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A2 Film StudiesUnit 4 // FM4
FM4: VARIETIES OF FILM EXPERIENCE– ISSUES AND DEBATESFocus of the unitThis unit contributes to synoptic assessment. Unders...
FM4Varieties of Film Experience: Issues and DebatesThree questions, one from each section:Section A: World Cinema topics (...
FM4Section B: Spectatorship topics (35)Exam is 2 hours 45 mins.Total of 100 marks available.Spectatorship (Section B) is w...
FM4Section B: Spectatorship topics (35)This section is broken down to a further 4 areas:A Spectatorship and Early Cinema b...
FM4Section B: Spectatorship topics (35)This section is broken down to a further 4 areas:A Spectatorship and Early Cinema b...
FM4 Section B // Sub-sectionDThis study is concerned with the ways in which popular film (whetherderiving from Hollywood o...
Lesson 1: What is emotion?TASK:Compile a list of the various types of emotionalresponse a film might elicit
Lesson 1: What is emotion?TASK:How would you define emotion, or an emotionalresponse?
Lesson 1: What is emotion?Write this down:What exactly is emotion, or emotional response?A moving of the mind or soul; exc...
Lesson 1: What is emotion?Can we control our emotions?To what extent should emotions be seen to belinked to thought? To wh...
As we watch films we can each experience fear, and pleasure, and desire, and surprise, and shockand a whole array of possi...
As we watch films we can each experience fear, and pleasure, and desire, and surprise, and shockand a whole array of possi...
TASK:What technical elements can a film maker use to create anddevelop the reaction in an audience?Lesson 1: What is emoti...
How does a (film) camerawork?• Can you explain how a traditional film camera works?
How does a (film) camerawork?• The chemical component in a traditional camera is film. Essentially, when youexpose film to...
How does a camera work?
Birth of CinemaCinema is made possible by the camera. Cameras, traditionally, let light into adarkened box which then capt...
DocumentaryDocumentary is an art form that has developed and changed dramacticallysince the birth of cinema.Films, to begi...
Exiting the Factory• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BO0EkMKfgJI
Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat(The Lumière Brothers, 1895)
Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat(The Lumière Brothers, 1895)Even this film footage, presented as real life through a camera...
Story of Film8:10 - 23:15
Georges Melieshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K4MnFACzKfQ&list=PLBC353D7404F439
The Great Train Robbery(1903)The Great Train Robbery is a 1903 American Western film written, produced, and directed byEdw...
The emotional responsethat some audiences wouldhave had to The Great TrainRobbery are drasticallydifferent to ours. Why is...
Emotion responseWhat do you define emotion as now?For the most part we’ll be dealing with cognitive responses.Can our emot...
Why people share emotionalresponsesFilm Studies and Cultural Studies Film Studies, influenced by CulturalStudies is increa...
Why people share emotionalresponsesGroups of people may share a social or political group/formation.You can be an individu...
Hypodermic Needle TheoryThis Theory is a suggestion that the Media (in this case, Film) has adirect and powerful affect on...
Hypodermic NeedleTheoryHere you can see how we,as individuals, are treatedas one audience. The film (mass mediaproduct) tr...
Creating a ‘message’ for theaudience.The HNT suggests that this decoding is notreally needed. We are ‘forced’ the message.
Hypodermic Needle TheoryCase Study: War of the Worlds• This classic example of The Hypodermic Needle Theory occurred on Oc...
Hypodermic Needle TheoryCase Study: War of the Worlds• A wave of mass hysteria and panic disrupted households, interrupted...
Criticisms of the HypodermicNeedle TheoryThe War of the Worlds case study apparently showed that themedia could directly i...
Criticisms of the HypodermicNeedle Theory• The theory was deterministic and this did not allow for freedom ofchoice. The a...
Summary of HypodermicNeedle TheoryName of theory:General theory:Positives (with example/s):Criticisms:
SpectatorshipOne of the reasons why the Hypodermic Needle theory wasdiscredited is because it undermines the role of the i...
ResponsesOur response to a film draws on the whole of the self, a self that includes:A social self who can make meaning in...
ResponsesA cultural self who makes particular intertextual references (to other films, otherkinds of images and sound) bas...
ResponsesOur response to a film draws on the whole of the self, a self that includes:A social self who can make meaning in...
Responses• A private self who carried the memories of his/her own experiences and who mayfind person significance in a fil...
• A desiring self who brings conscious and unconscious energies andintensities to the film event that have little to do wi...
ResponsesThe opening scenes to V for Vendetta.The opening scenes to V for Vendetta.How do we respond? Make a note of these...
ResponsesHow are these responses created by the filmHow are these responses created by the filmmakers?makers?Combine your ...
Emotional response andpleasure• Filmmakers have always attempted to gain some sort of emotional responsefrom spectators, a...
In what ways is itpleasurable?• In groups, think of ways in which a spectator could finda film pleasurable.• (You may want...
The opening toPsycho
The opening toPsycho• Psycho would seem to encourage the notion of film asvoyeuristically pleasurable but what is the conn...
ResponsesThe opening scenes to PsychoHow do we respond? Make a note of these whilstwatching.Then, can you explain what typ...
