Cleaning Up & Reconstructing in Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake
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Cleaning Up & Reconstructing in Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake



An overview of Debris Management for the Haiti Earthquake of January 12th, 2010

An overview of Debris Management for the Haiti Earthquake of January 12th, 2010



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    Cleaning Up & Reconstructing in Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake Cleaning Up & Reconstructing in Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake Presentation Transcript

    • Cleaning up & Reconstructing After The Haiti Earthquake Prepared by Isabelle Heatherington Arnold, ARM Risk Manager Best Risks, LLC Assessment, Management & Planning of Catastrophes
    • Debris Clean Up
      • A disaster can result in numerous types of debris such as hazardous hanging limbs, sand, construction materials, vehicles and personal property, any of which can wreak certain havoc on a community. Locating the staff, equipment, and funds to devote to debris removal can be a complex process for even the most well-prepared of jurisdictions. 
    • Priorities
      • Assess total volume of debris
      • Develop debris removal and recycling plan
      • Prepare pick up and drop off points for debris
      • Equipment and Labor
      • Coordinate with public and private sector
      • Communication plan
    • Debris Clean Up
      • Critical Needs:
      • Clear roads to allow heavy equipment
      • Identify drop off point (s) for the debris
      • Sort dropped off debris: concrete, metal, combustible & hazardous materials
      • Bring in and set up specialized heavy equipment:
      • - Crusher -Grinder
      • - Air curtain pit with blower and incinerator
    • Debris Management Site considerations
      • The following site characteristics items should be
      • considered when selecting debris management sites:
      • Publicly owned land (state or municipal)
      • Large open space – should be at least 40 square meters (10 sq.yds) ; greater than 200 square meters (50 sq.yds) is ideal for sites serving multiple municipalities or final regional debris staging sites before disposal.
      • Relatively flat topography
      • Good ingress and egress
      • Minimal effect on residential neighborhoods, educational facilities,health care facilities, and environmentally sensitive areas.
    • Debris Management Site Consideration
      • Location near final disposal sites to reduce hauling
      • distances
      • No wetlands, endangered species, rare ecosystems, or other
      • environmental restrictions
      • No impact on historic or archaeological sites
      • Accommodates separation and reduction of types of debris: vegetative, construction and demolition, household hazardous waste, commercial hazardous waste etc.
      • can accommodate types of site operations that may take place: chipping, grinding, recycling, and under permitted conditions by DEP – air curtain burning, and open pit burning.
    • Volume of Debris
      • Concrete and masonry makes up 70% of debris to be picked up and disposed of.
      • There are no designated dump sites for such large volume of concrete
      • The concrete must be crushed and recycled
      • The volume of construction debris on private property is enormous and yet uncalculated
    • Issues With Uncontrolled Dumping
      • Private contractors are picking up debris and dumping on side of roads
      • Dumping on empty lots
      • Hazardous materials not sorted
      • Contamination of soil
      • Water contamination
      • Will soon run out of space for dumping
    • Calculating Volume
      • The following formulas are provided to
      • assist in arriving at uniform debris
      • estimates:
      • ·1 Story Building:
      • L'xW'xH' = _____ CY x 0.33 = _______CY
      • 27
      • Debris Pile:
      • L'xW'xH ' = ______CY
      • 27
      • 1 cubic yard = 0.764554858 cubic meter
    • Disposal
      • The next step in the process is
      • solid waste disposal, from both an
      • operational and cost basis. The
      • disposal site haul distance is a
      • major cost and time factor in
      • clean-up.
    • Volume Measurement Conversion
      • Tons to Cubic Yards for Construction and
      • Demolition Debris:
      • Tons x 2 = ______ CY
      • Tons to Cubic Yards for Woody Debris:
      • Tons x 4 = ______CY
      • Cubic Yards to Tons for Construction and
      • Demolition Debris:
      • Cubic Yards = _____T
      • 2
      • Cubic Yards to Tons for Woody Debris:
      • Cubic Yards = ____T
      • 4
    • Volume reduction methods
      • Burn: open burning, air curtain pit burning, and incineration.
      • Grind
      • Recycle
    • Recycling Debris
      • Some effective ways to recycle debris include:
      • Composting or mulching vegetative debris,
      • Using materials such as concrete or asphalt
      • as sub‐base for roads, prevent erosion on beaches and port areas
      • Selling scrap metal
      • to dealers, and
      • Using dirt as landfill cover
      • or for agricultural purposes.
    • Recycling is the better solution
      • Recycling and material separation at the point of generation and at staging/processing locations.
      • Maximize potential processing and recycling options.
      • Is better for the environment
    • Northridge Earthquake, Los Angeles California
      • City of Los Angeles Curbside Pickup Program Following 1994
      • Northridge Earthquake
      • Background : The City of Los Angeles chose to address the issue of collection and processing of earthquake debris through private contractors. The City determined that it was most effective to use the existing expertise of established businesses in the area to address debris collection and processing. The anticipated result would be a shorter learning curve for waste handling and a potential expansion of permanent facilities to process mixed and segregated wastes after cleanup activities were completed.
