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Argument styles condensed

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  • What are the elements present here?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Argument Styles:
      Notes on Chapter 7, Everything’s an Argument
    • 2. What are these things?
      Classical Oration
      Rogerian Argumentation
      Toulmin Argumentation
      Warrants
    • 3. The classical oration:
      Exordium: intro
      Narratio: facts and context
      Partitio: Division into claim and key issues
      Confirmatio: Support for the claim (logos)
      Refutatio: Counterarguments
      Peroratio: Summary
    • 4. A modern version:
      Intro: Hook, Ethos, Claim
      Background: Necessary context and facts
      Argument: Logos/pathos to support the claim
      Alternatives: Counterarguments stated and/or refuted
      Conclusion: Summary, elaborate implications, closing
    • 5. The Rogerian Model:
      Introduction: describe an issue and demonstrate understanding of multiple sides
      Contexts: acknowledge situations in which alternative positions may be valid
      Writer’s position: State claim and explain its validity—i.e., logos
      Benefits to opponent: Reasons to adopt the the writer’s position, conclusion
    • 6. The Toulmin Model:
      Claims: controversial and debatable: answers the question, “So what’s your point?”
      Evidence/Reasons: Logos.
      Warrants: Logical bridge between the claim and the evidence.
      Backing: Further support for the arguments of the warrant itself.
      Qualifiers: Limit the scope of the claim
      Conditions of rebuttal: Counterarguments
    • 7.
    • 13. From Jim Dwyer, in the New York Times from Jan 5:
      “It is winter. A third of the city is poor. And unworn clothing is being destroyed nightly.”

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