Americas Timeline


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Americas Timeline

  1. 1. Civilizations of TheCivilizations of The Americas TimelineAmericas Timeline By: Ian LittlefieldBy: Ian Littlefield
  2. 2. 40,000 b.c.40,000 b.c.  In 40,000 b.c. the ice ageIn 40,000 b.c. the ice age was coming to the end ofwas coming to the end of its almost 60,000 year,its almost 60,000 year, reign. The ice age wouldreign. The ice age would hang around for anotherhang around for another almost 30,000 years butalmost 30,000 years but just now was the Beringjust now was the Bering Straight revealed by theStraight revealed by the dropping sea levels.dropping sea levels.  Image source: source: files/Serpentine-Hot-S...files/Serpentine-Hot-S...
  3. 3. 33,000 - 10,000 b.c.33,000 - 10,000 b.c.  During this timeDuring this time humans first startedhumans first started to walk across theto walk across the Bering land bridge toBering land bridge to the Americas.the Americas.  Image source:Image source: 2010/.2010/.
  4. 4. The OlmecThe Olmec The Olmec civilization startedThe Olmec civilization started around 1500 b.c. and wentaround 1500 b.c. and went until almost 400 b.c. Theuntil almost 400 b.c. The rivers that the Olmec lived byrivers that the Olmec lived by flooded each year depositingflooded each year depositing fertile river soil that they usedfertile river soil that they used for planting there crops. Thefor planting there crops. The Olmec had two classes the eliteOlmec had two classes the elite and the commoners.The eliteand the commoners.The elite were the rulers and the priests.were the rulers and the priests. The commoners were laborersThe commoners were laborers they did the work around thethey did the work around the Olmec empireOlmec empire Image source: 0uterspace.wordpress.comImage source:
  5. 5. Olmec religionOlmec religion Olmec rulers were priest kingsOlmec rulers were priest kings who came from the elitewho came from the elite ranks. The priests and priestranks. The priests and priest kings were some of the mostkings were some of the most skilled and respected warriorsskilled and respected warriors in the Olmec military. Thein the Olmec military. The Olmec believed that the priestsOlmec believed that the priests were protected by the gods inwere protected by the gods in battle and thus could not bebattle and thus could not be killed unless the gods werekilled unless the gods were angry with them. To preventangry with them. To prevent this from occurring theythis from occurring they sacrificed captured enemies tosacrificed captured enemies to appease their gods.appease their gods. Image source: rllewellyn.netImage source:
  6. 6. Epi-OlmecEpi-Olmec The Olmec mysteriously disappearedThe Olmec mysteriously disappeared from all there cities between 400from all there cities between 400 and 350 b.c. Artifacts were thenand 350 b.c. Artifacts were then found in another city some 330found in another city some 330 miles away called Tres Zapotes.miles away called Tres Zapotes. Artifacts were found there veryArtifacts were found there very similar to those of the Olmec.similar to those of the Olmec. Historians believe that the OlmecHistorians believe that the Olmec may have taken a major militarymay have taken a major military loss and had to flee with the fewloss and had to flee with the few citizens and soldiers that survivedcitizens and soldiers that survived to another city. There they startedto another city. There they started a new culture but kept some of thea new culture but kept some of the same ways of making buildings.same ways of making buildings. Image source: source: Olmec_cultureOlmec_culture
  7. 7. The MayansThe Mayans The Mayans began aroundThe Mayans began around 1800 b.c. with small1800 b.c. with small farming villages. Some offarming villages. Some of those villages could notthose villages could not farm but had largefarm but had large deposits of limestone thatdeposits of limestone that the Mayans used to buildthe Mayans used to build there buildings. The restthere buildings. The rest of the villages farmedof the villages farmed and provided food for theand provided food for the mining villages.mining villages. Image source: source: images/HanGrottes01.jpgimages/HanGrottes01.jpg
  8. 8. 100 b.c. - 200 a.d.100 b.c. - 200 a.d. In this time period the MayansIn this time period the Mayans started to use their gatheredstarted to use their gathered limestone to change their smalllimestone to change their small villages into large andvillages into large and impressive cities. Mayan citiesimpressive cities. Mayan cities were usually centered aroundwere usually centered around a temple. The Mayans built aa temple. The Mayans built a pyramid surrounded by openpyramid surrounded by open plazas with a pyramid at theplazas with a pyramid at the top. The Mayan priest kingstop. The Mayan priest kings climbed these pyramids toclimbed these pyramids to perform religious ceremonies.perform religious ceremonies. Image source: frogview.comImage source:
  9. 9. Mayan AgricultureMayan Agriculture The Mayan population was growing so theThe Mayan population was growing so the demand for food did as well. To copedemand for food did as well. To cope farmers devised ways to farm landfarmers devised ways to farm land that before was useless. In thethat before was useless. In the lowlands where the Mayans minedlowlands where the Mayans mined limestone they now also farmed bylimestone they now also farmed by bringing soil from the bottom of riversbringing soil from the bottom of rivers and spreading it over rocky groundand spreading it over rocky ground and by digging channels through toand by digging channels through to rivers they dealt with crops dieingrivers they dealt with crops dieing from lack of water. In the highlandsfrom lack of water. In the highlands they used terraces to prevent soil fromthey used terraces to prevent soil from sliding down hill. When thissliding down hill. When this happened the Mayans started to havehappened the Mayans started to have a surplus of food and they traded thea surplus of food and they traded the extra with other civilizations for jadeextra with other civilizations for jade and cacao beans.and cacao beans. Image source: pruned.blogspot.comImage source:
  10. 10. Mayan ReligionMayan Religion Like the Olmec the Mayans hadLike the Olmec the Mayans had Priest-Kings and priests. TheyPriest-Kings and priests. They were warriors and usually led thewere warriors and usually led the Mayan army into battle. TheMayan army into battle. The priests and Priest-Kings werepriests and Priest-Kings were sometimes killed in battle butsometimes killed in battle but their army always won the fight.their army always won the fight. when the Priests died theywhen the Priests died they received the best burials possible.received the best burials possible. The Mayans sacrifices were moreThe Mayans sacrifices were more specific than the Olmec. Thespecific than the Olmec. The Mayans only sacrificed capturedMayans only sacrificed captured enemy soldiers, virgins, or theenemy soldiers, virgins, or the Priest-Kings blood. The MayansPriest-Kings blood. The Mayans instead of cutting the throat of ainstead of cutting the throat of a sacrifice they threw the sacrificesacrifice they threw the sacrifice into a pit filled with thousands ofinto a pit filled with thousands of gallons of water with sides thatgallons of water with sides that stretched almost 40 feet above thestretched almost 40 feet above the water level.water level. image source: facstaff.gpc.eduimage source:
  11. 11. Tiwanakans and the MocheTiwanakans and the Moche The Tiwanakans were a raceThe Tiwanakans were a race that appeared in 300 b.c.that appeared in 300 b.c. and that continued toand that continued to prosper until almost a.d.prosper until almost a.d. 1200. At it’s height the1200. At it’s height the Tiwanakans owned 1,500Tiwanakans owned 1,500 square miles from Peru tosquare miles from Peru to Bolivia. About 400 yearsBolivia. About 400 years after the Tiwanakansafter the Tiwanakans developed anotherdeveloped another culture the Moche cameculture the Moche came into being.into being. Image source: source: Tiwanaku/tiwanaku1.jpgTiwanaku/tiwanaku1.jpg
  12. 12. Different EnvironmentsDifferent Environments The Tiwanakans lived in highThe Tiwanakans lived in high mountains where there wasmountains where there was little rain and the only sourceslittle rain and the only sources of water were lakes so theof water were lakes so the Tiwanakans dug irrigationTiwanakans dug irrigation channels and took soil fromchannels and took soil from the lake bed to spread overthe lake bed to spread over inhospitable land that wouldinhospitable land that would not grow crops. The Moche onnot grow crops. The Moche on the other hand lived in a placethe other hand lived in a place were the land was dry andwere the land was dry and needed water. Using mud theneeded water. Using mud the Moche built hundreds of milesMoche built hundreds of miles of aqueducts and used terraceof aqueducts and used terrace farming on the hillsides.farming on the hillsides. Image source: source: media/moche.jpgmedia/moche.jpg
  13. 13. Social Structures and ReligionSocial Structures and Religion The Tiwanakans had an elite and aThe Tiwanakans had an elite and a commoner class. The Tiwanakanscommoner class. The Tiwanakans worshipped the condor.worshipped the condor. Tiwanakan leaders wereTiwanakan leaders were worshipped as gods and oftenworshipped as gods and often fought alone when greatlyfought alone when greatly outnumbered by the enemy. Theoutnumbered by the enemy. The Moche social structure was aboutMoche social structure was about the same. The religion of thethe same. The religion of the Moche was very different though.Moche was very different though. The Moche worshipped manyThe Moche worshipped many different gods and made sacrificesdifferent gods and made sacrifices unlike the Tiwanakans. Theunlike the Tiwanakans. The Moche abandoned their cities inMoche abandoned their cities in 600 and six hundred years later600 and six hundred years later the Tiwanakans would do thethe Tiwanakans would do the same.same. Image source: source: images/2008/12/19/an.images/2008/12/19/an.