      • Recycling Program
      • Overview : The City of Los Angeles developed a Demolition and Debris Removal Program to handle the debris generated from the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The purpose of the program was to collect residence curbside earthquake debris, and demolish 400+ damaged buildings.
      • The City collected 2,880,000 tons , and recycled 1,629,800 tons for a 56.5% recycling rate. The City saved approximately 6,350,000 cubic yards of landfill space through its recycling and demolition programs (1,629,800 tons).
    • Northridge Earthquake Study
      • Lessons Learned:
      • The City of Los Angeles stressed that it is extremely important to identify the types and locations of debris piled up in the streets prior to dispatching crews to collect it.
      • This allows for:
      • consolidation of similar types of debris (i.e. wood, aggregate, metal, wallboard, insulation), so that full loads of like material can be brought to source separated processing stations, thus minimizing transportation and disposal costs and increasing the likelihood that the materials will be recycled.
      • Debris identification
      • Debris identification can be accomplished in various ways. In hilly areas, the City of Los Angeles scoped the neighborhoods using City staff contractors and marking types of materials and locations on a map. Some contractors will do this prior to dispatching crews, but not necessarily. This is probably something that should be negotiated in the contract.
      • Although the City of Los Angeles chose to blanket the neighborhoods with mobile crews, a Geographic Information System could also be used for identifying locations. Regardless of the method, the primary goal is to maximize capacity of the cleanup crews while collecting as much similar types of debris as possible.
      • Notify residents of program.
      • Get the word out This point may seem obvious, but there are several potential barriers to disseminating information on a curbside pickup program. A City's public outreach program should evaluate all forms of media including: newspaper ads, radio public service announcements, and television public access stations. Be aware of communities where multiple language ads will be necessary. Also, be prepared to pay for the ads. The City of Los Angeles was quoted a price of $16,000.00 for a quarter-page ad in the L.A. Times .
      • Consider only collecting source separated material at the curb.
    • Proposed Solutions for Debris Removal
      • Create mandatory order at government level for debris disposal protocol that all private and public contractors must follow
      • Create Designated Dump Sites (DDS) for construction debris only, outside the Port au Prince congested areas
      • After the debris is sorted at DDS, carry the sorted debris by class to recycling or burn sites.
      • Create Hazardous Material containment and disposal protocols for DDS
      • Communicate all the above to all commercial property owner, government contractors and private contractors via one agency
      • Communicate above to all NGO’s involved in recovery and reconstruction
    • Reconstruction
      • The importance of rebuilding according to adequate codes cannot be stressed enough times. Yet, because of lack of guidelines and monitoring, the private sector is rebuilding with almost the same sub-standard construction methods as before the earthquake.
      • The International Building Code should be adopted and used by engineers, builders, governmental inspectors, and insurance companies.
      • Earthquake retrofitting and Earthquake construction protocols are a must for public and private buildings that receive or welcome the public, such as hotels, hospitals and schools.
    • Reconstruction
      • Proper preparation and testing of the soil for evidence of liquefaction must be done before extensive reconstruction can begin.
      • Repairs of concrete, masonry and structural supports must be done under the supervision of a qualified structural engineer or architect
      • Owners of buildings should consider rebuilding with earthquake resistant material and designs
      • Individual homeowners and business owners will need financial assistance with debris removal and rebuilding due to large quantity of homes and businesses being under insured or not insured at all.
    • What Can The Private Sector Do?
      • Take initiative
      • Plan and Organize as a community
      • Communicate with all agencies
      • Provide solutions by example
      • Take action
      • Put local people to work
      • Rebuilt safer and greener
    • New Development
      • Every community that has rebuilt hit by a major disaster ultimately rebuilds better and safer buildings. The challenge in Haiti is finding the money to sustain this rebuilding process.
      • New communities spring up from the ashes of the old, and sometimes are relocated completely to a safer place.
      • There will be a housing shortage here for quite some time.
      • There will be a need for modular housing, which can be shipped to Haiti ready to assemble.
      • A well plan development addressing storage needs, businesses and homes will be welcome in Haiti.
    • Conclusion
      • By studying how other communities facing similar disasters have successfully rebuild, Haiti has an opportunity to start anew, with better construction and planning for any future disaster.
      • Not taking the time to do the reconstruction properly can create an even more damaging aftermath to the economy, the health and welfare of the people of Haiti.
      • Foreign aid needs to be used judiciously and an government wide reconstruction plan must be in place. That is the only way to start on the road to a efficient and prompt recovery for Haiti.