What
are
these
things?• Classical
Ora1on• Toulmin
Argumenta1on• Warrants
The
Five‐Paragraph
Essay:
• Intro:  – Hook  – Thesis  – Roadmap
(proof
1,
proof
2,
    proof
3)• Body
(3
paragraphs)• Conc...
For
example:Intro:




S1ll
have
your
brains?
Then
chances
are
you
have
never
been
subject
to
a
zombie
aQack.
Zombies
shou...
Weaknesses:
• Shallowness                     4
Weaknesses:
• Shallowness• Lack
of
connec1on                      5
Weaknesses:
• Shallowness• Lack
of
connec1on• Rigidity                      6
The
classical
ora1on:
The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro
The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro• Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context
The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro• Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context• Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap
The
classical
ora1on:•   Exordium:
hook,
intro•   Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context•   Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap•   ...
The
classical
ora1on:•   Exordium:
hook,
intro•   Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context•   Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap•   ...
The
classical
ora1on:•   Exordium:
hook,
intro•   Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context•   Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap•   ...
A
modern
version:
A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
  Claim,
Roadmap
A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
  Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
  defi...
A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
  Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
  defi...
A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
  Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
  defi...
A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
  Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
  defi...
Toulmin
Arguments:
The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
  the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”
The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
  the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:...
The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
  the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:...
The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
  the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:...
The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
the
  ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:...
Kelp is low in                So, in     It would be a healthy andcalories and rich                 most      nutritious a...
Kelp is low in                So, in     It would be a healthy andcalories and rich                 most      nutritious a...
Kelp is low in                    Evidence                                 So, in     It would be a healthy andcalories an...
Kelp is low in                 So, in     It would be a healthy andcalories and rich                  most      nutritious...
Kelp is low in                So, in     It would be a healthy andcalories and rich                 most      nutritious a...
Kelp is low in                So, in     It would be a healthy andcalories and rich                 most      nutritious a...
Kelp is low in                 So, in     It would be a healthy andcalories and rich                  most      nutritious...
Give
it
a
go:
Formulate
a
full
Toulmin
argument
 about
one
of
the
following
recent
events.
Remember
that
        arguments...
Give
it
a
go:
Formulate
a
full
Toulmin
argument
         about
one
of
the
following
recent
events.Aier
being
fired
from
Two...
Give
it
a
go:
Formulate
a
full
Toulmin
argument
         about
one
of
the
following
recent
events.Since
Tunisia’s
Jasmine
...
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Types of Argument and Toulmin Analysis

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A brief overview of the Classical Oration model and Toulmin Argumentation, from chapters 1 and 7 of Everything's an Argument

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  • Chs. 1 and 7 To start off, be sure you know what these things are. We’ll review them in here. \n
  • The high school model. A good start, but not complex enough. \n
  • Read over. Good: you know what the next paragraphs will be. How about the bad?\n
  • Any argument is surface-level. “These are three things I noticed.”\n
  • We have no idea how those three things affect eachother\n
  • What happens if you noticed 4? Or only one, but it’s big and complex? Or if you want to talk about the relationship between two of the three? \n
  • A model from ancient rhetorical practice. Warning: lots of Latin about to follow\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Here’s a slightly condensed version that gets employed more often\n
  • Not all these parts appear--we’ll talk more about the “roadmap” later on\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Who was this Toulmin guy? Formal vs. casual logic. We like him in English because his argumentation style is built out of language and discourse, instead of philosophical concepts.\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Read it through then give a second for viewers to spot the claim, ev, war, qual, back, rebuttal\n
  • Read it through then give a second for viewers to spot the claim, ev, war, qual, back, rebuttal\n
  • Read it through then give a second for viewers to spot the claim, ev, war, qual, back, rebuttal\n
  • Read it through then give a second for viewers to spot the claim, ev, war, qual, back, rebuttal\n
  • Read it through then give a second for viewers to spot the claim, ev, war, qual, back, rebuttal\n
  • Read it through then give a second for viewers to spot the claim, ev, war, qual, back, rebuttal\n
  • Read it through then give a second for viewers to spot the claim, ev, war, qual, back, rebuttal\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Types of Argument and Toulmin Analysis

    1. 1. What
are
these
things?• Classical
Ora1on• Toulmin
Argumenta1on• Warrants
    2. 2. The
Five‐Paragraph
Essay:
• Intro: – Hook – Thesis – Roadmap
(proof
1,
proof
2,
 proof
3)• Body
(3
paragraphs)• Conclusion 2
    3. 3. For
example:Intro:




