4 Ibahrine Radio The First Broadcast Medium


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4 Ibahrine Radio The First Broadcast Medium

  2. 2. Developing a Concise Definition <ul><li>Developing a Concise Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mass communication is a process in which professional communicators design and use media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously in order to arouse intended meanings in large, diverse, and selectively attending audiences in attempts to influence them in a variety of ways” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  3. 3. 1. THE NEED FOR RAPID, LONG-DISTANCE COMMUNICATION <ul><ul><ul><li>Until a little over a century ago, the lack of rapid, long-distance communication technology was a severe handicap in coordinating complex human activities, and it had been since the dawn of human history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In fact, the inability to communicate quickly over distance had more than once altered the fate of the entire world </li></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  4. 4. 1. THE NEED FOR RAPID, LONG-DISTANCE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Chronology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starting in the 1840s, swift, long-distance communication technologies came quickly, one after the other, within a span of about fifty years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1844: The first was the electric dot-and-dash telegraph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1876: It was followed by the telephone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1896: The wireless telegraph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1906: And finally the radiotelephone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then, with adaptations of radiotelephone technology in the early 1920s, radio became a mass medium for household use </li></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  5. 5. 2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Only a limited selection of items came to a community from distant places </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance communication was by sailing ship, or by costal and courier services that used horses </li></ul><ul><li>The pace of society was slow and most people lived a simple rural or small-town existence </li></ul>06/08/09
  6. 6. 2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>After the Civil War ended, railroads soon connected most major American cities with scheduled service and steam-driven ships regularly crossed the great oceans </li></ul><ul><li>The development of radio was apart of these great changes </li></ul>06/08/09
  7. 7. 2. 2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE <ul><li>A much more efficient system, based on the electromagnet, was developed by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1844 </li></ul><ul><li>Within a a few years, with wires on poles along the railroad lines, most of the cities of the United States were connected by telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Business, the military and newspapers began to depend on the system for rapid communication </li></ul><ul><li>Undersea cables were laid even before the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Regular telegraph service between the United States and Europe was available by 1866 </li></ul>06/08/09
  8. 8. 2. 3 COMMUNICATION WITH RADIO WAVES <ul><li>A German scientist, Heinrich Hertz, had been experimenting with some electromagnetic phenomena that he had produced using a device in his laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>By 1887, he had constructed a simple transmitter and receiver and had demonstrated the existence of what we know today as radio waves </li></ul>06/08/09
  9. 9. 2. 3 Marconi’s wireless telegraph <ul><li>By 1895, Marconi had succeeded in sending coded messages over a modest distance across his father's estate </li></ul><ul><li>Marconi took his ideas to London, where in 1897 he was able to obtain a patent as well as financial backing to develop further his &quot;wireless telegraph.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Radio, in this dot-and-dash form, had enormous practical advantages over the land-based telegraph that required wires </li></ul><ul><li>The principal drawback of the earliest sets was that they used large, heavy equipment to achieve long-range transmission </li></ul>06/08/09
  10. 10. 2. 3 Marconi’s wireless telegraph <ul><li>Marconi was not only an inventor but also a shrewd businessman </li></ul><ul><li>He successfully fought patent challenges to protect his ownership and established profit-oriented corporations to exploit wireless communication </li></ul><ul><li>He founded the American Marconi Company in 1899, and by 1913 it had a virtual monopoly of the wireless telegraph in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>By that time dot-and-dash radio had come into worldwide use, and Marconi became a rich man </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of private ownership and profit in broadcasting was established from the outset </li></ul>06/08/09
  11. 11. 2. 3 Radiotelephone <ul><li>Portable radio transmitters played an important role in World War I </li></ul><ul><li>By 1918, radio communication had advanced sufficiently for a pilot to receive signals from an airplane to people on the ground </li></ul><ul><li>It was a private rather than a public medium </li></ul><ul><li>Radio captured the imagination of the public in the early days </li></ul>06/08/09
  12. 12. 2. 3 Radiotelephone 06/08/09
  13. 13. 3. RADIO BECOMES A MASS MEDIUM <ul><li>Radio was the scientific wonder of the age </li></ul><ul><li>The public expressed a broad interest in the medium even before regular broadcasting began </li></ul>06/08/09
  14. 14. 3.1 The PERIOD OF TRANSITION <ul><li>Before radio broadcasting could be a mass medium, </li></ul><ul><li>It had to make a critical transition </li></ul><ul><li>It had to be transformed from a long-range device for maritime, commercial, governmental and hobby communication to an easy-to-use system that would bring suitable program content to people in their homes </li></ul>06/08/09
