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Quote sandwiches

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This slideshow introduces one method for turning the three central structures of Toulmin argumentation--claims, evidence, and warrants--into paragraphs, through a structure called a "Quote …

This slideshow introduces one method for turning the three central structures of Toulmin argumentation--claims, evidence, and warrants--into paragraphs, through a structure called a "Quote Sandwich"--an intro, quote, and analysis.

Published in: Spiritual, Technology

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Making
Quote
Sandwiches:Turning
evidence
into
a
paper
using
 Classical
Ora;on
and
Toulmin
 argumenta;on
    • 2. Classical
Ora;on:• Intro:
Hook,
Ethos,
Claim• Background:
Necessary
context
and
facts• Argument:
Logos/pathos
to
support
the
claim• Alterna;ves:
Counterarguments
stated
and/or
 refuted• Conclusion:
Summary,
elaborate
implica;ons,
 closing
    • 3. The
Toulmin
Model: Underlying
 Assump;ons•Debatable Facts,
Reasoning,
•Controversial Appeals
to
Authority
    • 4. Quote
Sandwiches:• The
“quote
sandwich”
is
the
building
block
of
 the
academic
paper.• It’s
oSen
one
paragraph
long,
but
this
isn’t
set
 in
stone.• It’s
composed
of
three
parts—two
are
your
 words
(the
“bread”),
and
one
is
someone
 else’s
(the
“filler”)
    • 5. A
Basic
Quote
Sandwich:
    • 6. From
Charles
Murray,
“Are
Too
 Many
People
Going
to
College?”
 Here’s
the
“Intro:” Liberal
educa;on
in
college
means
taking
on
the
tough
stuff.
A
high‐school
graduate
who
has
acquired
Hirsch’s
core
knowledge
will
know,
for
example,
that
John
Stuart
Mill
was
an
important
19th‐century
English
philosopher
who
was
associated
with
something
called
U;litarianism
and
wrote
a
famous
book
called
On
Liberty.
But
learning
philosophy
in
college,
which
is
an
essen;al
component
of
a
liberal
educa;on,
means
that
the
student
has
to
be
able
to
read
and
understand
the
actual
text
of
On
Liberty.
    • 7. Murray’s
“evidence”:That
brings
us
to
the
limits
set
by
the
nature
of
college‐level
material.
Here
is
the
first
sentence
of
On
Liberty:
“The
subject
of
this
essay
is
not
the
so‐called
liberty
of
the
will,
so
unfortunately
opposed
to
the
misnamed
doctrine
of
philosophical
necessity;
but
civil,
or
social
liberty:
the
nature
and
limits
of
the
power
which
can
be
legi;mately
exercised
by
society
over
the
individual.”
    • 8. The
“analysis”:
I
will
not
burden
you
with
On
Liberty’s
last
sentence.
It
is
126
words
long.
And
Mill
is
one
of
the
more
accessible
philosophers,
and
On
Liberty
is
one
of
Mill’s
more
accessible
works.
It
would
be
nice
if
everyone
could
acquire
a
fully
formed
liberal
educa;on,
but
they
cannot.
    • 9. The
whole
thing: Liberal
educa;on
in
college
means
taking
on
the
tough
stuff.
A
high‐school
graduate
who
has
acquired
Hirsch’s
core
knowledge
will
know,
for
example,
that
John
Stuart
Mill
was
an
important
19th‐century
English
philosopher
who
was
associated
with
something
called
U;litarianism
and
wrote
a
famous
book
called
On
Liberty.
But
learning
philosophy
in
college,
which
is
an
essen;al
component
of
a
liberal
educa;on,
means
that
the
student
has
to
be
able
to
read
and
understand
the
actual
text
of
On
Liberty.
That
brings
us
to
the
limits
set
by
the
nature
of
college‐level
material.
Here
is
the
first
sentence
of
On
Liberty:
“The
subject
of
this
essay
is
not
the
so‐called
liberty
of
the
will,
so
unfortunately
opposed
to
the
misnamed
doctrine
of
philosophical
necessity;
but
civil,
or
social
liberty:
the
nature
and
limits
of
the
power
which
can
be
legi;mately
exercised
by
society
over
the
individual.”
I
will
not
burden
you
with
On
Liberty’s
last
sentence.
It
is
126
words
long.
And
Mill
is
one
of
the
more
accessible
philosophers,
and
On
Liberty
is
one
of
Mill’s
more
accessible
works.
It
would
be
nice
if
everyone
could
acquire
a
fully
formed
liberal
educa;on,
but
they
cannot.
    • 10. No;ce:• The
argument
in
the
“intro”
is
not
just
a
 rewording
of
the
quote—it
makes
an
argument,
 an
interpreta;on.• The
intro
also
makes
sure
to
let
us
know
that
the
 source
is
reputable
and
trustworthy.• The
quote
is
long,
complex,
and
analy;cal.• The
“analysis”
sec;on
makes
sure
to
explicitly
 state
the
warrants
between
the
intro
and
the
 evidence.
It
gives
the
“so
what?”,
the
deeper
 reading
and
further
implica;ons
of
the
quote.
    • 11. So
how
do
I
use
these
sandwich
things
to
 write
a
paper?1. Don’t
write
the
introduc;on
first.
2. Collect
quotes
and
evidence
you
like,
and
 type
(or
paste)
it
into
a
blank
document.3. Slowly
flesh
these
quotes
out
into
quote
 sandwiches.4. Rearrange
them,
tweak
them.
You
just
wrote
 a
paper!5. NOW:
Write
the
conclusion
and
the
intro.
    • 12. ASer
that:• Add
more
quotes
as
necessary.• Rearrange,
reshape,
and
expand.• Add
intros
to
the
beginnings
of
your
paragraphs.• ONLY
THEN:
add
the
conclusion
and
the
 introductory
paragraph
at
the
start
of
the
essay.• Last
step:
proofread
and
edit.
    • 13. Don’t
Forget:• Intro:
Hook,
Ethos,
Claim• Background:
Necessary
context
and
facts• Argument:
Logos/pathos
to
support
the
claim• Alterna;ves:
Counterarguments
stated
and/or
 refuted• Conclusion:
Summary,
elaborate
implica;ons,
 closing