What emotions areengendered here?• Reservoir Dogs (1992)(Please note: pretty grim!)• Do these emotions involve pleasure of...
ResponsesThe ear cutting scene in Reservoir DogsWhy is this scene ‘pleasurable’?How do we respond? Make a note of these wh...
Kill Bill• Homework 1:• Research Tarantino, research the film.• Make sure you are aware of his films and the controversy a...
What’s shocking toyou?•List the range of ways in which you see film as beingpotentially shocking, and try to give an examp...
What is shocking tothe viewer here?• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4omQNqCMFb0• What specifically is it here that is wor...
Un Chien Andalou(1929)•In carrying out the act of analysing this clip, you should nowbe aware of the way in which shock’ i...
Un Chien Andalou vs. ReservoirDogs• Compare the way in which the scene from Un Chien Andalou is constructed with the slici...
Homework• Kill Bill• 1. Note at least 3 scenes from the film that caused you to have a strongemotional response? Describe ...
Shock and the‘shocking’• As you discuss or think about films and scenes from films that createan emotional shock, always m...
Shock and the‘shocking’• ‘ Shock’ as sudden and unexpected, or long-drawn out.• ‘ Shock’ in film usually occurs as somethi...
Shock and the‘shocking’• Shock suggests a state of being stunned by what you have felt tobe repulsive in its brutality, so...
Projecting Illusion• Projecting Illusion: Film spectatorship and the impression of reality(Richard Allen)• Contemporary fi...
Projecting Illusion• Projecting Illusion: Film spectatorship and the impression of reality(Richard Allen)• Contemporary fi...
• The interaction between director andspectator can be achieved through themanipulation of the following information:• Tex...
Projecting Illusion• Watch the following extracts from Kill Bill and make notes onthe following:• How does the director in...
Question practice:• Spectatorship: Popular Film and Emotional Response• Your answer should be based on a minimum of two fi...
Question practice:• Spectatorship: Popular Film and Emotional Response• Your answer should be based on a minimum of two fi...
Deconstruction• This theory challenges the assumption that a text has anunchanging, unified meaning that is true for all r...
Deconstruction• However, other theories have attempted to demonstrate how thespectator is fixed in place by the text (or b...
Censorship• Censorship and regulation have always sought to restrict groups ofpeople from viewing certain films.• Does the...
Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young an...
Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young an...
Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young an...
Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young an...
Reception Theory• Reception theory hoped to be a more sophisticated approach tostudying audiences, concentrating more on t...
Reception TheoryWhen a text isencoded (watched& understood; note,only possible foractive not passive,viewers) certainideol...
Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a fil...
Reception Theory• Reception theory dictates that a film does not have any meaning without thespectator . Meaning is only g...
Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a fil...
Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a fil...
Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a fil...
Central ImaginingCentral Imagining• Arguably the central function of spectatorship is Central Imagining.• This refers to a...
Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat(The Lumière Brothers, 1895)
A-Central ImaginingA-Central Imagining• Most of the time film spectators operate in the ‘I imagine that...’ mode –meaning ...
SummarySummary• Essentially when we view films we have a combination of responsesranging from preferred to oppositional to...
RevisionRevision• Using your notes from the previous lessons answer the followingquestions:• How does Tarantino construct ...
A2 Film A-Level Film Studies FM4 Spectatorship Revision
A2 Film A-Level Film Studies FM4 Spectatorship Revision
A2 Film A-Level Film Studies FM4 Spectatorship Revision
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A2 Film A-Level Film Studies FM4 Spectatorship Revision

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A PowerPoint that collates a range of key ideas for the FM4 Spectatorhship area of A2 Film Studies. There may be some formatting issues with the presentation as it was created using Keynote and there are often compatibility issues. The contents of this presentation is a mix of original work and ideas and words taken from a multitude of various sources. I haven't credited anyone directly and if you have any objection to your content appearing in this presentation, please get in touch and I'll be more than happy to accomodate your needs.

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Transcript of "A2 Film A-Level Film Studies FM4 Spectatorship Revision"

  1. 1. A2 Film StudiesUnit 4 // FM4
  2. 2. FM4: VARIETIES OF FILM EXPERIENCE– ISSUES AND DEBATESFocus of the unitThis unit contributes to synoptic assessment. Understanding will befostered through:Studying complex films from different contexts, extending knowledgeof theDiversity of film and its effectsExploring spectatorship issues in relation to a particular type of filmApplying key concepts and critical approaches gained throughout thecourse to explore one film in a synoptic manner.
  3. 3. FM4Varieties of Film Experience: Issues and DebatesThree questions, one from each section:Section A: World Cinema topics (35)Section B: Spectatorship topics (35)Section C: Single Film - Critical Study (30)
  4. 4. FM4Section B: Spectatorship topics (35)Exam is 2 hours 45 mins.Total of 100 marks available.Spectatorship (Section B) is worth of 35 marks.
