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MicazXpl Intelligent Sensors Network Project Presentation
 

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    MicazXpl Intelligent Sensors Network Project Presentation MicazXpl Intelligent Sensors Network Project Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Project Proposals Conclusion Bibliography MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main - University of Applied Sciences 15 February 2011Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Project Proposals Conclusion Bibliography Table of Contents I 1 Introduction to Sensor Networks Overview Fields of Application Home Applications Environment Applications Military Applications Type of Sensors Factors Inuencing Sensor Network Design 2 Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Software components Hardware components 3 Project Approach Tutorials Research PapersAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Project Proposals Conclusion Bibliography Table of Contents II Documentations Developments of Applications 4 Project Proposals Data Transmission Methods Improving the Availability 5 Conclusion 6 BibliographyAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Overview Project Approach Fields of Application Project Proposals Type of Sensors Conclusion Factors Inuencing Sensor Network Design Bibliography Introduction A wireless sensor network is a collection of nodes organized into a cooperative network. Each node consists of processing capability (one or more microcontrollers, CPUs or DSP chips) Contain multiple types of memory (program, data and ash memories), have a RF transceiver (usually with a single omnidirectional antenna), have a power source (e.g., batteries and solar cells), and accommodate various sensors and actuators.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Overview Project Approach Fields of Application Project Proposals Type of Sensors Conclusion Factors Inuencing Sensor Network Design Bibliography Home Applications Home automation: smart sensor nodes and actuators can be buried in appliances, such as vacuum cleaners, micro-wave ovens, refrigerators, and VCRs. They are connected to external networks. Smart environment: Furniture and appliances (and servers) learn to provide the needed service. Smart kindergarten: to provide parents and teachers with the abilities to comprehensively investigate students learning processes; to collect, manage, and fuse the information of the sensors And Many more applicationsAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Overview Project Approach Fields of Application Project Proposals Type of Sensors Conclusion Factors Inuencing Sensor Network Design Bibliography Environment Applications Forest re detection: Strategically, randomly, and densely deployed sensor nodes can relay the exact origin of the re. Biocomplexity mapping of the environment: integrating information across temporal and spatial scales. Flood detection: rainfall, water level and weather sensors supply information to the centralized database system. Precision Agriculture: the pesticides level in the drinking water, soil erosion, and air pollution.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Overview Project Approach Fields of Application Project Proposals Type of Sensors Conclusion Factors Inuencing Sensor Network Design Bibliography Military Applications Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition. Battleeld surveillance Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain Targeting Battle damage assessment Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection and reconnaissanceAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Overview Project Approach Fields of Application Project Proposals Type of Sensors Conclusion Factors Inuencing Sensor Network Design Bibliography Sensors Dierent types of sensors: seismic, low sampling rate magnetic, thermal, visual, infrared, acoustic and radar. Monitors: temperature, humidity, vehicular movement, lightning condition, pressure, soil makeup, noise levels.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Overview Project Approach Fields of Application Project Proposals Type of Sensors Conclusion Factors Inuencing Sensor Network Design Bibliography Factors Fault tolerance; scalability; production costs; operating environment; sensor network topology; hardware constraints; transmission media; and power consumption.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Software components Project Proposals Hardware components Conclusion Bibliography Software components I TinyOS it is open source. portable. designed for low-power wireless devices. supports scheduling. component library includes network protocols, distributed services, sensor drivers, and data acquisition tools. Linux: We used because it is much compatible with TinyOS environment. Programming Environment Network Embedded System C (nesC): is a component-based, event-driven programming language used to build applications for the TinyOS platform.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Software components Project Proposals Hardware components Conclusion Bibliography Software components II Java: Allows portable message structure handling and used for GUI. Shell scripting: Frontend tool and for writing tools for working smoothly with TinyOS environment.