Therapeutics in dentistry(general principles)


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Therapeutics in dentistry(general principles)

  1. 1. Therapeutics in Dentistry (General Principles) Iyad Abou Rabii DDS,OMFS,Mres,PhD
  2. 2. Pharmacology Basics• Indications – The reasons for administering a medication or performing a treatment• Contra-indications – A factor that prevents the use of a medication or treatment (eg. Allergies) 2
  3. 3. Pharmacology Basics• Dose – The amount of a drug to be administered at one time• Mechanism of Action – How a drug works 3
  4. 4. Pharmacology Basics• Effects – The desired result of administration of a medication• Side Effects – Effects that are not desired and that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effects 4
  5. 5. Medication Names• Chemical Name – describes the drug’s chemical structure• Generic Name – reflects the chemical name, but in shorter form 5
  6. 6. Medication Names• Trade Name – the name the manufacturer uses to market the drug• Official Name – the name used in the Pharmocopoeia 6
  7. 7. Routes• Enteral tract routes• Parenteral routes
  8. 8. Comparison of Enteral vs. Parenteral Routes
  9. 9. Enteral Routes• Oral (PO)• Orogastric/nasogastric (OG/NG)• Sublingual (SL)• Buccal• Rectal (PR)
  10. 10. Parenteral Routes• Topical • Sublingual• Intradermal injection• Intranasal • Intracardiac (IC)• Subcutaneous • Intraosseous (SC) • Inhalational• Intramuscular (IM) • Umbilical• Intravenous (IV) • Vaginal• Endotracheal (ET) • Pulpal
  11. 11. No single method of drugadministration is ideal for alldrugs in all circumstances
  12. 12. The Medication Order (Prescription)• Medication desired• Dose desired• Administration route• Administration rate
  13. 13. Before any Drugprescription• Discuss with patient the possible consequences (god and bad)• Prescribe drugs you know• Keep updated (BNF, Vidal…others)• Dose: consider age, physiology, and pathology• Drug interactions
  14. 14. Prescribing• The Dentist is legally responsible for the signed prescription• Prescription should be indelible, dated, with full name and address of the patient• Age of patient should be mentioned when under 12.• Use generic drugs when possible
  15. 15. Prescribing• Don`t use abbreviations for the drug names.• Define the quantity supplied• Directions should be in English with no use of the abbreviations
  16. 16. Prescribing• When writing the dose – Quantities of one gram is wrriten (1 g) – Less than 1 g is written in milligrams (500 mg) – Less than l mg should be written in microgram 100 microgram (not 0.1 mg) – Nanogram and microgram should not be abbreviated
  17. 17. Clark’s RuleClarks RuleDivide the child’s weight (in pounds) by 150 to get the approximate fraction of the adult dose to give to the child. Example: For a 50 pound child give 50/150 (or 1/3) of the adult dose. Therefore, if the adult dose is 30 drops taken 3 times per day, the child’s dose will be 10 drops taken 3 times per day (not 30 drops taken 1 time per day).•
  18. 18. Essential Components of PrescriptionsAll written prescriptions should contain:1) Patients full name and address2) Prescribers full name, address, telephone number,3) Date of issuance4) Signature of prescriber5) Drug name, dose, dosage form, amount6) Directions for use7) Refill instructions
  19. 19. Essential Components of Prescriptions
  20. 20. Latin abbreviations• Rx : abbreviation of the Latin word "recipe” x as a substitute period.• # ac (ante cibum) • means "before meals"• # bid (bis in die) means • "twice a day"
  21. 21. Latin abbreviations• # po (per os) • means "by mouth"• # pc (post cibum) means • "after meals"• # prn (pro re nata) • means "as needed"
  22. 22. Latin abbreviations• # q 3 h (quaque 3 hora) • means "every 3 hours"• # qd (quaque die) • means "every day"• # qid (quater in die) means • "4 times a day"