  5. 5. FM4Section B: Spectatorship topics (35)This section is broken down to a further 4 areas:A Spectatorship and Early Cinema before 1917 orB Spectatorship and Documentary orC Spectatorship: Experimental and Expanded Film/Video orD Spectatorship: Popular Film and Emotional Response
  6. 6. FM4Section B: Spectatorship topics (35)This section is broken down to a further 4 areas:A Spectatorship and Early Cinema before 1917 orB Spectatorship and Documentary orC Spectatorship: Experimental and Expanded Film/Video orD Spectatorship: Popular Film and EmotionalResponse
  7. 7. FM4 Section B // Sub-sectionDThis study is concerned with the ways in which popular film (whetherderiving from Hollywood or elsewhere) produces powerful sensory andemotional responses in the spectator. It is possible to focus on aparticular genre – such as horror and consider shock effects – or themelodrama as weepie. Alternatively, the focus may be on spectacle,whether relating to the body of the star or to the staging/choreography ofaction. This topic is not concerned specifically with either issues ofrepresentation or value judgements but rather with developingunderstanding about how films create the emotional responses they do. Itis expected that a minimum of two feature-length films will be studied forthis topic.
  8. 8. Lesson 1: What is emotion?TASK:Compile a list of the various types of emotionalresponse a film might elicit
  9. 9. Lesson 1: What is emotion?TASK:How would you define emotion, or an emotionalresponse?
  10. 10. Lesson 1: What is emotion?Write this down:What exactly is emotion, or emotional response?A moving of the mind or soul; excitement of thefeelings, whether pleasing or painful; disturbance oragitation of mind caused by specific exciting causeand manifested by some sensible effect on the body
  11. 11. Lesson 1: What is emotion?Can we control our emotions?To what extent should emotions be seen to belinked to thought? To what extent shouldemotions be seen to be linked to thought?
  12. 12. As we watch films we can each experience fear, and pleasure, and desire, and surprise, and shockand a whole array of possible emotions, but we will not all experience these emotions equally at thesame moments in a filmTASK:What is that determines our individual predisposition to respond in particularemotional ways at certain points in certain films?Think carefully about this but don’t worry about a right answer, this is the debate.Your job is to recognise that there is an intense interaction with the sounds and images occurring aswe watch films, and that film makers are deliberately setting out to create emotional responses.Lesson 1: What is emotion?
  13. 13. As we watch films we can each experience fear, and pleasure, and desire, and surprise, and shockand a whole array of possible emotions, but we will not all experience these emotions equally at thesame moments in a filmTASK:What technical elements can a film maker use to create anddevelop the reaction in an audience?Extension: Think back to a scene that you had an emotional reaction to.What was the scene? What was your reaction? Why do you think you acted in that way?Lesson 1: What is emotion?
  14. 14. TASK:What technical elements can a film maker use to create anddevelop the reaction in an audience?Lesson 1: What is emotion?
  15. 15. How does a (film) camerawork?• Can you explain how a traditional film camera works?
  16. 16. How does a (film) camerawork?• The chemical component in a traditional camera is film. Essentially, when youexpose film to a real image, it makes a chemical record of the pattern of light. Itdoes this with a collection of tiny light-sensitive grains, spread out in a chemicalsuspension on a strip of plastic. When exposed to light, the grains undergo achemical reaction. Once the roll is finished, the film is developed -- it is exposed toother chemicals, which react with the light-sensitive grains. In black and white film,the developer chemicals darken the grains that were exposed to light. Thisproduces a negative, where lighter areas appear darker and darker areas appearlighter, which is then converted into a positive image in printing. Color film hasthree different layers of light-sensitive materials, which respond, in turn, to red,green and blue. When the film is developed, these layers are exposed to chemicalsthat dye the layers of film. When you overlay the color information from all threelayers, you get a full-color negative.
  17. 17. How does a camera work?
  18. 18. Birth of CinemaCinema is made possible by the camera. Cameras, traditionally, let light into adarkened box which then captured a ‘picture’ of what the camera lens saw byimprinting this on film.Moving cameras used the same idea, but captured many frames a second that,when played back quickly, showed that the images were “moving”.Imagine a flip book.Cinema is concerned almost exclusively with spectacle and reaction. By usingmoving images, an audience can be ‘made’ to feel all sorts of reactions.If we are not concerned with moving the audience in some way, all that we seekto do is tell the truth, to show what is real.What genre or style of film making is concerned with showing “truth”?
  19. 19. DocumentaryDocumentary is an art form that has developed and changed dramacticallysince the birth of cinema.Films, to begin with, were concerned almost exclusively with capturing aversion of ‘real life’ on film, of showing moving images as reality.This is most clearly the case for the Lumiere brothers who pioneered the idea ofa video camera and who documented Parisian life through the lens of cameras.
  20. 20. Exiting the Factory• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BO0EkMKfgJI
  21. 21. Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat(The Lumière Brothers, 1895)
  22. 22. Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat(The Lumière Brothers, 1895)Even this film footage, presented as real life through a camera lens, provokedreactions from the audience.What could those reactions have been? How might the spectators of the timereacted to this film? Why?What kind of reactiondo we have watching?Why?What kind of reactionmight have audiencesthen have had? Why?Here are some ofthe LumièreBrothers’ otherearly works.