  14. 14. The AztecThe Aztec The Aztec were a band of hunter-The Aztec were a band of hunter- gatherers living on an island ingatherers living on an island in northwestern Mexico. Aroundnorthwestern Mexico. Around 1100 they received a command1100 they received a command from their god that they mustfrom their god that they must move until they find an eaglemove until they find an eagle sitting on a cactus eating a snake.sitting on a cactus eating a snake. The Aztec wandered for almostThe Aztec wandered for almost 200 years until they found the200 years until they found the sign. During this period theysign. During this period they passed through many landspassed through many lands controlled by other tribes thatcontrolled by other tribes that would not let them settle there.would not let them settle there. The Aztec finally found theirThe Aztec finally found their home by lake Texcoco in thehome by lake Texcoco in the valley of Mexico. They namedvalley of Mexico. They named their new city Tenochitlan.their new city Tenochitlan. 213/ 213/476281191_487c3c1
  15. 15. Aztec FarmingAztec Farming The Aztec could not farmThe Aztec could not farm their wet swampy land sotheir wet swampy land so they constructedthey constructed chinampas or floatingchinampas or floating gardens that were thingardens that were thin strips of land about 300strips of land about 300 feet by 30 feet. The Aztecfeet by 30 feet. The Aztec were able to plant cornwere able to plant corn and squash here andand squash here and gather from the crops bygather from the crops by boat. The Aztec tradedboat. The Aztec traded with other tribes forwith other tribes for lumber and stone.lumber and stone. Image source:Image source: ../wm/pd932021.jpg../wm/pd932021.jpg
  16. 16. The Aztec EmpireThe Aztec Empire The Aztec formed a mightyThe Aztec formed a mighty empire by conqueringempire by conquering other tribes around themother tribes around them and forcing them to growand forcing them to grow food and give wood andfood and give wood and metal to the Aztec warmetal to the Aztec war effort. So much waseffort. So much was demanded of conquereddemanded of conquered tribes and Aztectribes and Aztec commoners. That somecommoners. That some began to starve whichbegan to starve which created resentmentcreated resentment among the tribes.among the tribes. Image source: source: aztek1.jpgaztek1.jpg
  17. 17. Aztec ArmyAztec Army The Aztec army was made up of multiple different kinds of warriors. They had archers swordsmen and spear woman. Archers usually carried their bows and slings used for throwing rocks. The swordsman carried swords and sometimes daggers or shields. Spear woman were thought of as almost mythical warriors for the Aztec. They carried 5 foot long spears used for thrusting that had a slim smooth tip. They also carried shorter heavier spears for throwing with barbed tips which prevented the enemy from removing them from their comrades to throw them back. Spear woman carried strong round shields covered with spikes for bashing. If they lost their spears then they would resort using their short swords called moon daggers. They usually came into battle with a black jaguar by their side. Image 2 image 3 image 1
  18. 18. Aztec ReligionAztec Religion The Aztec religionThe Aztec religion worshipped over 1000worshipped over 1000 gods especially the god ofgods especially the god of war and the sun and thewar and the sun and the god of rain. Theygod of rain. They performed humanperformed human sacrifices to appease theirsacrifices to appease their gods some believe thatgods some believe that the Aztec started warsthe Aztec started wars just to capture enemyjust to capture enemy soldiers for sacrifices.soldiers for sacrifices. image source:travelersdigest.comimage
  19. 19. The IncaThe Inca Very few dates areVery few dates are known of the Incaknown of the Inca because they had nobecause they had no writing system. Thewriting system. The only date we reallyonly date we really know about is whenknow about is when their empire came totheir empire came to its height in 1525.its height in 1525. Image source:Image source: advent...advent...
  20. 20. How The Inca Conquered a RegionHow The Inca Conquered a Region The Inca ruler first sent scouts to the targetedThe Inca ruler first sent scouts to the targeted region. The scouts judged the regionsregion. The scouts judged the regions fertility, the strength of it’s armies, it’sfertility, the strength of it’s armies, it’s defenses, and memorize it’s geography.defenses, and memorize it’s geography. The scouts returned and the king gatheredThe scouts returned and the king gathered his army according to the report from hishis army according to the report from his scouts. Before attacking the Inca ruler sentscouts. Before attacking the Inca ruler sent ambassadors to the region to persuade theambassadors to the region to persuade the tribes to become part of the empiretribes to become part of the empire peacefully. Usually the tribes refused andpeacefully. Usually the tribes refused and then the massive Inca armies attacked. Thethen the massive Inca armies attacked. The Inca made members of conquered tribesInca made members of conquered tribes join their armies. New soldiers that didjoin their armies. New soldiers that did well were given rewards like picks from thewell were given rewards like picks from the spoils of new conquests. If conquered tribesspoils of new conquests. If conquered tribes were peaceful then their leaders werewere peaceful then their leaders were allowed to stay in power. All tribes wereallowed to stay in power. All tribes were forced to learn Quechua, the Incanforced to learn Quechua, the Incan language.language. image source:lastdaysoftheincas.comimage
  21. 21. Inca Social StructuresInca Social Structures The Inca had commoners andThe Inca had commoners and nobility. The commonersnobility. The commoners had to pay tribute to thehad to pay tribute to the nobility and worked to makenobility and worked to make roads that made trade androads that made trade and moving the armies of themoving the armies of the Inca much faster. The IncaInca much faster. The Inca government even decidedgovernment even decided who married who in thewho married who in the empire. Marriage wasempire. Marriage was encouraged since onlyencouraged since only couples could own land andcouples could own land and thus give tribute.thus give tribute. Image source: source: albums/c124/guspav/aztec2..albums/c124/guspav/aztec2..
