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CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
CHC theory 101:  From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory
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CHC theory 101: From general intelligence (g) to CHC theory

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The second in the CHC Theory 101 series. This brief module traces, in broad strokes, the history of psychometric theories of intelligence from Spearman's g to contemporary Cattell-Horn-Cattell (CHC) …

The second in the CHC Theory 101 series. This brief module traces, in broad strokes, the history of psychometric theories of intelligence from Spearman's g to contemporary Cattell-Horn-Cattell (CHC) theory

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  • 1. Dr. Kevin S. McGrew Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14 CHC introduction & history: From g to CHC T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 g PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 G1 G2 G3 g ?
  • 2. Classification is arguably one of the most central and generic of all our conceptual exercises … without classification, there could be no advanced conceptualization, reasoning, language, data analysis, or for that matter, social science research. (K.D. Bailey, 1994) The importance of taxonomies and classification in science © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 3. A specialized science of classification of empirical entities known as taxonomy (Bailey, 1994; Prentky, 1994) is ubiquitous in all fields of study because it guides our search for information or truth. The importance of taxonomies and classification in science © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 4. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Learning Objectives
  • 5. ...most disciplines have a common set of terms and definitions (i.e., a standard nomenclature) that facilitates communication among professionals and guards against misinterpretations. In chemistry, this standard nomenclature is reflected in the Table of Periodic Elements. Carroll (1993a) has provided an analogous table for intelligence….. (Flanagan & McGrew, 1998) The importance of taxonomies and classification in science © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 6. A Good Taxonomy:
  • 7. Psychometric approach is the dominant approach, has inspired the most research, is used most widely in practical settings. (p. 77) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 8. John Horn, compared the process of classifying and categorizing human abilities and intelligence to “slicing smoke”. (Horn, 1991) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 9. Gf Gc Gwm Glr Gv Ga Gs Gq Grw g I am going to be your guide for a “walk in the clouds” of human cognitive abilities. CHC theory will be our map.
  • 10. Gs Ga Gv Gf Gq Grw Glr Gwm Gc ability construct Human cognitive abilities are hypothetical constructs • Hidden attributes • Unseen phenomena • Not visible • Not directly observable • Latent • Are used to explain behavior
  • 11. Intelligence scholars have been trying to discover/define a valid “Rosetta Stone” for describing human cognitive abilities since the early 1900’s. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 12. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 13. Figure 1. The Evolution of CHC Intelligence Theory and Assessment Methods
  • 14. T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 g Spearman’s general factor model (T# = designates different test measures) Latent, hidden, unobservable ability construct Factor loadings of tests on latent g ability factor © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 15. Thurston’s Multiple Factor (Primary Mental Abilities) Model (T# = designates different test measures) (PMA# = different “primary mental ability”) PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 …etc …etc Correlations between latent ability constructs © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 16. PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 …etc …etc G1 G2 G3 …etc Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Hierarchical (no g) Model © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 17. PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 …etc …etc …etc PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 G2 G1 g Arrows from g to each test (rectangle) have been omitted for readability Stratum I Stratum II Stratum III Carroll’s Schmid-Leiman Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 18. Carroll and Cattell-Horn Model Comparison Gq Quantitative Knowledge Grw Reading/ Writing Cattell-HornCarroll Gf Fluid Intelligence Fluid Intelligence Gf Gsm Short-Term Memory Gen.Memory &Learning Gy Gv Visual Processing BroadVisual Perception Gv Gs Processing Speed BroadCognitive Speediness Gs CDS Correct DecisionSpeed Dec/Reaction Time/Speed Gt Glr Long-Term Retrieval BroadRetrieval Ability Gr Ga Auditory Processing BroadAuditory Perception Gu Gc Crystallized Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Gc g © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 19. Consensus Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 …etc …etc G1 G2 G3 …etc g? Stratum I Stratum II Stratum III © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 20. T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 g (1a) Spearman’s general Factor model PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 …etc …etc …etc PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 G2 G1 g Arrows from g to each test (rectangle) have been omitted for readability Stratum I Stratum II Stratum III (1d) Carroll’s Schmid-Leiman Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 …etc …etc G1 G2 G3 …etc (1c) Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc Hierarchical Model Figure 1: Major stages in the evolution of psychometric theories from Spearman’s g to Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory Note: Circles represent latent factors. Squares represent manifest measures (tests; T1..). Single-headed path arrows designate factor loadings. Double headed arrows designate latent factor correlations PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 …etc …etc G1 G2 G3 …etc g ? (1e) Consensus Cattell-Horn-Carroll Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model Stratum I Stratum II Stratum III PMA1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 PMA2 PMA3 PMA4 …etc …etc (1b) Thurston’s Multiple Factor (Primary Mental Abilities) Model © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 21. CHC Theory Summary • Combination of research by Raymond Cattell, John Horn, and John Carroll • The most empirically-supported, psychometric-based, contemporary description of the structure of human cognitive abilities • Based on the analyses of hundreds of data sets that were not restricted to a particular test battery • The theory describes cognitive abilities as a function of degree of breadth/generality © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 22. Richard Snow (1993): “John Carroll has done a magnificent thing. He has reviewed and reanalyzed the world’s literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities…no one else could have done it… it defines the taxonomy of cognitive differential psychology for many years to come.” Burns (1994): Carroll’s book “is simply the finest work of research and scholarship I have read and is destined to be the classic study and reference work on human abilities for decades to come” (p. 35). John Horn (1998): A “tour de force summary and integration” that is the “definitive foundation for current theory” (p. 58). Horn compared Carroll’s summary to “Mendelyev’s first presentation of a periodic table of elements in chemistry” (p. 58). Arthur Jensen (2004): “…on my first reading this tome, in 1993, I was reminded of the conductor Hans von Bülow’s exclamation on first reading the full orchestral score of Wagner’s Die Meistersinger, ‘‘It’s impossible, but there it is!’’ “Carroll’s magnum opus thus distills and synthesizes the results of a century of factor analyses of mental tests. It is virtually the grand finale of the era of psychometric description and taxonomy of human cognitive abilities. It is unlikely that his monumental feat will ever be attempted again by anyone, or that it could be much improved on. It will long be the key reference point and a solid foundation for the explanatory era of differential psychology that we now see burgeoning in genetics and the brain sciences” (p. 5). The verdict is unanimous re: the importance of Carroll’s (1993) work © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 23. g Gf GqGc SAR Gsm Gv Ga TSR Glm Gs CDS Grw Gkn Gh Gk Go Gf Gc Gy Gv Gu Gr Gs Gt Gp Gps A. Carroll Three-Stratum Model B. Cattell-Horn Extended Gf-Gc Model D. Tentatively identified Stratum II (broad) domains 1 Carroll and Cattell-Horn Broad Ability Correspondence (vertically-aligned ovals repres ent similar broad domains) Gf GqGc Gsm Gv Ga Glr Gs Gt Grw C. Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Integrated Model g Stratum III (general) Stratum II (broad) Notes. Broad ability factor codes based on Carroll (1993) and Horn and Blankson (2005). See Table 1 for additional explanation. 80+ Stratum I (narrow) abilities hav e been identified under the Stratum II broad abilities. They are not listed here due to space limitations (see Table 1). Placement of g to the left-side of the Carroll Three-Stratum Model (A) is consistent with Carroll's (1993) published figures, a placement reflecting his finding that the broad abilities towards the left (e.g, Gf, Gc) had the highest loadings on the g-factor. The placement of the Grw and Gq factors in the Cattell-Horn Extended Gf-Gc Model (B) is not consistent with this g-broad ability representation as Grw and Gq ty pically demonstrate high g-loadings. Grw and Gq are placed to the right in B to reflect their absence in model A. Gf Fluid reasoning Gkn General (domain-specific) knowledge Gc Comprehension-knowledge Gh Tactile abilities Gsm Short-term mem ory Gk Kinesthetic abilities Gv Visual process ing Go Olfactory abilities Ga Auditory processing Gp Psychomotor abilities Glr Long-term storage and retrieval Gps Psychomotor s peed Gs Process ing speed Gt Decision and reaction s peed (see Table 1 for definitions) Grw Reading and writing 1 See McGrew(2004, 2005) for literature rev iew supporting these domains Gq Quantitative knowledge CHC Broad (Stratum II) Ability Domains (Miss ingg-to-broad ability arrows acknowledges that Carroll and Cattell-Horn disagreed on the validity of the general factor) © Institute for Applied Ps ychom etrics, LLC Kevin S. McGrew 7-22-08
  • 24. g General (stratum I) The CHC taxonomy of cognitive abilities – The three levels (stratum)Narrow (stratum III) Broad (stratum II) Gf Gc Gwm Glr Gv Ga Gs Gc Note. WJ IV authors propose that Gsm be changed to Gwm (McGrew, LaForte & Schrank, 2014) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 25. g Gf Gc Gwm Glr Gv Ga Gs Gc Substantive Stage of Test Development: Develop Test Design and Specification Blueprint • What is the theoretical domain? • How should intelligence be defined? • What intelligence theory has the best validity evidence? Answer: Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 26. g Gf Gc Gwm Glr Gv Ga Gs Gc Substantive Stage of Test Development: Develop Test Design and Specification Blueprint What broad & narrow ability domain(s) are to be measured and in what proportion? How do we define the broad and narrow ability constructs? © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 27. Contemporary psychometric research has converged on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of cognitive abilities as the consensus working taxonomy of human intelligence
  • 28. g Gf GqGc SAR Gsm Gv Ga TSR Glm Gs CDS Grw Gkn Gh Gk Go Gf Gc Gy Gv Gu Gr Gs Gt Gp Gps A. Carroll Three-Stratum Model B. Cattell-Horn Extended Gf-Gc Model D. Tentatively identified Stratum II (broad) domains Carroll and Cattell-Horn Broad Ability Correspondence (vertically-aligned ovals repres ent similar broad domains) Gf GqGc Gsm Gv Ga Glr Gs Gt Grw C. Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Integrated Model g Stratum III (general) Stratum II (broad) 80+ Stratum I (narrow) abilities have been identified under the Stratum II broad abilities. They are not lis ted here due to s pace limitations (see Table 1) Gf Fluid reasoning Gkn General (domain-specific) knowledge Gc Comprehension-knowledge Gh Tactile abilities Gsm Short-term mem ory Gk Kinesthetic abilities Gv Visual process ing Go Olfactory abilities Ga Auditory processing Gp Psychomotor abilities Glr Long-term storage and retrieval Gps Psychomotor s peed Gs Cognitive processing s peed Gt Decision and reaction s peed (see Table 1 for definitions ) Grw Reading and writing Gq Quantitative knowledge CHC Broad (Stratum II) Ability Domains (Miss ingg-to-broad ability arrows acknowledges that Carroll and Cattell-Horn disagreed on the validity of the general factor)