  23. 23. Story of Film8:10 - 23:15
  24. 24. Georges Melieshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K4MnFACzKfQ&list=PLBC353D7404F439
  25. 25. The Great Train Robbery(1903)The Great Train Robbery is a 1903 American Western film written, produced, and directed byEdwin S. Porter. 12 minutes long, it is considered a milestone in film making, expanding onPorters previous work Life of an American Fireman. The film used a number of innovativetechniques including cross cutting, double exposure composite editing, camera movementand on location shooting. Cross-cuts were a new, sophisticated editing technique. Someprints were also hand colored in certain scenes.• The film was directed and photographed by Edwin S. Porter, a former Edison Studioscameraman. Actors in the movie included Alfred C. Abadie, Broncho Billy Anderson andJustus D. Barnes, although there were no credits. Though a Western, it was filmed inMilltown, New Jersey. The film has been selected for preservation in the United StatesNational Film Registry.
  26. 26. The emotional responsethat some audiences wouldhave had to The Great TrainRobbery are drasticallydifferent to ours. Why isthat?Compile a list of reasons why that is.Compile a list of reasons why that is.Emotionalresponse
  27. 27. Emotion responseWhat do you define emotion as now?For the most part we’ll be dealing with cognitive responses.Can our emotional response be different to someone else’s ifwe watch the same film film? Why?The mental process of knowing, including aspectssuch as awareness, perception, reasoning, andjudgement, that which comes to be known as throughperception, reasoning or intuition; knowledge.The mental process of knowing, including aspectssuch as awareness, perception, reasoning, andjudgement, that which comes to be known as throughperception, reasoning or intuition; knowledge.
  28. 28. Why people share emotionalresponsesFilm Studies and Cultural Studies Film Studies, influenced by CulturalStudies is increasingly likely to centre on local, small scale and precisegroups of people who share, perhaps, some social or political‘Formation’. Their behaviour both as individuated spectators and as acollective of people forming an audience is likely to be understood if werespect and try to understand the importance of particular lifeexperiences and social; attitudes they bring with them to the viewingsituation.What does this mean?!In your own words, try to explain how we can be sure that people shareemotional responses.
  29. 29. Why people share emotionalresponsesGroups of people may share a social or political group/formation.You can be an individual with a specific and unique response, but youcan still ‘belong’ to a group of similar people as an audience.We need to be able to understand and appreciate both.You = cry at people who don’t win on quiz shows.Audience = doesn’t cry.Still aligned as anaudience because ofyour appreciationfor that quiz show.
  30. 30. Hypodermic Needle TheoryThis Theory is a suggestion that the Media (in this case, Film) has adirect and powerful affect on its audience.The HNT states that the Media can invoke change on those whoare exposed to it.The use of advertising suggests that this theory is true-that byusing the Media to tell someone something, they will go along withit. An example of this would be Hitler’s use of the Media inpromoting Nazi propaganda.The title, Hypodermic Needle Theory, refers to the idea of directlyinjecting the audience with an idea to create a response.
  31. 31. Hypodermic NeedleTheoryHere you can see how we,as individuals, are treatedas one audience. The film (mass mediaproduct) treats us as oneperson, directly trying toinfluence us at once.
  32. 32. Creating a ‘message’ for theaudience.The HNT suggests that this decoding is notreally needed. We are ‘forced’ the message.
  33. 33. Hypodermic Needle TheoryCase Study: War of the Worlds• This classic example of The Hypodermic Needle Theory occurred on October30th1938 when Orson Welles broadcast a version of the H.G Wells novel War ofthe Worlds.• As a radio program with music started, it was then ‘interrupted’ by an‘emergency broadcast’ by an apparent news bulletin. The bulletin told theaudience that Martians had begun an invasion of Earth in a place calledGrover’s Mill, New Jersey, America.• This became known as the “Panic Broadcast” and changed broadcast history,social psychology, civil defense and set a standard in provocativeentertainment. (Found footage?!) Around 1 million people in the US heard thebroadcast and approximately 1 million of those apparently believed that aserious alien invasion was underway.
  34. 34. Hypodermic Needle TheoryCase Study: War of the Worlds• A wave of mass hysteria and panic disrupted households, interrupted religiousservices, caused traffic jams and clogged communication systems. People fled theirhomes in the city to seek shelter in more rural areas, raided grocery stores and beganto ration food. In some ways, the nation was in chaos, caused by the broadcast.• Media theorists have classified the War of the Worlds broadcast as the perfectexample of the Hypodermic Needle Theory: the broadcast ‘injected’ the messagedirectly into the audience and created the same thinking for the audience-thataliens were invading.Broadcast: http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=xGUuUudv53kApology: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2awVqsoLAKI
  35. 35. Criticisms of the HypodermicNeedle TheoryThe War of the Worlds case study apparently showed that themedia could directly influence and manipulate a passive andgullible audience.However, it also assumes that audiences are the same, thataudiences are a whole group, taking away the influence on theindividual.
