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A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics Systems (CHI 2010 Talk)
 

A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics Systems (CHI 2010 Talk)

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People strive to obtain self-knowledge. A class of systems called personal informatics is appearing that help people collect and reflect on personal information. However, there is no comprehensive ...

People strive to obtain self-knowledge. A class of systems called personal informatics is appearing that help people collect and reflect on personal information. However, there is no comprehensive list of problems that users experience using these systems, and no guidance for making these systems more effective. To address this, we conducted surveys and interviews with people who collect and reflect on personal information. We derived a stage-based model of personal informatics systems composed of five stages (preparation, collection, integration, reflection, and action) and identified barriers in each of the stages. These stages have four essential properties: barriers cascade to later stages; they are iterative; they are user-driven and/or system-driven; and they are uni-faceted or multi-faceted. From these properties, we recommend that personal informatics systems should 1) be designed in a holistic manner across the stages; 2) allow iteration between stages; 3) apply an appropriate balance of automated technology and user control within each stage to facilitate the user experience; and 4) explore support for associating multiple facets of people’s lives to enrich the value of systems.

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    A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics Systems (CHI 2010 Talk) A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics Systems (CHI 2010 Talk) Presentation Transcript

    • A Stage-Based Model
 of Personal Informatics Systems Ian Li Anind Dey Jodi Forlizzi HCII, Carnegie Mellon University Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010
    • Gnothi seauton. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 2
    • Know thyself. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 3
    • Self-knowledge is valuable. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 4
    • A way to get self-knowledge Collect information about yourself, 
 e.g., oneʼs behaviors, habits, and thoughts. Reflect on the information about yourself. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 5
    • Personal Informatics A class of systems that help people 
 collect and reflect on their behavior 
 to gain self-knowledge Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 6
    • Physical Activity Finance Electricity Diabetes Health Mood http://personalinformatics.org/tools Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 7
    • Alice •  20 years old •  Family history of heart disease •  Wants to be more active, but doesnʼt know how because sheʼs busy Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 8
    • 1. Alice prepares. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 9
    • 2. Alice collects data. Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 10
    • 3. Alice transcribes data. Transcribe to Excel M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 11
    • 4. Alice reflects on the data. Active Inactive Inactive M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 12
    • 5. Alice takes action. Walk in the park instead of watching TV M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 13
    • Model of Personal Informatics PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 14
    • Model of Personal Informatics PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION 1.  Barriers cascade. 2.  Stages are iterative. Design
 3.  User- vs. System-driven Guidelines 4.  Facets Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 15
    • Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 16
    • Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 17
    • Personal Informatics Self-tracking Personal analytics Living by numbers Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 18
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Other research have explored these different stages in isolation: •  Collection •  MyLifeBits (Gemmell et al. 2006) •  SenseCam (Hodges et al. 2006) •  Reflection •  Casual InfoVis (Pousman et al. 2007) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 19
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Other projects have combined collection and reflection on personal information •  Physical Activity: FishʼnʼSteps (Lin ʼ06), Shakra (Maitland ʼ06), UbiFit (Consolvo ʻ08) •  Sustainability: StepGreen (Mankoff ʼ08), UbiGreen (Froehlich ʼ09) •  Many systems for finance, health, physical activity, productivity, etc. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 20
    • Why a model 
 of Personal Informatics? A growing field with many HCI challenges •  Tools are used over a long period of time. •  User is involved throughout the process. No comprehensive list of problems Developers need a guide for development 
 and assessment of these tools Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 21
    • Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 22
    • Survey What personal informatics tools they use What problems they encountered Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 23
    • Survey Questions •  How difficult is it to collect this personal information? •  What was your initial motivation to reflect on this collected personal information? •  What patterns have you found? Transcript of the survey is at: http://personalinformatics.org/lab/survey Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 24
    • Participants Advertised the survey in blogs about personal informatics. 68 users of personal informatics tools 11 participated in follow-up interviews over instant messenger Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 25
    • Types of Information Automatically collected •  Financial institutions (banks, credit cards) •  Utility companies (electricity, heating) •  Computers (email and browsing history) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 26
    • Types of Information Manually collected •  Fewer participants, but greater variety Calendar events, status updates, work activities, blog posts, weight, exercise, browser bookmarks, time at work, mood, journal, sleeping habits, food consumption, productivity, health, medication intake, symptoms, miles ran, sports activities, blood pressure, blood sugar level, dream journal, step counts, relationship status, books read, transportation Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 27
    • Reasons Interested in personal data •  “data nerd” •  “a student of information visualization” •  “this data is about ME (her emphasis).” Trigger events (e.g., problems with physical activity, nutrition, weight, etc.) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 28
    • Analysis Identified barriers that people experienced. Affinity diagrams to identify themes Derived a model composed of: •  5 stages •  4 properties http://www.flickr.com/photos/ludens/3185982588/ Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 29
    • Introduction Personal Informatics Systems Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 30
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 31
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Preparation The stage before people start collecting information. •  What information to record •  How to record the information Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 32
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Preparation Barriers •  Choosing the right information to collect •  Finding the right tool to use Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 33
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection The stage when people collect information about themselves (e.g., inner thoughts, behavior, social interactions, and their immediate environment). Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 34
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool •  Remembering •  Lack of time •  Motivation •  Finding data •  Accuracy Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 35
