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Advancing Reinaldo Gonsalves’ Model of Global Economic Insertion
 

Advancing Reinaldo Gonsalves’ Model of Global Economic Insertion

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This paper is located in what is referred to as policy critique within the theoretical framework of International Political Economy (IPE) which, by origin, seeks to problematize issues of policy. In ...

This paper is located in what is referred to as policy critique within the theoretical framework of International Political Economy (IPE) which, by origin, seeks to problematize issues of policy. In 1994, celebrated Brazilian economist, Reinaldo Gonsalves produced an important thesis and model on how to measure a country’s global insertion. At that time, Gonsalves could not have foreseen the influence of the Internet on global trade or on domestic trade policies. As such, the issue of global digital connectivity now presents itself as another pillar to measure global insertion. By examining regional Caribbean policy in this regard, this is an opportunity to advance Gonsalves’ model stimulate further on the opportunities associated with global digital connectivity.

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    Advancing Reinaldo Gonsalves’ Model of Global Economic Insertion Advancing Reinaldo Gonsalves’ Model of Global Economic Insertion Presentation Transcript

    • Advancing Reinaldo Gonsalves’ Model of Global Economic Insertion:  Opportunities for the English Speaking Caribbean with Global Digital Connectivity By Ian W. Walcott
    • Overview
      • Introduction – Gonsalves’ Model of Global Economic Insertion
      • What is Global Digital Connectivity?
      • Openness in Liberal Democracies
      • Current Caribbean Reality in the face of the Digital Revolution
      • Opportunities for English-speaking Caribbean
      • Returning to Gonsalves
      • Conclusion
    • What is Global Insertion? The Reinaldo Goncalves Model
      • Commercial openness = coefficient of exports over GNP;
      • Financial openness = ratio of foreign debt to GNP;
      • Third level of openness
        • “ real production”
        • the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI)
        • the portion of capital stock detained by multinational corporations (MNCs)
    • What is Global Insertion? New Consideration – Global Digital Connectivity
      • Brave new world where international actors and global citizens are explicitly connected to each other in real time by and through enabling technologies.
    • What is Driving this Connectivity?
      • Advancement of broadband, nanotechnology and data compression;
      • Global banking and finance industry
      • Incursion of multinational corporations and the erosion of the nation-state (broadly defined as globalization)
      • Education industry driven by virtual learning and cross-border research
      • Online social networking
    • What is Driving this Connectivity?
      • Integrative technologies linking satellites and mobile telephony
      • Demand for real time information by global consumers
        • Supplied by few dominant global media and content providers
      • Global entertainment industry providing content over Internet
        • Target - new generation of consumers born after 1990
      • Reconfiguration of the global political economy into interlocking large regional blocks
      • Increased demand for openness and transparency in Western liberal democracies
        • Driving e-government solutions.
    • Openness in Liberal Democracies
      • The Millennials – New Digitized Generation
      • Obama effect on openness via the Internet
      • Transparency through e-government
      • Increased demand to control personal consumption:
    • Openness in Liberal Democracies: Increased demand to control personal consumption
        • Air travel
        • Courier packages – DHL, Fedex, UPS
        • Online banking and access to personal funds
        • Online shopping
        • Online social networking: professional and otherwise
        • Online entertainment: music downloads, movies, blogging, video interaction
    • The Current Caribbean Reality in the face of the Digital Revolution
        • Why is the Caribbean so seemingly slow to adopt and implement new technologies?
        • What are the inhibitors to creating a culture of innovation?
        • Do we see the benefits?
        • Culturally, do we wish to participate or are we happy and satisfied with our position on the periphery within the status quo?
        • If not, what macro social and economies policies can be put in place today to engender a culture of innovation?
    • A New Ranking of the World’s most innovative countries Source: A New Ranking of the World’s most innovative countries by Economist Intelligence Unit, 2009 .
    • Challenges to the Region
        • The dominant MNCs in the region are themselves behind the innovation curve.
        • Conservatism comes at a high cost:
          • Risk aversion
          • Slow adoption of new technologies
          • Breeds a culture of fear and resistance
          • Inhibits a culture of innovation.
        • Additionally, at the global level the Caribbean is way behind in the e-readiness index. Take a look at the latest rankings for 2009.
    •  
    • Opportunities for the English-speaking Caribbean
      • English language advantage
      • Solid education system that can be packaged and sold
      • Advancing CSME and regional business integration
      • Global demand for Caribbean cultural content
      • Greater linkages to tourism product
    • Opportunities for the English-speaking Caribbean
      • E-government needs to expand more rapidly – Govt acting a hub
        • Example tax collection
      • Political parties using the Net
      • Capitalizing on short distances to increase inter-regional trade
      • Increase R&D spend
    • Leading Countries: R&D Expenditure
    • Returning to Gonsalves
      • Next stage – develop measurement tool for global digital connectivity
        • Number of Internet Service Providers
        • Computers per household
        • Internet connectivity per household
        • Broadband capacity on a country level
      • Implications for domestic and foreign policies
    • Global Political Economic Influence
      • Ability to reconfigure global political economy through major seismic shifts
      • Ability to determine and/or alter international agenda.
      • Ability to influence global governance through multilateralism (WTO, UN structure, IMF, World Bank, Regional Development Banks, etc).
    • Global Insertion & GPE Influence Matrix 3 HIGH GLOBAL INSERTION LOW GPE INFLUENCE 4 HIGH GLOBAL INSERTION HIGH GPE INFLUENCE 1 LOW GLOBAL INSERTION LOW GPE INFLUENCE 2 LOW GLOBAL INSERTION HIGH GPE INFLUENCE Global Political Economic (GPE)Influence Global Insertion Including Global Digital Connectivity LOW MEDIUM HIGH MEDIUM HIGH
    • Conclusion
      • Increasing importance in measuring digital connectivity
      • Serious implications for national and regional policies
        • Information
        • Foreign policy
        • Trade
      • Opportunities still exist
      • Advantages for the English-speaking Caribbean
        • Language
        • Stable democracies
        • Comparatively high level of human development