  15. 15. 3.1 The PERIOD OF TRANSITION <ul><li>1. Radio sets had to be small enough for use in the home </li></ul><ul><li>2. Their price had to be brought within the means of large numbers of families </li></ul><ul><li>3. There had to be regularly scheduled programs to which people would want to listen </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reception had to be reasonably clear without overlap between stations </li></ul><ul><li>5. There had to be a means of paying for broadcasts </li></ul>06/08/09
  16. 16. 3.1.1 Scheduled programs begin <ul><li>The broadcasting of regularly scheduled programs over the airwaves did not begin in all parts of the country at once </li></ul><ul><li>In April 1920, an engineer Dr. Frank Conrad, was developing transmitting systems for the Westinghouse Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>He began making regular broadcasts, using recorded music, two evenings a week </li></ul><ul><li>He invited people to send him postcards </li></ul><ul><li>This feedback from the audience enabled Conrad to understand the reach of his station's signal </li></ul>06/08/09
  17. 17. Radio Goes Commercial <ul><li>Early broadcasters were stores, newspapers, schools, businesses, not broadcasting companies </li></ul><ul><li>Radio stations needed revenue source </li></ul>
  18. 18. 3.1.2 Chaos on the airwaves <ul><li>Within months, dozens of other stations went on the air in various cities </li></ul><ul><li>Soon there were hundreds and the infant mass medium became a chaotic mess </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of 1922, some 254 federal licenses had been issued for transmitters that complied with the provision of the Radio Act of 1912 </li></ul>06/08/09
  19. 19. 3.1.3 Regulating Broadcasting <ul><li>Because radio transmissions respect no national boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>International agreements of some sort were needed to maintain order on the airwaves </li></ul><ul><li>The first conference devoted to radio was held in Berlin in 1903 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1906, a second Berlin convention set forth further restrictions and rules on international and maritime broadcasting </li></ul>06/08/09
  20. 20. 3.1.3 Regulating Broadcasting <ul><li>The US Congress confirmed these international rules in the Radio Act of 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>One feature of the 1912 Act was that it provided for licensing transmitters </li></ul><ul><li>However it provided no real way that the government could turn anyone down </li></ul>06/08/09
  21. 21. 3.1.3 Regulating Broadcasting <ul><li>The Congress provided new legislation- the Radio Act of 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>It established a very important principle: </li></ul><ul><li>The airwaves belong to the people </li></ul><ul><li>This gave the government the right to regulate their use in the public interest </li></ul>06/08/09
  22. 22. 3.1.3 Regulating Broadcasting <ul><li>Interference was major problem </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Act of 1927 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Radio Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined AM band </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized channel designations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished portable stations </li></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  23. 23. 3.1.3 Regulating Broadcasting <ul><li>The Depression: 1930-1940 </li></ul><ul><li>The Federal Communications Act of 1934 by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) remains the legislative foundation governing the broadcast industries </li></ul><ul><li>Radio fared well during the Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated all electronic communications </li></ul>06/08/09
  24. 24. 3.1.3 ESTABLISHING THE ECONOMIC BASE OF THE NEW MEDIUM <ul><li>Radio was so new that no one was sure how to pay for the costs of transmitting or </li></ul><ul><li>How to make a profit from the broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>At first, there seemed to be a number of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>After all, each of the other media available at the time: magazines, the movies, and even the telegraph system-paid their way and made money </li></ul>06/08/09
  25. 25. 3.1.3 ESTABLISHING THE ECONOMIC BASE OF THE NEW MEDIUM <ul><li>The operation by the government was one possible answer </li></ul><ul><li>That was the solution in many societies in different parts of the world </li></ul><ul><li>In such a system, radio and television are operated by government bureaucrats and the content of the of the media was rigidly controlled </li></ul><ul><li>In the United States, however, few citizens wanted that kind of arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore such a government operated and controlled system was never seriously considered </li></ul>06/08/09
  26. 26. 3.1.3 ESTABLISHING THE ECONOMIC BASE OF THE NEW MEDIUM <ul><li>Some visionaries thought it would be best to use a subscription system , where each owner of a radio receiver would have to get an annual license to operate it and pay a fee that would support the programming </li></ul><ul><li>Although that system was adopted in Great Britain, it was never seriously tried in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Common carrier approach : the transmitter was to be leased to whoever wanted to go on the air to broadcast whatever content they prepared </li></ul><ul><li>There were not enough takers and the idea was abandoned </li></ul>06/08/09
  27. 27. 3.1.3 ESTABLISHING THE ECONOMIC BASE OF THE NEW MEDIUM <ul><li>Another possibility was the endowment idea </li></ul><ul><li>Rich philanthropists would be invited to endow the stations with large money gifts, and then the station could use the earnings on investments to pay the costs of broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>That system had worked well in funding universities, museums, and libraries </li></ul><ul><li>However, no rich philanthropists stepped forward </li></ul>06/08/09