  36. 36. Criticisms of the HypodermicNeedle Theory• The theory was deterministic and this did not allow for freedom ofchoice. The audience were ‘injected’ with a one way propaganda.From this light, one can confidently say that the theory underminesthe right of individuals to freely choose what media material theyconsume. The theory is also noted for its passitivity and evidencedby the fact that audience were not allowed to contribute. Thisundermines the core aim of media studies which is the audience.From the latter, one can argue that the audience could not use theirexperience, intelligence and opinion to analyse messages. It will bevery difficult to operate this theory in this new world where theaudience have become sophisticated.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qt5MjBlvGcY <-------- Handy video for revision!
  37. 37. Summary of HypodermicNeedle TheoryName of theory:General theory:Positives (with example/s):Criticisms:
  38. 38. SpectatorshipOne of the reasons why the Hypodermic Needle theory wasdiscredited is because it undermines the role of the individualspectator.A spectator is an individual member of an audience. Spectatorshipis an important concept in film theory. Traditional models ofaudience response tend to treat viewers, readers or listeners asgroups, spectatorship study suggests that the film builds a specificrelationship with every individual who experiences it. Rather thanbeing concerned with media effects, spectatorship study focuseson understanding the ways films produce pleasure in their viewers.
  39. 39. ResponsesOur response to a film draws on the whole of the self, a self that includes:A social self who can make meaning in ways not very different from other with asimilar ideological formationA cultural self who makes particular intertextual references (to other films, otherkinds of images and sound) based on the bank of material s/he possessesA private self who carried the memories of his/her own experiences and who mayfind person significance in a film in ways very different from othersA desiring self who brings conscious and unconscious energies and intensities tothe film event that have little to do with the film’s ‘surface’ content
  40. 40. ResponsesA cultural self who makes particular intertextual references (to other films, otherkinds of images and sound) based on the bank of material s/he possessesUse of celebrities and the jokes about them in Family Guyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlVUKQ96VxIShrek fighting using ‘Bullet Time’http://moviesimpsons.tumblr.com/http://www.totalfilm.com/features/100-greatest-simpsons-movie-references/harry-potter-and-the-philosopher-s-stoneTarantino referenceshttp://www.collegehumor.com/video/6860507/every-pop-culture-reference-from-tarantino-moviesA cultural self who makes particular intertextual references (to other films, otherkinds of images and sound) based on the bank of material s/he possessesUse of celebrities and the jokes about them in Family Guyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlVUKQ96VxIShrek fighting using ‘Bullet Time’http://moviesimpsons.tumblr.com/http://www.totalfilm.com/features/100-greatest-simpsons-movie-references/harry-potter-and-the-philosopher-s-stoneTarantino referenceshttp://www.collegehumor.com/video/6860507/every-pop-culture-reference-from-tarantino-movies
  41. 41. ResponsesOur response to a film draws on the whole of the self, a self that includes:A social self who can make meaning in ways not very different from others with asimilar ideological formation.http://cli.ps/sP6wnhttp://cli.ps/uWp3Lhttp://cli.ps/MxCyjhttp://cli.ps/KdPxWrite down your responses to theseclips.Emotions, reactions, thoughts, opinions.Do we share any?
  42. 42. Responses• A private self who carried the memories of his/her own experiences and who mayfind person significance in a film in ways very different from others• Films which are especially brash, obvious or shallow in theme are unlikely toprovoke a strong personal response. Action films, for example, are not usuallysomething which someone could find a significant response in. (By significant wemean anything other than the ‘basic’ instant emotions of gratification.)• Films which are more subtle, dealing in themes, often universal ones but on amicro level, are more likely to provoke a personal response because they allow fora degree of interpretation or interaction. A specific response may be triggered bysomething specific in, or suggested by, the film, but this is entirely down to thespectator.Can you think of any specific personal examples that you’d care to share? If not, think of an example ortwo and make a note to help you recall this idea at a later stage.
  43. 43. • A desiring self who brings conscious and unconscious energies andintensities to the film event that have little to do with the film’s ‘surface’content.ResponsesYour turn.What do you think this means? Can you rephrase it?Can you think of any examples in films that you’d be willing to share?
  44. 44. ResponsesThe opening scenes to V for Vendetta.The opening scenes to V for Vendetta.How do we respond? Make a note of these whilst watching.How do we respond? Make a note of these whilst watching.Then, can you explain what type of response it is?Then, can you explain what type of response it is?What self/selves has(have) helped to create that response?What self/selves has(have) helped to create that response?Feel free to not share any difficult personal responses, butFeel free to not share any difficult personal responses, butcertainly make a note of them.certainly make a note of them.
  45. 45. ResponsesHow are these responses created by the filmHow are these responses created by the filmmakers?makers?Combine your understanding of response withCombine your understanding of response withthat of film-making and criticism.that of film-making and criticism.Prepare to answer an essay question on this…Prepare to answer an essay question on this…
  46. 46. Emotional response andpleasure• Filmmakers have always attempted to gain some sort of emotional responsefrom spectators, and for their part spectators have always respondedemotionally to film.• More than that, spectators have always attended the cinema in order to havetheir emotions aroused and with the expectation that this will take place. This is,after all, a basic function of storytelling.• Stories gain emotional responses from listeners, readers or viewers. Effectivestorytelling encourages us to feel human emotions by allowing us to sympathise,empathise or even identify with characters and their narrative experiences.• As spectators (and as readers) we presumably find this process to bepleasurable or we would not return time after time to films (and stories), but inwhat ways is it pleasurable?
