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2 Ibahrine Newspapers 2 Ibahrine Newspapers Presentation Transcript

  • 2. NEWSPAPERS NEWS, and the NEWS MEDIA 2 1 Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY in IFRANE SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES PROGRAM
  • Developing a Concise Definition
    • Developing a Concise Definition
            • “ Mass communication is a process in which professional communicators design and use media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously in order to arouse intended meanings in large, diverse, and selectively attending audiences in attempts to influence them in a variety of ways”
    06/08/09
  • Structure of the Lecture
    • 1. Newspapers: A Medium for the Mass Society
        • 1.1 The First Newspapers
        • 1.2 The Press in the American Colonies
        • 1.3 Establishing Traditions in American Journalism
    • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
        • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
        • 2.2 The Impact of Society on the Growth of Newspapers
        • 2.3 Newspapers as Cultural Innovation
        • 2.4 Types of Contemporary Newspapers
    06/08/09
  • Structure of the Lecture
    • 3. Developments that shaped Today’s Newspapers
        • 3.1 The Growth of Wire Services and Syndicates
        • 3.2 Changing Patterns of Ownership
    • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
        • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
        • 4.2 Encoding Strategies for Packaging the News
    06/08/09
  • Structure of the Lecture
    • 5. Contrasting Conceptions of the Nature and Function of News
        • 5.1 The Marketing Approach: News as a Product
        • 5.2 The Adversarial Approach: Watchdogs of the Public Interest
        • 5.3 The Agenda Setting Function of the Press
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.1 The First Newspaper
    • The story of newspapers begins with Gutenberg’s press
    • In the mid-1500, leaders in Venice made available to the public printed press about the war in Dalmatia
    • Venetians had to pay a gazette , a small coin
    • The term gazette so frequently used in newspaper titles, comes from that origin
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.1 The First Newspaper
    • An obscure forerunner of a newspaper was apparently printed in Germany beginning in 1609
    • The coranto (from which we get the term courant, which used in titles of modern newspapers)
    • The coranto was a brief printed news sheet whose form originated in Holland
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • The seven characteristics of modern newspapers
        • 1. Published at least weekly
        • 2. Produced on paper by a mechanical printing process or delivered online in a digital form
        • 3. Available free or for a prices to people of all walks of life
        • 4. Prints news of general interest rather than items on specialized topics such as religion or business
        • 5. Readable by people of ordinary literacy
        • 6. Timely
        • 7. Stable over time
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.1 The First Newspaper
    • By this definition, the first true newspaper was the Oxford Gazette , (later called the London Gazette )
    • First published in 1665 under the authority of King Charles II
    • The London Gazette appeared twice a week and continued publication well into the twentieth century
    • This was an “authorized” newspaper which means that its content was controlled and pre-screened by the Crown
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.2 The Press In The American Colonies
      • It was the colonial press that established many of the features that characterize American newspapers of today
      • Steady growth of population and commerce in the colonies=> Market for news of shipping and trade
      • At the same time, political tensions grew over such issues as taxes and control of trade
      • These widespread feelings were news
      • One of the more significant criticism appeared in the first and (last) issue of a paper titled Publick Occurrencies
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.3 Establishing Traditions In American Journalism
      • American newspapers are protected by the First Amendments ‘s provision for freedom of press and by a body of law developed over more than two centuries
      • Bold printers and publishers fought in a long struggle marked by numerous conflicts and harsh repressions
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.3.1 The Press as Watchdog of the public interest
      • In 1721, James Franklin started his own paper, the New England Courant
      • The paper was aimed at a prosperous elite and had no connection with the post office (distribution)
      • The Courant was the first newspaper in the colonies to “crusade” on a public issue
      • Using the newspaper to speak out against the authorities began an important tradition
      • American newspaper would become watchdogs of the public interest
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.3.2 The principle of freedom of the press
      • In 1734, Peter Zenger established the New York Weekly Journal
      • The paper ran articles openly critical of the Governor
      • Zenger was convicted on a charge of seditious libel
      • The legal definition of sedition is to promote disaffection with government, that is, to incite people to revolt against constituted authority
      • Libel, in legal terms, means deliberately “publishing” (making public) untruths about a person
    06/08/09
  • 1. Newspapers: A Medium For The Mass Society
    • 1.3.2 The principle of freedom of the press
      • No one should be punished for printing the truth
      • Zenger’s trial did not change the law, but it established an important principle
      • The press should be allowed to criticize government
      • The idea was integrated into the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States
    06/08/09
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
    • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
      • On September 3, 1833, Benjamin Day published the New York Sun
      • Its masthead carried the slogan “It Shines for All”