  28. 28. 3.2.2 Advertising as the source of profit <ul><li>The challenge, then, was how to make profit by broadcasting programs to a general public who could tune in and listen for fee </li></ul><ul><li>The only obvious possibility was to transmit advertising messages over the air and charge the advertiser for the time, just as newspapers and magazines made a profit by presenting such messages in print </li></ul><ul><li>There was great resistance to the use of the airwaves for advertising, at least at first </li></ul>06/08/09
  29. 29. 3.2.2 Advertising as the source of profit <ul><li>Herbert Hoover, the secretary of Commerce at the time, strongly opposed it, saying, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is inconceivable that we should allow so great a possibility for service, for news, for entertainment, and for vital commercial purposes to be drowned in advertising chatter .&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  30. 30. 3.2.2 Advertising as the source of profit <ul><li>Some feature of early radio advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There was no limit on the amount of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial sandwich in between segments of a program would come later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early radio advertising was polite and restrained </li></ul></ul>06/08/09
  31. 31. The Birth of FM <ul><li>Mid 1930s, Edwin Howard Armstrong </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency modulation (FM) superior to amplitude modulation (AM) </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated to RCA, which was more interested in developing TV than FM </li></ul><ul><li>Development hampered by World War II </li></ul>P: 153
  32. 32. Radio Programs <ul><li>During Depression, people wanted diversion and escape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action-adventure programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The soap opera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network radio news grew </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live coverage of special events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage of World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edward R. Murrow </li></ul></ul></ul>153
  33. 33. 4. THE GOLDEN AGE OF RADIO <ul><li>During the years between 1930 and America's entry into World War II in December 1941, </li></ul><ul><li>Radio continued to develop into a medium of increasing national and worldwide importance </li></ul><ul><li>Following the war, radio would enjoy only five additional years from 1945 to about 1950, of unchallenged dominance as the major broadcast medium in the United states </li></ul>06/08/09
  34. 34. 4. THE GOLDEN AGE OF RADIO <ul><li>Fifteen-year period between the mid-1930s and about 1950 as the golden age of radio </li></ul>06/08/09
  35. 35. 4. RADIO DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION <ul><li>If ever there was a population in need of free entertainment, it was the people of the United States during the 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>People did not have a steady job, but they did have radio </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression increased the number of new stations </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising revenues grew sharply, as the Depression began </li></ul><ul><li>Programming became diversified, attracting a growing number of listeners </li></ul>06/08/09
  37. 37. 4. RADIO DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION <ul><li>In the mid-1930s, two things happened that were very important to the future of broadcasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One was the establishment of the federal legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(The Federal Communications Act of 1934), </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with a new government agency to supervise broadcasting in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other was the development of an entirely different technology for broadcasting called </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequency modulation (FM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  38. 38. 4.1.2 RADIO AND THE NEWS <ul><li>Another great battle fought during the period was over who had proprietary rights to the news </li></ul><ul><li>In 1930, Lowell Thomas, who was to become a well-known radio news personality, began a trend by reading the news over the air </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers tried to stop local stations from using the early editions of papers as the source for their news, claiming that the radio stations were violating copyright laws </li></ul><ul><li>But the courts ruled that although the particular expression of a writer can be copyrighted </li></ul>06/08/09
  39. 39. 4.1.2 RADIO AND THE NEWS <ul><li>The factual content of news is in the &quot;public domain&quot; -thus, no one &quot;owns&quot; the news </li></ul>06/08/09
  40. 40. 4.2 RADIO DURING WORLD WAR II <ul><li>Radio became a global news medium as the world was plunging into war </li></ul><ul><li>Even before the US. entry into World War II, reporters around the world were able to transmit live &quot;eyewitness&quot; reports on major events by short wave to New York </li></ul><ul><li>Radio played a key part in mobilizing the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the war, President Roosevelt calmed the American public with frequent radio talks, reassuring the nation of ultimate </li></ul><ul><li>victory and setting the goal of &quot;unconditional surrender </li></ul>06/08/09
  41. 41. World War II <ul><li>Radio thrived during World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad revenues increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NBC divested itself of one network (became ABC) </li></ul>
