So—how do I write this thing? Turning evidence into a paper using Classical Oration and Toulmin argumentation
Classical Oration: <ul><li>Intro: Hook, Ethos, Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Necessary context and facts </li></ul><...
The Toulmin Model: <ul><li>Debatable </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul>Facts, Reasoning,  Appeals to Authority Und...
Quote Sandwiches: <ul><li>The “quote sandwich” is the building block of the academic paper. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s often o...
A Basic Quote Sandwich:
From Merrill Morris, page 43. Here’s the “intro”: <ul><li>In a classic study of investigative journalism, Theodore Glassne...
Morris’s “evidence” (43): <ul><li>The impoverishment of journalism’s moral resources may well equip it to preside most com...
The “analysis” (43): <ul><li>If the media cannot be agents for change, what can they be? Critical mass communication theor...
The whole thing: <ul><li>In a classic study of investigative journalism, Theodore Glaser and James Ettema found nearly two...
Notice: <ul><li>The argument in the “intro” is not just a rewording of the quote—it makes an argument, an interpretation. ...
So how do I use these sandwich things to write a paper? <ul><li>Don’t write the introduction first.  </li></ul><ul><li>Col...
You might start like this—just  a simple list of quotes you like. You may use all of these, you may delete some eventually...
Next, add analysis. Just start explaining, rephrasing, connecting the quotes you’ve found.
After that: <ul><li>Add more quotes as necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange, reshape, and expand. </li></ul><ul><li>Add ...
Don’t Forget: <ul><li>Intro: Hook, Ethos, Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Necessary context and facts </li></ul><ul><l...
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How do i write this thing?

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Step-by-step suggestions for composing the first draft of your English paper

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How do i write this thing?

  1. 1. So—how do I write this thing? Turning evidence into a paper using Classical Oration and Toulmin argumentation
  2. 2. Classical Oration: <ul><li>Intro: Hook, Ethos, Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Necessary context and facts </li></ul><ul><li>Argument: Logos/pathos to support the claim </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Counterarguments stated and/or refuted </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Summary, elaborate implications, closing </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Toulmin Model: <ul><li>Debatable </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul>Facts, Reasoning, Appeals to Authority Underlying Assumptions
  4. 4. Quote Sandwiches: <ul><li>The “quote sandwich” is the building block of the academic paper. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s often one paragraph long, but this isn’t set in stone. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s composed of three parts—two are your words (the “bread”), and one is someone else’s (the “filler”) </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Basic Quote Sandwich:
  6. 6. From Merrill Morris, page 43. Here’s the “intro”: <ul><li>In a classic study of investigative journalism, Theodore Glassner and James Ettema found nearly two decades ago that the very routines and rituals of news coverage do not allow the media to become agents for change: </li></ul>
  7. 7. Morris’s “evidence” (43): <ul><li>The impoverishment of journalism’s moral resources may well equip it to preside most comfortably over the debasement and dissolution of values, more comfortably, certainly, than over their definition and development. When stories of transgressions do summon moral outrage, the vocabulary necessary for a rich and rigorous discussion of underlying values gives way to a vocabulary of guilt and innocence, praise and condemnation. (Glassner and Ettema 1989) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The “analysis” (43): <ul><li>If the media cannot be agents for change, what can they be? Critical mass communication theorists remind us that the media exist to deliver audiences to advertisers, and that was certainly true after the hurricane. Katrina gave a huge ratings boost to some networks and caused web site hits to jump, at least temporarily. A disaster like Katrina can be a boon for newspapers and networks. Careers—think Anderson Cooper—are made. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The whole thing: <ul><li>In a classic study of investigative journalism, Theodore Glaser and James Ettema found nearly two decades ago that the very routines and rituals of news coverage do not allow the media to become agents for change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The impoverishment of journalism’s moral resources may well equip it to preside most comfortably over the debasement and dissolution of values, more comfortably, certainly, than over their definition and development. When stories of transgressions do summon moral outrage, the vocabulary necessary for a rich and rigorous discussion of underlying values gives way to a vocabulary of guilt and innocence, praise and condemnation. (Glassner and Ettema 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the media cannot be agents for change, what can they be? Critical mass communication theorists remind us that the media exist to deliver audiences to advertisers, and that was certainly true after the hurricane. Katrina gave a huge ratings boost to some networks and caused web site hits to jump, at least temporarily. A disaster like Katrina can be a boon for newspapers and networks. Careers—think Anderson Cooper—are made. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Notice: <ul><li>The argument in the “intro” is not just a rewording of the quote—it makes an argument, an interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>The intro also makes sure to let us know that the source is reputable and trustworthy. </li></ul><ul><li>The quote is long, complex, and analytical. </li></ul><ul><li>The “analysis” section makes sure to explicitly state the warrants between the intro and the evidence. It gives the “so what?”, the deeper reading and further implications of the quote. </li></ul>
  11. 11. So how do I use these sandwich things to write a paper? <ul><li>Don’t write the introduction first. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect quotes and evidence you like, and type (or paste) it into a blank document. </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly flesh these quotes out into quote sandwiches. </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange them, tweak them. You just wrote a paper! </li></ul><ul><li>NOW: Write the conclusion and the intro. </li></ul>
  12. 12. You might start like this—just a simple list of quotes you like. You may use all of these, you may delete some eventually. Don’t worry about that right now—the editing will come later. For the mean time, we just want to collect some raw materials.
  13. 13. Next, add analysis. Just start explaining, rephrasing, connecting the quotes you’ve found.
  14. 14. After that: <ul><li>Add more quotes as necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange, reshape, and expand. </li></ul><ul><li>Add intros to the beginnings of your paragraphs . </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY THEN: add the conclusion and the introductory paragraph at the start of the essay . </li></ul><ul><li>Last step: proofread and edit. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Don’t Forget: <ul><li>Intro: Hook, Ethos, Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Necessary context and facts </li></ul><ul><li>Argument: Logos/pathos to support the claim </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Counterarguments stated and/or refuted </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Summary, elaborate implications, closing </li></ul>Your quote sandwiches should have differnet jobs—some should be background, some argument, and some alternatives. If your paper seems low on one, track down more and add it in.
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