      • The Sun was designed to the less educated
      • Day offered his readers a different kind of news:
      • The incidental happenings of New York life
    06/08/09
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
    • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
      • It was filled with human-interest items about common people
      • Day began an important newspaper tradition when he hired the very first salaried reporter, who went to the local courts and reported local happenings
      • The term reporter is derived from those who record court proceedings
      • Another feature of this newspaper was its mode of delivery
    06/08/09
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
    • 2.1 The Emergence of the Penny Press
      • It was sold on the street by newsboys for only a penny
      • One of the most important features of the Sun was its selling advertising space for a great variety of products and services
      • The paper was an instant success
      • All the competing newspapers that adopted Day’s basic formula were known as the penny press
    06/08/09
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
    • 2.2 The Impact of Society on the Growth of Newspapers
      • Three great changes took place in American society that had significant influences on the growth of the nation’s newspaper industry
          • 1. Rapid expansion of the population
          • 2. The remarkable evolution of technology
          • 3. The influence of the Civil War
    06/08/09
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
    • 2.3 Newspapers as Cultural Innovation
      • By the time of World War I, newspaper circulation of had grown to a point where many households in the United States were subscribing to both morning and an afternoon paper
      • During the early decades of the last century, newspaper enjoyed a kind of golden age (1910 and 1930)
      • Once newer media arrived, newspaper entered a decline in subscriptions per household
    06/08/09
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
    • 2.3 Newspapers as Cultural Innovation
      • The great decline was a consequence of two major factors:
      • After 1930, the costs of news gathering and all other aspects of publishing began to increase
      • Competition for advertising dollars from radio, and eventually television rose relentlessly
      • These trends have continued to the present time and are likely to persist into the future
    06/08/09
  • 2. Newspapers for the Common People
    • 2.4 Types of Contemporary Newspapers
      • General-news papers
      • Specialized-news paper
          • 1. Metropolitan dailies
          • 2. Tabloids /sensationalism
          • 3. Medium-sized and small dailies
          • 4. Non-daily newspapers
          • 5. Free-Distribution newspapers
          • 6. The Ethnic press
          • 7. Other specialized papers
    06/08/09
  • ASSIGNMENT
    • ASSIGNMENT
          • 1. Metropolitan dailies
          • 2. Tabloids (sensationalism/
          • 3. Medium-sized and small dailies
          • 4. Non-daily newspapers
          • 5. Free-Distribution newspapers
          • 6. The Ethnic press
          • 7. Other specialized papers
    06/08/09
  • 3. Developments that shaped Today’s Newspapers
    • 3. Developments that shaped Today’s Newspapers
        • 3.1 The Growth of Wire Services and Syndicates
        • 3.2 Changing Patterns of Ownership
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
      • News is current or fresh knowledge about an event or subject that is gathered, processed an disseminated via a medium to a significant number of interested people
      • That act of gathering, processing and disseminating such fresh information can be called the news process
      • The news process begins with surveillance of the news environment
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
      • The first thing that happens is that they are sorted and selected by a process called gatekeeping
      • Some reports are immediately discarded, while others are retained for further consideration
      • Those retained will be carefully edited to make sure that they can be understood by the public and are factually correct
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • Introduction
      • Stories judged not to be very important are assigned very little space and are positioned toward the end
      • The lead stories come first in the broadcast and are allotted more time or space
      • In online media news values play a role that is similar to those in the case of traditional newspapers
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.1 The Surveillance Function
      • Citizens supposedly have trustworthy information enabling them to make informed decisions about events and issues that are of significance to them as individuals and to society as a whole
      • Categories for surveillance
      • The News must be observed, understood, interpreted and recorded by reporters whose task is to prepare initial comprehensive descriptions for public consumption
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
      • Categories are divided up an orderly division of labor
      • Natural division-> geographic territories
          • Local
          • Regional
          • National
          • And International
      • Specialized topics
          • Politics
          • The economy
          • Science
          • Health
          • Sports
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
      • Categories are divided up an orderly division of labor
      • Organizations from where facts for developing new stories are often obtained
        • The White House
        • The Pentagon
        • Or the Congress
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
      • A rather different kind of distinction among news stories
      • Spot news:
        • “ the event occurs, it provides facts for a news story, the account is prepared, it is disseminated and that is the end”
      • Continuing news:
        • There is no clear beginning or end
        • An ongoing series of related happenings , e.g. Environment ,
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.1 Categories for surveillance
      • Another category that is somewhat time-related is