  22. 22. Inca FarmingInca Farming The Inca used differentThe Inca used different farming methodsfarming methods according to the elevationaccording to the elevation they were at. In thethey were at. In the highlands they usedhighlands they used terrace farming andterrace farming and irrigation channels. Inirrigation channels. In the lowlands they grewthe lowlands they grew crops on just the soil thatcrops on just the soil that was there. This waswas there. This was called a vertical economy.called a vertical economy. Image source:Image source: ../images/pl71.jpg../images/pl71.jpg
  23. 23. Inca religionInca religion The Inca priestsThe Inca priests performed allperformed all ceremonies most ofceremonies most of which were animalwhich were animal sacrifices. Only insacrifices. Only in times of flood ortimes of flood or famine would thefamine would the Inca sacrifice humans.Inca sacrifice humans. Image source: source: isabel2/yale_cuchillo.jpgisabel2/yale_cuchillo.jpg
  24. 24. The Arrival of the SpanishThe Arrival of the Spanish In 1519 Hernando Cortez fired hisIn 1519 Hernando Cortez fired his cannons at the Aztec. In 1532cannons at the Aztec. In 1532 thirteen years later Franciscothirteen years later Francisco Pizzaro did the same to thePizzaro did the same to the Inca. Cortez came to theInca. Cortez came to the shores of Aztec territory withshores of Aztec territory with 550 men, 16 horses, 14550 men, 16 horses, 14 cannons, and three dogs.Theycannons, and three dogs.They fired their cannons at Aztecfired their cannons at Aztec messengers and caused themmessengers and caused them to flee. When they told theirto flee. When they told their leader about this he wasleader about this he was stricken with fearstricken with fear.. Image source: source: wordpress/wp-content/uwordpress/wp-content/u
  25. 25. Aztec ProblemsAztec Problems When the Spanish arrived theWhen the Spanish arrived the Aztec were fighting multipleAztec were fighting multiple wars with rebelling subjectwars with rebelling subject tribes. The Aztec leadertribes. The Aztec leader belived that Cortes was a godbelived that Cortes was a god come back to reclaim his city.come back to reclaim his city. He found out how wrong heHe found out how wrong he was when he was takenwas when he was taken hostage. The Spanish heldhostage. The Spanish held him captive until an Aztechim captive until an Aztec rebellion killed him and droverebellion killed him and drove the Spanish out. The Spanishthe Spanish out. The Spanish lost most of their men in thelost most of their men in the rebellion but joined the waringrebellion but joined the waring subject tribes together andsubject tribes together and destroyed the Aztec.destroyed the Aztec. Image source: source: FOTM/conquistadors.jpgFOTM/conquistadors.jpg
  26. 26. Conquest of the IncaConquest of the Inca The Inca were in a civil war becauseThe Inca were in a civil war because the ruler had died and his sonsthe ruler had died and his sons were fighting over the throne.were fighting over the throne. The son Atahualpa finally becameThe son Atahualpa finally became the ruler of a greatly weakenedthe ruler of a greatly weakened empire. When the Spanish led byempire. When the Spanish led by Pizzaro attacked he was capturedPizzaro attacked he was captured and killed very quickly. The lastand killed very quickly. The last king of the Inca Manco Inca leadking of the Inca Manco Inca lead an army of 200,000 soldiersan army of 200,000 soldiers against the spanish but it failedagainst the spanish but it failed because so many resources hadbecause so many resources had been used up in the civil war. Thebeen used up in the civil war. The Inca retreated into the mountainsInca retreated into the mountains until they were finally defeated inuntil they were finally defeated in 1572.1572. Image source: www eng/inca/images/Inca-Image source: www eng/inca/images/Inca-