UnderstandingMy Data, Myself:Supporting Self-Reflectionwith Ubicomp TechnologiesIan Li, Anind Dey, Jodi ForlizziIan Li, Ani...
Supporting Self-ReflectionIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China   2
Personal Informatics ToolsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China   3
PedometerIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China   4
Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China   5
Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China   6
Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China   7
Number of steps                                                Web history           Sleep quality                        ...
What kinds of questions do             people ask about their data?                When do people ask these               ...
6 Kinds of Questions                                            2 Phases  People transition between phasesIan Li, Anind K....
Study RecruitmentAdvertised on:•  Craigslist•  Study recruitment site•  Quantified Self blog http://quantifiedself.comIan Li...
Participants91 people expressed interest.Selected 15 participants (P1-15) to interview.•  Currently using a personal infor...
Types of Data CollectedFinancial expenditures (3 participants)Sleep (3)Weight (2)Blood glucose level (2)Exercise (1)Produc...
Procedure1-hour interviews in the lab or on SkypeObserved participants using their personalinformatics tool.Ian Li, Anind ...
ProcedureAsked how they reflected on their data.•  What were they looking for?•  What questions did they ask?•  How did the...
AnalysisIdentified the questions people asked abouttheir data.Affinity diagrams to identify themes.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jod...
6 Kinds of Questions                                            2 PhasesIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011...
6 Kinds of Questions                                              Status                                             Histo...
Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsStatusWhat is my current status?P7 looked at her Fitbit pedometer severalti...
Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsHistoryWhat happened in the past?P5 looked at her spending history to check...
Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsGoalWhat goals should I pursue?P9 tracked what she ate and her physicalacti...
Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsDiscrepancyHow does my behavior compare to my goals?P11 compared her curren...
Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsContextWhat other things happenedduring a particular point in time?P3 who h...
Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsFactorsWhat influences my behaviorover a long period of time?P2 tracked many...
Importance of the QuestionsQuestions are NOT important all the time.Some questions are more important thanothers as people...
Maintenance   Discovery                 &        Phase        PhaseIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Bei...
Maintenance PhaseParticipants already know how differentfactors affect their behavior, so they just wantto know what their...
Maintenance PhaseCurrent StatusP13 just tracks the minutes that he spends onFacebook, Twitter, and other social mediasites...
Maintenance PhaseDiscrepancyP1 uses Mint to keep track of herexpenditures to see whether she is meetingthe budget that she...
Maintenance PhaseMost important kinds of questions:StatusHistoryGoalsDiscrepancyContextFactorsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi F...
Maintenance PhaseMost important kinds of questions:                                 }Status            Collecting data is ...
Discovery PhaseParticipants are trying to figure outwhat their goals are.Participants collect several types of datato find o...
Discovery PhaseFiguring out goalsP8 tracks the quality of her sleep so that she isbetter rested. She explores her sleep da...
Discovery PhaseFinding factors that affect their behavior.P3 has diabetes and she tracked her bloodglucose levels and her ...
Discovery PhaseMost important kinds of questions:StatusHistoryGoalsDiscrepancyContextFactorsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi For...
Discovery PhaseMost important kinds of questions:Status         Help users collect dataHistoryGoalsDiscrepancy            ...
Discovery PhaseMost important kinds of questions:StatusHistoryGoals               Help users track multipleDiscrepancy    ...
Maintenance   Discovery                 &        Phase        PhaseIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Bei...
Transitions                        Discovery  MaintenanceDiscovery                              P6 initially tracked his ...
Transitions                        Maintenance  DiscoveryMaintenance P7 who has recurrent insomnia            tracks her ...
Transition ProblemsSome people might have problemstransitioning.P9 tracked multiple types of data to figure outwhat causes ...
SummaryIdentified 6 kinds of questions that peopleask about their data.Described 2 phases when people askdifferent kinds of...
Thank you!ianli@cmu.eduhttp://ianli.comFunded byIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China   43
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Ubicomp 2011 - Understanding My Data, Myself: Supporting Self-Reflection with Ubicomp Technologies

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We live in a world where many kinds of data about us can be collected and more will be collected as Ubicomp technologies mature. People reflect on this data using different tools for personal informatics. However, current tools do not have sufficient understanding of users’ self- reflection needs to appropriately leverage Ubicomp technologies. To design tools that effectively assist self- reflection, we need to comprehensively understand what kinds of questions people have about their data, why they ask these questions, how they answer them with current tools, and what kinds of problems they encounter. To explore this, we conducted interviews with people who use various kinds of tools for personal informatics. We found six kinds of questions that people asked about their data. We also found that certain kinds of questions are more important at certain times, which we call phases. We identified two phases of reflection: Discovery and Maintenance. We discuss the kinds of questions and the phases in detail and identify features that should be supported in personal informatics tools for which Ubicomp technologies can play an important role.