  47. 47. In what ways is itpleasurable?• In groups, think of ways in which a spectator could finda film pleasurable.• (You may want to think of different genres of films togive you ideas here)HappyendingAmbiguityNostalgiaTwistsTrue storiesInspirationalMysteryEmotionalchallengeChallenge yourintelligenceLaughter/escapismJusticeAdrenalineIntrigueDesirabilityLust
  48. 48. The opening toPsycho
  49. 49. The opening toPsycho• Psycho would seem to encourage the notion of film asvoyeuristically pleasurable but what is the connection betweenvoyeurism and emotional response?• What sorts of emotional response does voyeurism bring about?• Are we being permitted to give rein to a type of human interest inothers that might more normally be considered sociallyunacceptable?• If so, what sorts of emotion do we experience at this point?
  50. 50. ResponsesThe opening scenes to PsychoHow do we respond? Make a note of these whilstwatching.Then, can you explain what type of response it is?What self/selves has(have) helped to create thatresponse?In what ways is this a pleasurable opening for anaudience?How?
  51. 51. What emotions areengendered here?• Reservoir Dogs (1992)(Please note: pretty grim!)• Do these emotions involve pleasure of some sort?• If so, what is the nature of this pleasure?• If it is not pleasurable, why do spectators watch these sorts ofscenes, deliberately exposing themselves to a certain type ofemotional response?
  52. 52. ResponsesThe ear cutting scene in Reservoir DogsWhy is this scene ‘pleasurable’?How do we respond? Make a note of these whilst watching.Then, can you explain what type of response it is?What self/selves has(have) helped to create that response?In what ways is this a pleasurable opening for an audience?How?Use these notes to write a mini-essay as an explanation.Make sure that this is neat as others in the class will bereading your work.
  53. 53. Kill Bill• Homework 1:• Research Tarantino, research the film.• Make sure you are aware of his films and the controversy around someof them.• Make sure you know key production details off by heart, including themain story and characters.• Make sure that you can pick out a few key scenes from the film.http://movieclips.com/S3dLR-kill-bill-vol-1-movie-videos/#p=1http://movieclips.com/S3dLR-kill-bill-vol-1-movie-videos/#p=1
  54. 54. What’s shocking toyou?•List the range of ways in which you see film as beingpotentially shocking, and try to give an example for each.In order to comply with Film Studies good practice youshould try to refer to specific scenes within particular films.
  55. 55. What is shocking tothe viewer here?• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4omQNqCMFb0• What specifically is it here that is working to create shock?• Refer specifically to micro features and then bring in a more detailedresponse from the work we did before Easter.
  56. 56. Un Chien Andalou(1929)•In carrying out the act of analysing this clip, you should nowbe aware of the way in which shock’ in film can be talkedabout in terms of either the content (or subject matter) and theform (or style) of the film under discussion. Clearly the openingeye-slitting subject matter of Un Chien Andalou is itselfshocking, but so too is the film construction in terms of theway in which use is made of close-ups and an editing cutfrom the blank face of the woman with her eye being heldopen to the actual eyeball-cutting shot.
  57. 57. Un Chien Andalou vs. ReservoirDogs• Compare the way in which the scene from Un Chien Andalou is constructed with the slicing offof the policemans ear in Reservoir Dogs (Tarantino, 1991) which is handled in an altogetherdifferent way.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLTqecGbdCc• Both scenes will draw a sense of shock from most spectators on a first viewing but perhaps thenature of the shock is different in both instances.Make notes on:The use of mise-en-scene, performance, cinematography, editing and sound in both cases.• For both scenes consider whether the nature of the shock changes on a second viewing, and if so inwhat ways.• Are there other emotional responses that you or other spectators have had to either of these scenes?Could you imagine the possibility of further emotional responses that neither you nor anyone you havespoken to has had but which might be possible for other spectators?
  58. 58. Homework• Kill Bill• 1. Note at least 3 scenes from the film that caused you to have a strongemotional response? Describe the emotional response• 2. How were these emotional responses caused by the construction offilm?• 3. How were these emotional responses shaped by YOU, thespectator?• 4. How would different spectators react to this film?
  59. 59. Shock and the‘shocking’• As you discuss or think about films and scenes from films that createan emotional shock, always make sure you are considering bothcontent and film form.• Try to decide on the nature of the shock experienced and the intensityof that shock. Is it a physical shock that affects your bodily response insome way?
  60. 60. Shock and the‘shocking’• ‘ Shock’ as sudden and unexpected, or long-drawn out.• ‘ Shock’ in film usually occurs as something sudden andunexpected so that the viewer is as it were caught unawares.• But it is worth bearing in mind that this is not always the case;sometimes the shock effect is achieved in a rather more long-drawn-out fashion.• Can you think of any examples of scenes that are shocking or thatcreate shock because something is more drawn-out or longer than asudden jump? Why are these examples shocking?
