrite people, a traffic reporter and stringers. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The Economics of Radio <ul><li>Radio revenues have slumped in 2001 comparing to what they were during the 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, in 2005, advertising revenues were about $20billion, up just 2% from 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>The industry is facing competition from satellite services and also the new technologies like iPods and other MP3 devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Next few years will be crucial for determining radio’s future. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sources of Revenue <ul><li>Selling advertising time: the amount charged for the time is included in its rate card depending on how large is the city where it is broadcasted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 sources  sale of time: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on network programs to national advertisers (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on local stations to local advertisers (17%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To local establishments (78%) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. General expenses <ul><li>Expenses in radio are divided into five areas and were ranked as the following : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General administration expenses: 40% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programming costs: 20% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological expenses: close to 20% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sales costs & News expenses: both account for about 15% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Feedback for Radio <ul><li>The way to measure feedback in the radio industry is done trough ratings and share of the audience, ending up in rating books. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratings is the ratio of listeners of a particular station to all people in the market. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Feedback for Radio(2) <ul><li>Share of the audience is the ratio of listeners of a particular station to the total number of listeners in the radio market. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics about radio audiences states that on a typical day about three-fourths of adults will listen to radio, for about three hours and during the early morning or the late afternoon . </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Radio Industry <ul><li>If a person is interested in working in the radio industry she must acquire experience first. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two areas where it is easy to find a first job: programming (announcers ,djs) and sales departments . </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Radio Industry(2) <ul><li>For programming there is a rude competition, but can access to chief announcer’s spot and program director. </li></ul><ul><li>For sales departments can access to sale manager position and general manager. </li></ul>

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