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Software components Project Proposals Hardware components Conclusion Bibliography Hardware components I Crossbow oers a variety of sensor and data acquisition boards for the MICAz Mote. Some features are given below Size 2.25 x 1.25 square inches Same size as the Mica Board 2 Layer Board (Top and Bottom) top in a stack of daughter cards We used MTS300 Sensor Daughter card board. We sensed Light, temperature, acoustic and sounder sensor. MICAz Mote: I/O: 51 pin connector for connection to a sensor board Supports Analog inputs, Digital I/O, I2C, SPI and UART 3 Diagnostic LEDsAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Software components Project Proposals Hardware components Conclusion Bibliography Hardware components II Radios: TI CC2420 CPU: Atmega 128L Microcontroller up to 16 MIPS Storage: 128K Flash, 4K SRAM, 4K EEPROM Base Stations: Any MICAz Mote can function as a base station when it is connected to a standard PC interface or gateway board. The MIB510 or MIB520 provides a serial/USB interface for both programming and data communications.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography Learned from TinyOS Tutorials I we rst installed the TinyOs system and introduced with motes and learnt how to use those motes. Also we learnt how we pushed TinyOs application on motes in second step we learnt how we can write TinyOs applications using nesC languages and usages of interfaces,commands and events. The Tutorial "Mote-Mote Radio Communication" introduced us to radio communication in TinyOS. We got familiar with: Packet Send Receive PacketAcknowledgements RadioTimeStampingAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography Learned from TinyOS Tutorials II Then we moved to Mote Pc communication tutorial. We learnt here: How to communicate with a mote from a computer. We used RJ 45 cable i.e TCP/IP network for connecting programming board to computer (in our case Laptop). In sensing tutorial we learnt two things Sense Application: It periodically takes sensor readings and displays the values on the LEDs. Oscilloscope: It periodically broadcast their sensor readings to a base station board to computer (in our case Laptop).Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography Summaries of Research Papers I Adhoc Routing architecture - We described general Ad-Hoc routing architecture. Our proposal − A new Ad-Hoc architecture with data reliability and integrity using Sliding window protocol. Generalised topology of WSN − Analysis of various kind of topologies for WSN. Star Bus Mesh Hybrid Ring CTP-Collection Tree Protocol − It is basic structure of data transmission protocol in WSN.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography Summaries of Research Papers II Demerits − It is only useful for low trac data. RSSI-Received signal strength indicator − Used to measure distance between sensor nodes. Advantages − Indoor and Outdoor usage Data and communication and sensor usage on same hardware. Disadvantages − Multiple propogation Fading eect Energy Eciency Topologies − We researched various topologies and approaches Online battery monitoring Patterned topologies Location based topology(R & M and LMST)Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography Content of the Report Initial proposal for the implementation a realiable data acquisition system TinyOS installation guide for Beginners (A quick cheatsheet to get started) Research paper based on several Research papers. :D A compilation of interesting ndings :))Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography MicazXpl Version 0.1 I Message Structure typedef nx_struct data { nx_uint16_t moteid; // ID OF THE SENSING MOTE nx_uint16_t timestamp; // timestamp to distinguish // between older data // 3 types of sensor readings nx_uint16_t light[NREADINGS]; nx_uint16_t sound[NREADINGS]; nx_uint16_t temp[NREADINGS]; } data_t; // message content + crc sum of the contentAnkit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography MicazXpl Version 0.1 II typedef nx_struct msg_crc { data_t msg_data; nx_uint16_t crc; } msg_crc_t; // message to be encrypted + encrypted crc sum typedef nx_struct enc_msg_crc { msg_crc_t msg; nx_uint16_t final_crc; nx_uint8_t counter; // hop (incremented // at each successive mote) } enc_msg_crc_t;Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography MicazXpl Version 0.1 III Encryption void crypt(void *buf, uint8_t lenBuf, uint16_t key); void crypt(void *buf, uint8_t lenBuf, void *key, uint8_t lenKey) Forward-to-previous Routing: mote id 3 with sensor → mote id 2 → mote id 1 → mote id 0 or base station CRC Calculation async command uint16_t crc16(void *buf, uint8_t len);Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Tutorials Project Approach Research Papers Project Proposals Documentations Conclusion Developments of Applications Bibliography MicazXpl Version 0.2 Version 0.1 + CTP Routing Problems hard to monitor trac paths due to dynamic link estimation. extra overhead on the message format and size. real-time operations on the data become more time consuming. Possible steps to use CTP link with the CTP, net and some link estimator libraries (in Makele). setup the root node to be at the base station. enable the routing to be performed through the CTP. manage the message format and size for proper data handling. ignore or overcome the real-time message operations slowdowns.