  42. 42. 5. The CHALLENGE OF TELEVISION <ul><li>Starting in 1948, television stations began to go on the air with regular broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Television continued to take over audiences, radio was in deep trouble </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it was in danger of disappearing altogether as a mass medium </li></ul><ul><li>Profits plummeted and radio audiences melted away as both talent and audience interest switched to television </li></ul>06/08/09
  43. 43. Innovation and Change: 1945-1954 <ul><li>FM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically superior to AM, but struggled to cathc up. Its misfortune was that its beginning was at the same time as TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed content, economics, functions of radio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized radio formats were introduced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock hour </li></ul></ul>154
  44. 44. Growth and Stabilization: 1955-1990 <ul><li>Number of stations more than doubled </li></ul><ul><li>FCC non-duplication rule </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Act of 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited station ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same-market ownership increased to 8 stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flurry of mergers and acquisitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A few group owners dominate the industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Talk became hottest AM format </li></ul><ul><li>Format specialization increased on FM </li></ul><ul><li>Competition from satellite radio, Internet radio, iPods </li></ul>
  45. 45. 5.1 RADIO ADAPTS <ul><li>Radio might have died completely had it not been for its resourceful response to the challenge of television </li></ul><ul><li>At first, the medium tightened its belt and took on advertising accounts that could not afford costly television commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Then it made changes across the board that permitted it to survive on a more permanent basis </li></ul><ul><li>The major form of adaptation was that the content of radio broadcasts changed sharply </li></ul>06/08/09
  46. 46. 5.1 RADIO ADAPTS <ul><ul><li>The well-developed radio drama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The soap opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quiz show </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other amusement fare that had been the mainstay of radio entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For the most part, radio ceased to be a national medium </li></ul><ul><li>Radio became a medium mainly providing services to local rather than national audiences </li></ul>06/08/09
  47. 47. 5.1 RADIO ADAPTS <ul><li>In effect, then, radio drastically changed its functions </li></ul><ul><li>It gave more emphasis to music, news summaries, and call-in talk shows </li></ul><ul><li>Less attention to its earlier forms of drama and similar entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, radio survived as an intimate and community-oriented medium </li></ul>06/08/09
  48. 48. 5.1.1 PUBLIC BROADCASTING <ul><li>In 1967, the Congress passed the Public Broadcasting Act, creating the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), </li></ul><ul><li>Serving both radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>It was not actually a corporation in the sense of a profit-oriented business, and it was not exactly an arm of government </li></ul><ul><li>It was set up as an independent, nonprofit organization that received federal funds and allocated them to local stations within networks </li></ul>06/08/09
  49. 49. 5.1.2 THE GROWTH OF FM BROADCASTING <ul><li>In its various formats, radio is surviving the challenge of television </li></ul><ul><li>FM broadcasting has now become the dominant system with the majority of the radio audience in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>AM stations tend to present a mix of news, talk, sports, and low-key, background-type music </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, FM radio tends to be more focused on musical formats </li></ul>06/08/09
  50. 50. 6. RADIO AS A CONTEMPORARY MEDIUM <ul><li>Radio continues at the start of the twenty-first century be America's most widely attended to medium of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Because radio listening is so widespread, it has prospered as an advertising medium </li></ul><ul><li>Radio stations reach local rather than national audiences, and are very useful for merchants who want to advertise their wares and services to people in their community </li></ul><ul><li>Radio serves small, highly targeted audience which makes it an excellent advertising medium for many kinds of specialized products and services </li></ul>06/08/09
  51. 51. 6.1 RADIO'S ROLE IN THE MEDIA MIX <ul><li>Between 10 and 11 percent of all money spent on media advertising in the United States goes to radio </li></ul><ul><li>This percentage has remained quite stable for more than a decade which has meant substantial growth in actual dollars brought in by radio </li></ul>06/08/09
  52. 52. 6.1 RADIO'S ROLE IN THE MEDIA MIX <ul><li>What is accounting for radio’s renewed success? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. high cost of commercial television time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. remote-control devices allow viewers to avoid watching TV commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Radio audience are captive, not able to tune out commercials quite easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Radio communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Public radio (university communities, religious organizations) </li></ul></ul>06/08/09
  53. 53. 6.2 THE FUTURE OF RADIO <ul><li>Today, radio is a mature medium with a clear niche in the media spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>In its present form it is prospering, and that it is not likely to change in any drastic way </li></ul><ul><li>It still commands the largest cumulative audiences in America and it is gaining strength </li></ul>06/08/09