  61. 61. Shock and the‘shocking’• Shock suggests a state of being stunned by what you have felt tobe repulsive in its brutality, so that you (and probably all watchingwith you) are startled, surprised by what you have witnessed,knocked off balance, and probably very silent.• But consider another form of possible emotional response, thetearful response. Is this part of shock or is it something different?• Why do you think we are sometime brought to tears by film?• Consider technical, micro elements of film making, and physiological, humanreasons for this type of response.
  62. 62. Projecting Illusion• Projecting Illusion: Film spectatorship and the impression of reality(Richard Allen)• Contemporary film theorists argue that, for a number of reasons,the cinematic image appears to spectators as if it were reality, butthis appearance is an illusion. In fact, the cinematic image provides“an impression of reality…”• “ Cinema is a form of signification that creates the appearance of aknowable reality and hence confirms the self definition of thehuman subject as someone capable of knowing that reality… thereality are the “effects” of a process of signification”
  63. 63. Projecting Illusion• Projecting Illusion: Film spectatorship and the impression of reality(Richard Allen)• Contemporary film theorists construe the film spectator as apassive observer of the image who is duped into believing that it isreal. It could be argued however, that the modern day filmspectator knows it is only a film but actively participates in theexperience of illusion that the cinema affords.• Choose a ‘shocking’ scene from Kill Bill to explore.• Looking at a scene, consider why it is shocking. What aspects of us as activeparticipants allow us to both understand and believe that it is a film?
  64. 64. • The interaction between director andspectator can be achieved through themanipulation of the following information:• Textual – information provided by the textitself• Extra-textual – information existing in the mindof the spectator (think carefully about wherethis might come from)Projecting Illusion
  65. 65. Projecting Illusion• Watch the following extracts from Kill Bill and make notes onthe following:• How does the director invite us (spectator) to view the filmas a construct?• What effect does this have on your response to the film?• How is extra-textual information used to create meaning forthe spectator?
  66. 66. Question practice:• Spectatorship: Popular Film and Emotional Response• Your answer should be based on a minimum of two films. Either,• 15. ‘Narrative is often assumed to be the most important factor in triggeringemotional response whereas style is often overlooked.’ How far do you agreewith this? [35]• Or,• 16. ‘Some spectators can laugh, others cry at the same sequence.’ Explorewhy spectators may react very differently to the same sequences in the filmsyou have studied for this topic. [35]
  67. 67. Question practice:• Spectatorship: Popular Film and Emotional Response• Your answer should be based on a minimum of two films. Either,• 15. ‘Narrative is often assumed to be the most important factor in triggeringemotional response whereas style is often overlooked.’ How far do you agreewith this? [35]• Or,• 16. ‘Some spectators can laugh, others cry at the same sequence.’ Explorewhy spectators may react very differently to the same sequences in the filmsyou have studied for this topic. [35]HOMEWORK DUE IN ON15th MAY
  68. 68. Deconstruction• This theory challenges the assumption that a text has anunchanging, unified meaning that is true for all readers and alsothe idea that the author is the source of any text’s meaning. Theapproach suggests that there is a multiplicity of legitimateinterpretations of a text.• Theories such as this, developed particularly during the 1970s,tended to emphasise the viewer’s control over the creation of thefilm being watched.
  69. 69. Deconstruction• However, other theories have attempted to demonstrate how thespectator is fixed in place by the text (or by the system of valueswithin the text) so that audiences are manipulated by filmmakersinto seeing things, and therefore thinking, in certain ways.• The tension between concepts of the reader/spectator as on theone hand active and in control, and on the other hand passive andas a victim, lies at the heart of ideas regarding the experience ofspectatorship, or the process that is taking place as we view films.
  70. 70. Censorship• Censorship and regulation have always sought to restrict groups ofpeople from viewing certain films.• Does the implementation of censorship and/or classificationsuggest that there is a fear that film could create too strong anemotional response from certain social groups?• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young and the workingclass.• To what extent is it a heightened emotional response that has beenfeared in theses circumstances?
  71. 71. Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young and the workingclass. To what extent is it a heightened emotional response thathas been feared in theses circumstances?• Use http://www.sbbfc.co.uk/CaseStudies/ to research two films andprepare to feedback with answers to the these questions:• Why where those films controversial?• What did the BBFC say about the issues of controversy?• How might these scenes bring about a heightened emotional response-what might the audience’s reaction be?
  72. 72. Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young and the workingclass. To what extent is it a heightened emotional response thathas been feared in theses circumstances?• Use http://www.sbbfc.co.uk/CaseStudies/ to research two films andprepare to feedback with answers to the these questions:• Why where those films controversial?• What did the BBFC say about the issues of controversy?• How might these scenes bring about a heightened emotional response-what might the audience’s reaction be?HOMEWORK FOR HALFTERM.