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Ubicomp 2011 - Understanding My Data, Myself: Supporting Self-Reflection with Ubicomp Technologies

  1. 1. UnderstandingMy Data, Myself:Supporting Self-Reflectionwith Ubicomp TechnologiesIan Li, Anind Dey, Jodi ForlizziIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 1
  2. 2. Supporting Self-ReflectionIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 2
  3. 3. Personal Informatics ToolsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 3
  4. 4. PedometerIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 4
  5. 5. Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 5
  6. 6. Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 6
  7. 7. Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 7
  8. 8. Number of steps Web history Sleep quality Food consumption Blood glucose level Expenditures Location Weight Electricity usage Driving habitsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 8
  9. 9. What kinds of questions do people ask about their data? When do people ask these questions?Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 9
  10. 10. 6 Kinds of Questions 2 Phases People transition between phasesIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 10
  11. 11. Study RecruitmentAdvertised on:•  Craigslist•  Study recruitment site•  Quantified Self blog http://quantifiedself.comIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 11
  12. 12. Participants91 people expressed interest.Selected 15 participants (P1-15) to interview.•  Currently using a personal informatics tool•  Used tool for more than a monthIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 12
  13. 13. Types of Data CollectedFinancial expenditures (3 participants)Sleep (3)Weight (2)Blood glucose level (2)Exercise (1)Productivity (1), web history (1),books read (1), and general life events (1)Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 13
  14. 14. Procedure1-hour interviews in the lab or on SkypeObserved participants using their personalinformatics tool.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 14
  15. 15. ProcedureAsked how they reflected on their data.•  What were they looking for?•  What questions did they ask?•  How did they answer their questions?•  What problems did they encounter?Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 15
  16. 16. AnalysisIdentified the questions people asked abouttheir data.Affinity diagrams to identify themes.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 16
  17. 17. 6 Kinds of Questions 2 PhasesIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 17
  18. 18. 6 Kinds of Questions Status History Goals Discrepancy Context FactorsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 18
  19. 19. Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsStatusWhat is my current status?P7 looked at her Fitbit pedometer severaltimes a day to check her physical activity level.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 19
  20. 20. Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsHistoryWhat happened in the past?P5 looked at her spending history to check ifshe was reducing her expenditures.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 20
  21. 21. Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsGoalWhat goals should I pursue?P9 tracked what she ate and her physicalactivity level to find the cause of her legcramps, so she can avoid certain foods or notdo certain exercises.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 21
  22. 22. Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsDiscrepancyHow does my behavior compare to my goals?P11 compared her current food consumptionwith the goal she had set for herself.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 22
  23. 23. Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsContextWhat other things happenedduring a particular point in time?P3 who has diabetes:•  Measured her blood sugar level.•  Kept in mind the food she ate and her physical activity.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 23
  24. 24. Status History Goal Discrepancy Context FactorsFactorsWhat influences my behaviorover a long period of time?P2 tracked many types of data over time tocontrol her weight:•  Exercises•  What she ate•  Total caloriesIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 24
  25. 25. Importance of the QuestionsQuestions are NOT important all the time.Some questions are more important thanothers as people’s information needs change.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 25
  26. 26. Maintenance Discovery & Phase PhaseIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 26
  27. 27. Maintenance PhaseParticipants already know how differentfactors affect their behavior, so they just wantto know what their current status is.Participants already identified their goals.They are only concerned with whether theyare meeting their goal.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 27
  28. 28. Maintenance PhaseCurrent StatusP13 just tracks the minutes that he spends onFacebook, Twitter, and other social mediasites, because he already knows how thesesites affect his productivity.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 28
  29. 29. Maintenance PhaseDiscrepancyP1 uses Mint to keep track of herexpenditures to see whether she is meetingthe budget that she had set for herself.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 29
  30. 30. Maintenance PhaseMost important kinds of questions:StatusHistoryGoalsDiscrepancyContextFactorsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 30
  31. 31. Maintenance PhaseMost important kinds of questions: }Status Collecting data is easierHistory because fewer types ofGoals data are collected.Discrepancy Tools could provide alertsContext and suggestions.FactorsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 31
  32. 32. Discovery PhaseParticipants are trying to figure outwhat their goals are.Participants collect several types of datato find out what factors affect their behavior.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 32
  33. 33. Discovery PhaseFiguring out goalsP8 tracks the quality of her sleep so that she isbetter rested. She explores her sleep data to“spot trends for which I can take correctiveaction.”Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 33
  34. 34. Discovery PhaseFinding factors that affect their behavior.P3 has diabetes and she tracked her bloodglucose levels and her food consumption tofind out their interaction.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 34
  35. 35. Discovery PhaseMost important kinds of questions:StatusHistoryGoalsDiscrepancyContextFactorsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 35
  36. 36. Discovery PhaseMost important kinds of questions:Status Help users collect dataHistoryGoalsDiscrepancy } over a long period of time. Help users select the goals that they should pursue.ContextFactorsIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 36
  37. 37. Discovery PhaseMost important kinds of questions:StatusHistoryGoals Help users track multipleDiscrepancy types of data.ContextFactors } Help users manage all the data that they collect.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 37
  38. 38. Maintenance Discovery & Phase PhaseIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 38
  39. 39. Transitions Discovery  MaintenanceDiscovery P6 initially tracked his blood sugar level, food consumption, and mood.Maintenance Eventually, he transitioned into just collecting his blood sugar level because he felt like he had control of his diabetes.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 39
  40. 40. Transitions Maintenance  DiscoveryMaintenance P7 who has recurrent insomnia tracks her sleep using Fitbit.Discovery When her insomnia returns, she records the factors that may be causing the problem.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 40
  41. 41. Transition ProblemsSome people might have problemstransitioning.P9 tracked multiple types of data to figure outwhat causes her leg cramps when she sleeps(Discovery).She still doesn’t know the causes, so shecontinues to collect data about her sleep andpossible causes.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 41
  42. 42. SummaryIdentified 6 kinds of questions that peopleask about their data.Described 2 phases when people askdifferent kinds of questions about their data.Discussed the transitions betweenthe phases.Ian Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 42
  43. 43. Thank you!ianli@cmu.eduhttp://ianli.comFunded byIan Li, Anind K. Dey, Jodi Forlizzi | Ubicomp 2011, Beijing, China 43
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