Assistive technology can include mobility devices such as walkers and wheelchairs, as well as hardware, software, and peripherals that assist people with disabilities in accessing computers or other services. For example, people with limited hand function may use a keyboard with large keys or a special mouse to operate a computer, people who are blind may use software that reads text on the screen in a computer-generated voice, people with low vision may use software that enlarges screen content, people who are deaf may use a TTY (text telephone), or people with speech impairments may use a device that speaks out loud as they enter text via a keyboard.
Her hesitant decoding skills were enhanced by Kurzweil, aspeech-activation system. Variable speed read-back was a vital feature for Student C,Student C used Inspiration® to develop mind-maps to help her toget the global picture of the information contained in books or journal articles. Thishelped her to see ‘how everything fits together’She usedcolour-coded notes on screen to build up her written drafts:● Green = my notes.● Black = text lifted from other sources.● Red = things to check before putting in the essay.● Blue = my essay text.By using colour on screen she was able to identify very quickly what was not her ownlanguage. She also used colour to give herself reminders of what she had to do.
Students needs change through their courseDrop in centre or online resources can assist with thisLexdis student (2009): …when I got all my software in autumn last year, and they said: “You need to have your training on this” – as you quite rightly have said – I did feel like I was doing 2 courses and that was, frankly, too much. I had to stay with my old bad habits because I just didn’t feel I had the time to take out to learn something new to help me. It was a vicious circle, really.
Technology expectations…What is the students usual way of workingWhat technology have they used in school, at home?Technology enhancements….How can we used technology to lesson difficulties and overcome barriers?to improve access and ensure equality for all= technology as an assistive tool
2012 student intact have been exposed to these tools at home & school throughout their secondary schools
The Assistive TechnologyLandscape in 2012 and Beyond Abi James
What is Assistive Technology?An umbrella term used to describe products thatgive someone with a disability a level ofindependence and enable them to carry out dayto day tasks World Health organisationAny product or service designed to enableindependence for disabled and older people. www.fastuk.org
When Is Technology “Assistive” to a student?• Technology “scaffolding” to enable independent learning• Overcomes barriers to learning• Provides tools to compensate for task that are more difficult and time consuming• A recognisable adjustment to reduce the impact on their studies
But assistive technology solutions must...• Lesson difficulties• Enhance learning ‘a mismatch can hamper the students ability to use coping strategies to manage their dyslexia’ Stacy (1998)
Current “assistive” technology landscape Wilkinson, Viney & Draffan 2012• 85% of DSA students in a recent survey had not used AT before entering HE• 49% not identified until FE or later.• 67.5% used it daily• 70% said that their kit “helps them keep up”
Current “assistive” technology landscapePrice (2010) quotes a students whose dyslexia “affectsthe ability to multi-task and whose low-level skilloperation does not work on automatic pilot”: I have wonderful sentences in my head but to write means that I have to think about the shape of letters and the spelling. This slows me down considerably.Strategy:Student used Dragon to get her ideas down quickly
Assistive Technology & Training: Student Feedback• Students needs change through their course• Integrating assistive technology into a student’s life often requires them to learn additional skills on top of new academic skills.• Wilkinson, Viney & Draffan 2012: – 80%+ found AT training helpful or very helpful – 30% would have liked access to reminder sessions• Better approaches? – Study strategies using technology – Drop in sessions – Online resources
What makes up the technology landscape for DSA students?Technology Technology Vs.Expectations Enhancements
Technology expectations are led by technology already in use at.. School Home and daily life College Their peersWhat does it mean to be a 21st century learner?
Computing developments since 2006 in homes & schools 2011: 2010 2009 Tablets The iPad! Twitter Social Media 2007-8 eBooks go meets consumer The Kindle collaborative Netbooks, iPhones Android learning Internet Windows 7 Proliferation Google Chrome2006: access via released of App stores bookFacebook, mobiles >Wikipedia computers Cloud-basedGoogle Cloud API’s emergeApps, computing
HE Trends in Technology beyond2012, NMC Horizon Report
The Here and Now… 2012• The Informal Learning Revolution promised by learning platforms & m-learning is being achieved through – social networking, – cloud-based tools & mobile apps• Rise of the Social Reading concept• The Flipped Classroom
The Here and Now… 2012• Universities are moving on to the cloud – 25,000 students and staff at the University of Westminster now use Google Apps Education Edition• Mobile apps are being used in learning & to support students• App-ification — many tools each for a small, discrete task
Trends in Technology beyond 2012: New means of controlling tech• Gesture based interface can inhibit or enable access e.g. using web-cams, Kinect devices to recognise sign languages• Speech control becoming prevalent
Trends in Technology beyond 2012: Digital identity for all• Being able to transfer accessibility requirements between web-enabled devices• Cloud4All, GPII• Bringing personalisation to the cloud
Trends in Technology beyond 2012: Mobile Devices• Accessibility on mobile devices will only improve – Demand led – Legislation (508 review in US)• Expectation that mobile devices will be used in learning - One to one tablet provision - Bring your own device
Beware the App-ification of software• Average shelf-life of an iPhone app is 90 days (2009). Developers keen to re-release and amend apps• OS updates on mobile devices (and Mac) are frequent and often out of user control• How can we support apps (including Mac app store purchase) over the length of a degree course?
Migration to web apps• Now seeing a movement to develop HTML5 apps – browser , widget or mobile based• Platform independent & more opportunity to be accessible.• A.T. is already moving this way… Texthelp Web apps
Windows 8 expected late 2012• Windows 7 but with a tablet interface• For desktop users, maybe no change?• Still not known what the full impact of accessibility will be but VI support for touch interface will be built-in.• Windows store will mark apps as accessible
References & More information:21st Century Learning Quiz: www.setuk.co.ukDSA Student survey: Wilkinson, Viney & Draffan 2012: DSA Student survey: “Canwe find the missing piece?”Technology Strategies for studying: http://www.lexdis.org.uk/James and Trott (2008): Support maths and engineering students with dyslexia andmathematical difficulties with Tablet PCs. Presented to NADP conference 2008NMC Horizon Report > 2012 Higher Education Editionhttp://www.nmc.org/news/and-eli-release-horizon-report-2012-hied-editionPrice (2012): Creative solutions to making technology work: three case studies ofdyslexic writers in higher education http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/20356/Thanks to E.A. Draffan and Kevin Brunton for providing student and assessorinsights.
Further informationIansyst LtdFen HouseFen RoadCambridge CB4 1UNTel: 01223 420101Abi James firstname.lastname@example.org