      • Hard news:
        • “ is what most ordinary people think of as news”
      • Soft news:
        • Is not as time-critical
        • It focuses on situations, people or events that have human interest
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.1 Traditional News Values/Newsworthiness or news values
      • There are at least seven major criteria in assessing a story as an attractive candidate for presentation to the public
        • 1. The impact of a story is important:
            • It refers to the number of people whose lives will be influenced in some way by the subject of the story
        • 2. Timeliness is a news value:
            • Is should be presented to the public while it is still fresh
            • Scoop (you read (viewed) it here first)
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.1 Traditional News Values/Newsworthiness or news values
        • 3. Prominence:
            • Stories about people who are in the public eye have much higher news value than those about obscure, even the occurrence are the same
        • 4. Proximity:
            • Stories about events and situations in one’s home community are newsworthy than events that take place far away
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.1 Traditional News Values
        • 5. A time-honored news value is the bizarre:
            • John Bogart:
            • When a dog bites a man, that is not news
            • But if a man bites a dog, that is news
        • 6. Conflict in a story:
            • Harmony is boring, strife is newsworthy
        • 7. Currency:
            • More value is attributed to stories pertaining to issues that are in the spotlight of the public
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.2 Story Formats
    • The story itself must be packaged in one of the story formats
        • 1. The “Five Ws”:
            • A well-written newspaper is one that tells:
            • Who did What, Where, When and Why
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.2 Story Formats
        • 2. The Inverted Pyramid:
            • Graphic (METAPHOR) to illustrate
            • News stories are organized so that the most important ideas appear first
            • People read just the headlines
            • Other stop after reading the “lead” sentence
            • So the most important ideas need to be set forth at the very outset
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.2 Story Formats
        • 3. VOT Voice-over-tape:
            • In which the viewer first sees the anchorperson, but is then switched to a videotape with the anchor's voice over the ongoing picture
        • 4. The Stand-up with package:
            • Is similar with the reporter interviewing someone at the scene
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.3 Alternative Journalistic Styles
      • A number of alternative journalistic styles have come into use at one time or another
      • Some were popular at one point of time
      • Some have left their marks on the contemporary news industries
        • 4.2.3.1 The Sensational or tabloid Journalism Style:
            • Trivialization of the news
            • Infotainment: a merging of information and entertainment
        • 4.2.3.2 The objective or impartial journalism:
            • Separate facts from opinion
            • Presenting an emotionally detached view of the news
            • Striving for fairness and balance
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.3 Alternative Journalistic Styles
        • 4.2.3.3 The advocacy style:
            • The reporter and the story identify with the “advocate” that is to promote a cause a position
        • 4.2.3.4 Precision Journalism:
            • It makes use of the research procedures of the social sciences to gather and report quantitative information for the purpose development a news story
            • The intensive use of Computer-assisted reporting (CAR)
    06/08/09
  • 4. Gathering, Selecting Processing, and Presenting the News
    • 4.2.3 Alternative Journalistic Styles
        • 4.2.3.5 Civic or Public journalism:
            • Civic Journalism's goal is to keep the press grounded in the concerns of ordinary people, rather than in those of the elite
            • Advocates of this approach argue that traditional journalism is no longer trusted by the public and that
            • Civic journalism can restore confidence
            • Critics warn that it moves journalism away from its traditional impartial and disinterested stance to that of political activists pushing a particular agenda
    06/08/09
  • 5. Contrasting Conceptions of the Nature and Function of News
    • 5.1 The Marketing Approach: News as a Product
        • This approach begins with extensive market research that assembles statistical data on the interests, media habits and concerns of the audience
        • To end declines in newspaper circulation, the market research experts prescribed change, by adding new sections on topics such as lifestyles, entertainment, gardening an housing
        • Sections that help readers “USE” their communities and their environment
        • The best-known example of a newspaper that relies heavily on the marketing approach is the USA
        • It pioneered the use of color, brevity (critics say superficiality) in style
    06/08/09
  • 5. Contrasting Conceptions of the Nature and Function of News
    • 5.2 The Adversarial Approach: Watchdogs of the Public Interest
        • The role of the press as an adversary is the one most honored in the traditions of journalism
        • The press has been called the fourth estate
            • Traditional investigating reporting
            • Muckraker tradition
    06/08/09
  • 6. The Future of the Newspaper
    • See the chapter on the Internet
        • Futurists have been predicting “the death of print”
        • Such forecast have not come true
        • The Vanishing Newspaper: Saving Journalism In The Information Age
    06/08/09
  • Futurists have been predicting “the death of print” Such forecast have not come true
    • 1. Portable
    • 2. Predictable
    • 3. Accessible
    • 4. Cost Effective
    • 1. Perishable
    • 2. Appeal to middle-age and older readers
    • 3. They cause smudges on hands from the ink
    06/08/09