S1ll
have
your
brains?
Then
chances
are
you
have
never
been
subject
to
a
zombie
aQack.
Zombies
should
be
classified
as
the
most
ruthless
supernatural
predator
due
to
their
plague‐like
method
of
propaga1on,
their
extreme
endurance,
and
their
characteris1c
roUng/creepy
appearance. 3
    4. 4. Weaknesses:
• Shallowness 4
    5. 5. Weaknesses:
• Shallowness• Lack
of
connec1on 5
    6. 6. Weaknesses:
• Shallowness• Lack
of
connec1on• Rigidity 6
    7. 7. The
classical
ora1on:
    8. 8. The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro
    9. 9. The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro• Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context
    10. 10. The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro• Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context• Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap
    11. 11. The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro• Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context• Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap• Confirma+o:
presenta1on
of
evidence
    12. 12. The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro• Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context• Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap• Confirma+o:
presenta1on
of
evidence• Refuta+o:
counterarguments,
alterna1ves
    13. 13. The
classical
ora1on:• Exordium:
hook,
intro• Narra+o:
background,
facts,
and
context• Par++o:
claim
and
roadmap• Confirma+o:
presenta1on
of
evidence• Refuta+o:
counterarguments,
alterna1ves• Perora+o:
summary,
conclusion
    14. 14. A
modern
version:
    15. 15. A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
 Claim,
Roadmap
    16. 16. A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
 Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
 defini1ons,
context,
narra1ve,
et
cetera
    17. 17. A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
 Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
 defini1ons,
context,
narra1ve,
et
cetera• Argument:
Reasons
(logos
and
occasionally
 pathos)
in
support
of
your
claim
    18. 18. A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
 Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
 defini1ons,
context,
narra1ve,
et
cetera• Argument:
Reasons
(logos
and
occasionally
 pathos)
in
support
of
your
claim• Alterna1ves:
Note
and
explain
other
 perspec1ves,
no1ng
why
yours
is
s1ll
strongest
    19. 19. A
modern
version:• Intro:
Hook,
Qualifica1ons,
Common
Ground,
 Claim,
Roadmap• Background:
Necessary
facts,
history,
 defini1ons,
context,
narra1ve,
et
cetera• Argument:
Reasons
(logos
and
occasionally
 pathos)
in
support
of
your
claim• Alterna1ves:
Note
and
explain
other
 perspec1ves,
no1ng
why
yours
is
s1ll
strongest• Conclusion:
Summarizes,
elaborates
further
 implica1ons,
perhaps
proposal
or
pathos
    20. 20. Toulmin
Arguments:
    21. 21. The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
 the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”
    22. 22. The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
 the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:
Logos.