  • 29. The CHC taxonomy of cognitive abilities: Current status Dr. Kevin S. McGrew Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Gf Gc Gwm Glr Gv Ga Gs Gq Grw g © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 30. Gf Gc Gwm Glr Gv Ga Gs Gq Grw g The CHC taxonomy of cognitive abilities: Current Status © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 31. Gf Gc Gwm Glr Gv Ga Gs Gq Grw g Contemporary psychometric research has converged on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of cognitive abilities as the consensus working taxonomy of human intelligence © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 32. From
  • 33. CHC model is analogous to the Periodic Table of Elements in Chemistry
  • 34. OM PC US UM U8 UR U1 U9 UP UL Vz SR MV CS SS CF IM PI LE IL PN Sensory-MotorDomain- SpecificAbilities Sensory The CHC Periodic Table of Human Abilities Adapted from Schneider & McGrew (2012) and McGrew, LaForte and Schrank (2014) I RG RQ WM MS AC R3 PT MT P N R9 R1 R2 R4 R7 IT MA MM M6 FI FA FE SP F0 NA FW LA FF FX Ideas Words Figures Domain-Independent Capacities Glr-Learning efficiency Glr-Retrieval fluency Broad ability Narrow ability © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 3-28-14 KM A3 LD VL K0 LS CM MY KL K1 A5 MK KF LP BC V RD RC RS WA SG EU WS AcquiredKnowledge Systems K2 PI P2 P3 P4 P6 P7 A1 U1 U9 UP UL Motor
  • 35. OM PC US UM U8 UR U1 U9 UP UL Vz SR MV CS SS CF IM PI LE IL PN Sensory-MotorDomain- SpecificAbilities Sensory The CHC Periodic Table of Human Abilities Adapted from Schneider & McGrew (2012) and McGrew, LaForte and Schrank (2014) I RG RQ WM MS AC R3 PT MT P N R9 R1 R2 R4 R7 IT MA MM M6 FI FA FE SP F0 NA FW LA FF FX Ideas Words Figures Domain-Independent Capacities Glr-Learning efficiency Glr-Retrieval fluency Broad ability Narrow ability © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-17-14 KM A3 LD VL K0 LS CM MY KL K1 A5 MK KF LP BC V RD RC RS WA SG EU WS AcquiredKnowledge Systems K2 PI P2 P3 P4 P6 P7 P8 U1 U9 UP UL Motor A1
  • 36. See handouts or provided PDF copy to read © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 37. See handouts or provided PDF copy to read © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 38. See handouts or provided PDF copy to read © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14
  • 39. OM PC US UM U8 UR U1 U9 UP UL Vz SR MV CS SS CF IM PI LE IL PN Sensory-MotorDomain- SpecificAbilities Sensory The CHC Periodic Table of Human Abilities Adapted from Schneider & McGrew (2012) and McGrew, LaForte and Schrank (2014) I RG RQ WM MS AC R3 PT MT P N R9 R1 R2 R4 R7 IT MA MM M6 FI FA FE SP F0 NA FW LA FF FX Ideas Words Figures Domain-Independent Capacities Glr-Learning efficiency Glr-Retrieval fluency Broad ability Narrow ability © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 3-28-14 KM A3 LD VL K0 LS CM MY KL K1 A5 MK KF LP BC V RD RC RS WA SG EU WS AcquiredKnowledge Systems K2 U1 U9 UP UL Motor PI P2 P3 P4 P6 P7 A1P8
  • 40. KM A3 LD VL K0 LS CM MY K1 A5 V RD RC RS WA SG EU WS PC US UM U8 UR U1 U9 UP UL Vz SR MV CS SS CF IM PI LE IL PN AcquiredKnowledge Systems Sensory-MotorDomain- SpecificAbilities I RG RQ WM MS AC P N R9 MA MM M6 FI FA FE SP F0 NA FW LA FF FX Ideas Words Figures Domain-Independent Capacities K2 Broad and Narrow Abilities Most Relevant to the Development of Measures of Cognitive and Achievement Abilities
  • 41. KM A3 LD VL K0 LS K1 A5 V RD RC RS WA SG EU WS PC UM Vz MV SS AcquiredKnowledge Systems Sensory-MotorDomain- SpecificAbilities I RG RQ WM MS AC P N MA MM NA FW LA Ideas Words Figures Domain-Independent Capacities K2 Broad and Narrow Abilities Measured by the WJ IV COG, OL and ACH FI © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 4-11-14

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