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Data Project Approach Transmission Project Proposals Methods Conclusion Improving the Availability Bibliography Data CRC Checksum: we want to be sure the integrity of the data is intact. To achieve that a library function from the TinyOS can be used. Timestamp: we want to avoid duplicate data and be able to control the ordering. For that a timer library function from the TinyOS can be used. Security: we want to ensure that the data is not easily available to unauthorized viewers. For that a fast and simple shared-key XOR based encryption function is to be used. Additionally or alternatively the radio chips built in security mechanisms can be used.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Data Project Approach Transmission Project Proposals Methods Conclusion Improving the Availability Bibliography Data Sensor Readings: we want to be able to check for missing data and possibly outliers in data. For missing data - a predened value (eg 0xFF) can be used. For outliers - some simple statistical calculations. Message Structure: we want to make sure we can collect and transfer the data items of our choice, and to incorporate the above mentioned mechanisms. For that we specify our own message structure format with: counter, timestamp, security & integrity and the message content itself.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Data Project Approach Transmission Project Proposals Methods Conclusion Improving the Availability Bibliography Transmission Multihop and Routing: we want to have dierent routing mechanisms to be in control of the data transmission. The mechanisms we use are: broadcast transmission and directed message passing. For directed: we can use a simple forward-to-previous-node multihop, as well as the more advanced multihop protocols, like CTP. Data Loss and Damage: we want to prevent accidental and malicious data modications during transmissions. These requirements can be accomplished by use of control messages, timeouts and counters, and the security & integrity mechanisms described previously.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Data Project Approach Transmission Project Proposals Methods Conclusion Improving the Availability Bibliography Transmission Network Congestion: we want to avoid network overloads leading to data loss. By combining the use of on-device storage with intelligent retransmission, we may have a simple way to achive that goal. Mote Availability: we dont want the data transmissions to be lost when some nodes become unavailable or more nodes become available. A simple solution that can be used is to require all nodes to broadcast their IDs as alive messages periodically.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Data Project Approach Transmission Project Proposals Methods Conclusion Improving the Availability Bibliography Methods Redundancy: we would like to be able to handle the situations of hardware and software components from failing or working unexpectedly. Appying the principles of software, data and hardware redundancy is a common approach to be taken. Local Storage: in case something unintended happens to the data during transmissions we would like to have a copy of the original. Utilizing local storage is a simple and ecient solution for this issue.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Data Project Approach Transmission Project Proposals Methods Conclusion Improving the Availability Bibliography Improving the Availability Power Management: for the battery powered devices motes are it is necessary to keep the power consumption to the minimum the prolong unattended availability of the devices. Switching o unnecessary components and using the available power management options (eg Sleep state) is a way to achieve this requirement. Low Power Listening: TinyOS provides an option for putting the devices components to sleep mode until woken by an event, like timer expiry or a remote message. Taking advantage of this optional functionality might be very useful.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Project Proposals Conclusion Bibliography Conclusion We learned many theoritical and practical aspects of embedded sensor boards and general eld of sensor networks. We have learned the specics of micaZ sensor kits and devised a project to learn and improve upon the basics of this eld. We have read around number of research topics that cover the current practical problems in sensor network communities. We have gathered the practical experience in the production of scientic and technical documentation. e.g Research & Development scientic papers. And there should be more open papers and research documents available freely for the reseachers in this sensor network area. We need to work more our project MicazXpl Version 0.2.Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Project Proposals Conclusion Bibliography Thank You for listening !Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com
    • Introduction to Sensor Networks Introduction to Micaz Sensor Board Project Approach Project Proposals Conclusion Bibliography Bibliography TinyOS Ocial Website http://tinyos.net/ An Overview of Sensor Network Techniques, EECS 600 Advanced Network Research, Spring 2005 Wireless Sensor Networks, John A. Stankovic, Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 The Collection Tree Protocol (CTP), TEP 123Ankit Singh Philipp Orekhov Rishu Seth Mohammad Tarique MicazXpl Project Report http://micazxpl.googlecode.com