  73. 73. Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young and the workingclass. To what extent is it a heightened emotional response thathas been feared in theses circumstances?• Use http://www.sbbfc.co.uk/CaseStudies/ to research two films andprepare to feedback with answers to the these questions:• Why where those films controversial?• What did the BBFC say about the issues of controversy?• How might these scenes bring about a heightened emotional response-what might the audience’s reaction be?HOMEWORK FOR HALFTERM.SO IS YOUR REVISION
  74. 74. Censorship• Films have always been seen to have the power to bring aboutantisocial behaviour, particularly in the young and the workingclass. To what extent is it a heightened emotional response thathas been feared in theses circumstances?• Use http://www.sbbfc.co.uk/CaseStudies/ to research two films andprepare to feedback with answers to the these questions:• Why where those films controversial?• What did the BBFC say about the issues of controversy?• How might these scenes bring about a heightened emotional response-what might the audience’s reaction be?HOMEWORK FOR HALFTERM.SO IS YOUR REVISIONWHICH YOU REALLY SHOULDHAVE STARTED BY NOW
  75. 75. Reception Theory• Reception theory hoped to be a more sophisticated approach tostudying audiences, concentrating more on those who consume atext than the text itself.• When a text is encoded (watched & understood; note, onlypossible for active not passive, viewers) certain ideologies aredominant in an audience member, a spectator.• The audience decodes this message in multiple ways and this isdependent on the background of the person.• This links in with what 4 ideas we discussed earlier in thecourse?
  76. 76. Reception TheoryWhen a text isencoded (watched& understood; note,only possible foractive not passive,viewers) certainideologies aredominant in anaudience member,a spectator.The audiencedecodes thismessage inmultiple waysand this isdependent onthe backgroundof the person.
  77. 77. Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a film and how they ‘decode’ the meanings / ideologies placed in to the text bythe filmmaker.• Preferred Reading – taking an intended reading of the filmidentifying and agreeing with all messages encoded in to the text• Negotiated Reading – the viewer identifies most of the meaningsencoded in to the text but does not agree with, or take the fullmeaning• Oppositional Reading – the viewer does not identify the meaningsencoded in to the text and their own personal ideologies /experiences form an alternate meaning within the text
  78. 78. Reception Theory• Reception theory dictates that a film does not have any meaning without thespectator . Meaning is only generated when the spectator views. the text and‘decodes’ it.• This makes good logical sense, after all, how can there be a meaning without itbeing seen? What is the difference between ‘Meaning’ and ‘Response’? Meaning deals with themes and specific scenarios Response is an all-encompassing interaction with the film as a whole.
  79. 79. Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a film and how they ‘decode’ the meanings / ideologies placed in to the text bythe filmmaker.• Preferred Reading – taking an intended reading of the filmidentifying and agreeing with all messages encoded in to the text• What could a preferred reading of Kill Bill be?
  80. 80. Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a film and how they ‘decode’ the meanings / ideologies placed in to the text bythe filmmaker.• Negotiated Reading – the viewer identifies most of the meaningsencoded in to the text but does not agree with, or take the fullmeaning• What could a negotiated reading of Kill Bill be?
  81. 81. Reception Theory• Reception Theory states that an audience may respond in one of three ways based on theirreading of a film and how they ‘decode’ the meanings / ideologies placed in to the text bythe filmmaker.• Oppositional Reading – the viewer does not identify the meaningsencoded in to the text and their own personal ideologies /experiences form an alternate meaning within the text• What could an oppositional reading of Kill Bill be?
  82. 82. Central ImaginingCentral Imagining• Arguably the central function of spectatorship is Central Imagining.• This refers to an immersion in the film. There are certain times when aspectator experiences ‘central-imagining’ – when a film recreates physicalsensations such as falling over or walking in a daze.• In theory, central imagining is the merging of the spectator with the film-when thecinematic experience is felt physically.• Central imaging is often expressed as “I feel…”• Technology has always been at the forefront of the drive for spectatorship in thisregard, with the use of colour, widescreen ratios, stereo and later surround sound,IMAX and arguably, 3D.• What is the earliest example we know of where an immature audience respondedto technology through central imagining?
  83. 83. Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat(The Lumière Brothers, 1895)
  84. 84. A-Central ImaginingA-Central Imagining• Most of the time film spectators operate in the ‘I imagine that...’ mode –meaning they do not feel the physical effects but can imagine how a certainsensation may feel.• “I imagine that it must be pretty terrifying seeing someone cut off a man’s head andknowing that if you say the wrong thing, you’ll be next”• A-Central imagining is often expressed as “I imagine that…”• Write down 3 examples of central imagining for either Kill Bill or True Grit AND• Write down 3 examples of A-central imagining for either Kill Bill or True Grit.
  85. 85. SummarySummary• Essentially when we view films we have a combination of responsesranging from preferred to oppositional to individual emotional responses.• We as spectators can have our physical responses manipulated viaCentral imagining and our emotional responses manipulated by A-Centralimagining• The A-Central Imagining depends on our extra-textual reading of a filmwhilst the central imagining depends on how the director uses the camerato elicit physical responses (shock, tears...)
  86. 86. RevisionRevision• Using your notes from the previous lessons answer the followingquestions:• How does Tarantino construct the characters of The Bride and Oren in the scenes thatwe’ve focused on?• What personal experiences have contributed to your personal recognition of thecharacters and how you respond to them?• Which characters do you feel the most allegiance towards?• How is this allegiance created? (you must consider the micro elements and personalexperiences)
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