    23. 23. The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
 the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:
Logos.
• Warrants:
Logical
bridge
between
the
claim
 and
the
evidence.
    24. 24. The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
 the
ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:
Logos.
• Warrants:
Logical
bridge
between
the
claim
 and
the
evidence.• Backing:
Further
support
for
the
arguments
of
 the
warrant
itself.
    25. 25. The
Toulmin
Model:• Claims:
controversial
and
debatable:
answers
the
 ques1on,
“So
what’s
your
point?”• Evidence/Reasons:
Logos.
• Warrants:
Logical
bridge
between
the
claim
and
 the
evidence.• Backing:
Further
support
for
the
arguments
of
the
 warrant
itself.• Qualifiers:
Limit
the
scope
of
the
claim• Condi1ons
of
rebuQal:
Counterarguments
    26. 26. Kelp is low in So, in It would be a healthy andcalories and rich most nutritious addition to most in vitamins and cases, American diets. minerals Since Unless Most Americans are seeking to reduce their One is seeking to reduce calorie consumption and sodium in the diet / is worried increase their intake of about the effects of excess vitamins and minerals iodine on the thyroid / is actively As shown by: seeking to gain weight... The following respected authorities on nutrition and American eating habits... Find the following above: Claim • Evidence • Warrant • Qualifier • Backing • Conditions of Rebuttal 26
    27. 27. Kelp is low in So, in It would be a healthy andcalories and rich most nutritious addition to most in vitamins and cases, American diets. minerals Since Most Americans are Unless Claim seeking to reduce their One is seeking to reduce calorie consumption and sodium in the diet / is worried increase their intake of about the effects of excess vitamins and minerals iodine on the thyroid / is actively As shown by: seeking to gain weight... The following respected authorities on nutrition and American eating habits... Find the following above: Claim • Evidence • Warrant • Qualifier • Backing • Conditions of Rebuttal 27
    28. 28. Kelp is low in Evidence So, in It would be a healthy andcalories and rich most nutritious addition to most in vitamins and cases, American diets. minerals Since Unless Most Americans are seeking to reduce their One is seeking to reduce calorie consumption and sodium in the diet / is worried increase their intake of about the effects of excess vitamins and minerals iodine on the thyroid / is actively As shown by: seeking to gain weight... The following respected authorities on nutrition and American eating habits... Find the following above: Claim • Evidence • Warrant • Qualifier • Backing • Conditions of Rebuttal 28
    29. 29. Kelp is low in So, in It would be a healthy andcalories and rich most nutritious addition to most in vitamins and cases, American diets. minerals Since Warrant Unless Most Americans are seeking to reduce their One is seeking to reduce calorie consumption and sodium in the diet / is worried increase their intake of about the effects of excess vitamins and minerals iodine on the thyroid / is actively As shown by: seeking to gain weight... The following respected authorities on nutrition and American eating habits... Find the following above: Claim • Evidence • Warrant • Qualifier • Backing • Conditions of Rebuttal 29
    30. 30. Kelp is low in So, in It would be a healthy andcalories and rich most nutritious addition to most in vitamins and cases, American diets. minerals Since Unless Qualifier Most Americans are seeking to reduce their One is seeking to reduce calorie consumption and sodium in the diet / is worried increase their intake of about the effects of excess vitamins and minerals iodine on the thyroid / is actively As shown by: seeking to gain weight... The following respected authorities on nutrition and American eating habits... Find the following above: Claim • Evidence • Warrant • Qualifier • Backing • Conditions of Rebuttal 30
    31. 31. Kelp is low in So, in It would be a healthy andcalories and rich most nutritious addition to most in vitamins and cases, American diets. minerals Since Unless Most Americans are seeking to reduce their One is seeking to reduce calorie consumption and sodium in the diet / is worried increase their intake of about the effects of excess vitamins and minerals iodine on the thyroid / is actively As shown by: seeking to gain weight... The following respected authorities on nutrition and American eating habits... Find the following above: Claim • Evidence • Warrant • Qualifier • Backing • Conditions of Backing Rebuttal 31
    32. 32. Kelp is low in So, in It would be a healthy andcalories and rich most nutritious addition to most in vitamins and cases, American diets. minerals Since Unless Most Americans are Qal seeking to reduce their One is seeking to reduce bu f
Re calorie consumption and sodium in the diet / is worried ns
o increase their intake of about the effects of excess o ndi1 vitamins and minerals iodine on the thyroid / is actively As shown by: Co seeking to gain weight... The following respected authorities on nutrition and American eating habits... Find the following above: Claim • Evidence • Warrant • Qualifier • Backing • Conditions of Rebuttal 32
    33. 33. Give
it
a
go:
Formulate
a
full
Toulmin
argument
 about
one
of
the
following
recent
events.
Remember
that
 arguments
can
be
complex
and
nuanced.Japan’s
Fukushima
plant
has
been
forced
to
release
11,500
tons
of
radioac1ve
water
into
the
Pacific.
Plant
operators
say
the
radia1on
does
not
pose
a
threat. 33
    34. 34. Give
it
a
go:
Formulate
a
full
Toulmin
argument
 about
one
of
the
following
recent
events.Aier
being
fired
from
Two
and
a
Half
Men,
Charlie
Sheen
planned
a
na1onwide
“complaint
tour”
en1tled

Charlie
Sheen’s
Violent
Torpedo
of
Truth
Defeat
Is
Not
an
Op+on
Tour
2011.
Sheen
broke
the
Guinness
World
Record
for
“reaching
1
million
TwiQer
followers
the
fastest.”
Most
of
the
tour’s
dates
sold
out
within
minutes. 34
    35. 35. Give
it
a
go:
Formulate
a
full
Toulmin
argument
 about
one
of
the
following
recent
events.Since
Tunisia’s
Jasmine
Revolu1on
saw
the
ouster
of
President
Zine
El
Abidine
Ben
Ali
from
power
in
January
of
2011,
several
countries
in
the
Middle
East
and
North
Africa
have
seen
massive
pro‐democracy
protests.
In
Libya,
Col.
Muammar
el‐Qaddafi
responded
with
violence;
in
retalia1on,
the
United
Na1ons
established
a
no‐fly
zone
over
several
areas
of
the
country,
using
airstrikes
for
enforcement.
 35
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