  54. 54. 6.2 THE FUTURE OF RADIO <ul><li>As cable and satellite TV, the Internet and VCR usage intrude on the ability of television to attract the attention of large audiences </li></ul><ul><li>local advertisers are returning to radio </li></ul><ul><li>As revenues from local advertising increase, the worth of radio stations increases </li></ul><ul><li>This helps their prospects for future profitability </li></ul>06/08/09
  55. 55. 6.2.1 The Shift to FM <ul><li>A significant trend in radio has been the decline in listening to AM stations and the steady increase in those tuning in to FM stations </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1977, more people listened to AM stations </li></ul><ul><li>After that year, the pattern switched and FM listenership grew increasingly dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Today, nearly 70 percent of radio listeners are tuned into an FM station </li></ul><ul><li>That switch is unlikely to be reversed </li></ul>06/08/09
  56. 56. 6.2.3 Satellite Broadcasting <ul><li>Another new form of broadcasting in an early stage is satellite radio </li></ul><ul><li>The audiences is people en route </li></ul>06/08/09
  57. 57. 6.2.3 Satellite Broadcasting <ul><li>What is ZENcast? </li></ul><ul><li>ZENcast is the ultimate source for free video blogs and podcasts on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>It provides quick and easy access to a wide range of interesting and entertaining video and audio content online </li></ul><ul><li>All your entertainment travels with you </li></ul>06/08/09
  58. 58. 6.2.3 Satellite Broadcasting <ul><li>Watch and listen to the latest news from CNET, BBC, ESPN, RocketBoom and the Singapore Straits Times </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy golfing tips, movie reviews, health and fitness secrets, tech gear reviews and much more - anytime you want </li></ul><ul><li>Watch them all on the go with the ZEN players </li></ul>06/08/09
  59. 59. 6.2.3 Satellite Broadcasting <ul><li>Soon, everyone will carry their TV programs, movies, music and more on the go </li></ul><ul><li>You now have the power to create your very own Internet TV programs and share it with the world with ZENcast and </li></ul><ul><li>It's also extremely easy to create and download video blogs and podcasts </li></ul>06/08/09
  60. 60. 6.2.3 Satellite Broadcasting <ul><li>Podcasts, short for Personal On Demand broadcast, is defined in the New Oxford Amercian Dictionary as &quot;a digital recording of a radio broadcast or similar program, made available on the Internet for downloading to a personal audio player“ </li></ul>06/08/09
  61. 61. AM and FM stations <ul><li>Amplitude Modulation (AM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals travel further (especially at night) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear, Regional, Local channel classifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency Modulation (FM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better sound quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less vulnerable to interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three classes reflect station’s power: A,B,C </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. AM-FM distinction is not applicable to digital radio
  63. 63. Station Formats <ul><li>Format: consistent programming designed to appeal to specific audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracts advertisers wanting to reach that audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three basic format categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News/Talk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Format Homogenization </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Tracking </li></ul>161
  64. 64. Noncommercial Radio <ul><li>1945 -- FCC set aside frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>2007 – about 2400 noncommercial stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities, private foundations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by gifts, grants, donations, underwriting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Public Radio (NPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Radio International (PRI) </li></ul>
  65. 65. Departments and Staff <ul><li>General Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Program Director </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Announcers and DJs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales Department </li></ul><ul><li>News Department </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Department </li></ul>
  66. 66. Putting Together a Program <ul><li>Music format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format wheel (format clock) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talk format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topics geared to local audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more equipment and technical expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All-News format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also uses programming wheel and cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costly: Large staff and many technical facilities </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. ECONOMICS <ul><li>Competition from satellite services and devices to play iPods and MP3 players in cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive time audience, time spent commuting are both increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is cheap to produce and distribute </li></ul><ul><li>Radio lends itself to target marketing </li></ul>
  68. 68. Sources of Revenue <ul><li>Rate card : station’s advertising fees </li></ul><ul><li>Three sources of commercial revenue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National spot ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local ads </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. General Expenses <ul><li>Five categories of expenses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Ratings and Shares <ul><li>Rating : ratio of listeners to a particular station to the total number of people in a given market </li></ul><ul><li>Share : ratio of listeners to a particular station to the total number of people actually listening to radio at that time </li></ul>