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool One problem is:
 •  Remembering “Keeping up the •  Lack of time motivation to do so; •  Motivation like finding payback for the investment of •  Finding data time and effort.” •  Accuracy Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 36
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Integration The stage when the information from the Collection stage is prepared, combined, and transformed for the user to reflect on. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 37
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Integration Barriers •  Organization •  Scattered visualizations •  Transcribing data •  Multiple inputs Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 38
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Integration Barriers “Itʼd be neat if I could •  Organization graph [the data] •  Scattered straight from the web site instead of visualizations manually typing in the •  Transcribing data data to a •  Multiple inputs spreadsheet.” Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 39
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection The stage when people reflect on their personal information. •  Users may reflect immediately (short-term) •  Or after several days or weeks (long-term) Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 40
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers •  Lack of time •  Self-criticism •  Visualization •  Interpretation •  Sparse data •  No context Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 41
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers “Itʼs hard to get a •  Lack of time holistic view of the •  Self-criticism data since the time filters are at most one •  Visualization month and Iʼd like to •  Interpretation look at several •  Sparse data months at once.” •  No context Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 42
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Action The stage when people choose what they are going to do with their new-found understanding of themselves. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 43
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Action Barriers •  Not knowing what to do with the information •  Alerts •  Incentives •  Suggestions Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 44
    • Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 45
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION 1. Barriers cascade 2. Stages are iterative Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 46
    • 1. Barriers Cascade Problems in the earlier stages can affect the later stages. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 47
    • 1. Barriers Cascade. M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 48
    • 1. Barriers Cascade. M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 49
    • 1. Barriers Cascade P44 lacked time and motivation during Collection stage. About Reflection stage, he said: “I wish I could report successes on this front, but my lack of regular collection has made this difficult.” Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 50
    • 1. Barriers Cascade Design Guideline Consider all the stages when designing PI systems. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 51
    • 2. Stages are Iterative Users may need to incorporate 
 new types of data, tools, and processes 
 as they progress through the stages. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 52
    • 2. Stages are Iterative M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 53
    • 2. Stages are Iterative M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 54
    • 2. Stages are iterative. P48 switched between Google spreadsheets, Daytum, and your.flowingdata to collect restaurants visited. But the tools did not allow importing data. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 55
    • 2. Stages are Iterative. Design Guideline Flexibility is important. •  Support easy importing and exporting of data. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 56
    • PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION 1. Barriers cascade. 2. Stages are iterative. 3. User- or system-driven 4. Facets Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 57
    • 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 58
    • 3. User- vs. System-driven Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 59
    • 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 60
    • 3. User- vs. System-driven Design Guideline Consider the tradeoffs between user-driven and system-driven stages. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 61
    • 4. Facets Peopleʼs lives are composed of many facets. •  Home life vs. work life •  Daily interactions with other people •  Health •  Finance Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 62
    • 4. Facets Users expressed desire to see associations between different facets of their lives. •  “To understand trends in symptoms, behaviors, and circumstances.” P26 •  “If it were easily collected, information on food intake, calories, fat, etc., would make an interesting starting point for analysis.” P49 who tracks medication intake Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 63
    • 4. Facets Most personal informatics are uni-faceted. Some personal informatics systems have multi-faceted collection, but only support uni-faceted reflection. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 64
    • 4. Facets Location Activity People Office Shopping Family Active Inactive Inactive M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 65
    • 4. Facets Design Guideline Supporting multiple facets may help users find associations between facets of their lives. → Explore support for multiple facets. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 66
    • Model of Personal Informatics 5 Stages 4 Properties •  Design guidelines Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 67
    • Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 68
    • Case Studies 1.  Twitter-based systems 2.  Mint (http://mint.com) 3.  IMPACT Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 69
    • IMPACT Different from most personal informatics systems for physical activity: •  Collects physical activity information 
 and context (e.g., type of activity, location, people) •  Visualizations to help users become aware
 of factors in their lives that affect their physical activity. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 70
    • Two prototypes – Two studies IMPACT 1.0 IMPACT 2.0 Manual collection Semi-automated collection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 71
    • Collection vs. Reflection Short-term Long-term Reflection Reflection IMPACT 1.0 Manual GOOD NOT GOOD Collection IMPACT 2.0 Automated NOT GOOD GOOD Collection Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 72
    • The model and IMPACT The model helped analyze the different aspects of IMPACT. IMPACT highlights the necessity to consider the interactions between the different stages
 (e.g., Collection vs. Reflection) IMPACT shows value of multi-faceted support Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 73
    • Introduction Personal Informatics Surveys and Interviews The Stages Properties of the Stages Case Studies Conclusion Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 74
    • Contribution: Barriers and Model Identified a list of problems •  Highlights the many HCI challenges of building effective personal informatics tools Defined a model of personal informatics •  Common framework for describing, comparing, and evaluating such systems Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 75
    • Contribution: Design Guidelines Described 4 properties with implications for design of personal informatics systems 1.  Consider the design of all the stages. 2.  Flexibility between tools is important. 3.  Balance automation and user control. 4.  Explore support for finding relationships between facets of oneʼs life. Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 76
    • Thank you! http://personalinformatics.org/ http://personalinformatics.org/lab/model Ian Li ianli@cmu.edu Anind Dey anind@cs.cmu.edu Jodi Forlizzi forlizzi@cs.cmu.edu Funded by Ian Li, Anind Dey, Jodi Forlizzi A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics CHI 2010 77