Pap smear-test-and-information


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Pap Smear test and Information

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Pap smear-test-and-information

  1. 1. Pap Smear test and Information 1
  2. 2. Index S.No Title Pg.No 1 Pap smear test – The process to detect and address 3 Cervical Cancer 2 Cervical Smear Test – End to Woman’s suffering 4 3 Cervical Cancer Information – Women Care 5 2
  3. 3. 1. Pap smear test – The process to detect and address Cervical CancerGenerally cancers are formed from oncogenic cells. These are the cells that are affected by oncogenes;genes that stimulate uncontrollable cell division leading to formation of tumors. When such a tumor occursin the cervix of a woman’s body, it causes cervical cancer and the Pap smear test is the test which is usedto detect and confirm this.The cervix is the area near the uterus of the female anatomy. The anatomical opening connecting to thecervix is the vagina. For the examination of the area during the Pap smear testing, the examiner will insertan instrument called the speculum into the vagina. Unlike other similar devices, the speculum is used toenable direct vision. Once the cervix is visible, the manual procedure of cleansing the cervix with a cottonswab is carried out. A sample of cells are then collected and studied under the microscope.Pap smear testing can be carried out on a regular basis to check for any kind of abnormality. Getting testedin primary stages even before the development of cancer can help treatment greatly. It is advised thatwomen should take their first pap smear test at 21 years of age or soon after they start indulging sexualintercourses. Women aged between 18 and 65 years are also encouraged to regularly get testedIn a healthy body the cells will have regular structure and functioning. But abnormalities may causeirritation, inflammation and discomfort in the genital regions. In case of benign swellings, treatment mayinclude removal of the cervix. The procedure is called Hysterectomy. However, this may not be needed forall abnormal growths or lumps as in the case of subtotal hysterectomy, where the uterus is removed but thecervix is left intact. In such case, regular taking the Pap smear test becomes inevitable.The American Cancer Society advocates that the examination should be carried out after 3 years ofintercourse and regularly after every 2 to 3 years for women above the age of 30. Further, they recommendcessation of the testing only after 70 years of age or incase of total Hysterectomy as discussed above.However, different organizations promote different norms, but it is necessary for women of our country to 3
  4. 4. stay updated plus informed. The internet is one great platform for the same. There are many medicalvideos, articles, papers, websites, forums, etc which can help us protect ourselves and live a healthy life.2. Cervical Smear Test – End to Woman’s sufferingCervical smear test is the key to an alert but enjoyable life. This test is also known as the pap smear test orthe Papanicolaou test, which helps determine the signs for cervical cancer. The inventor of this test was theGreek doctor Georgios Papanikolaou, and hence the name. Cervical cancer is one of the most commoncancers in women.The smear test checks the signs for cancer of the cervix, a part of the uterus (also known as ‘neck of thewomb’) by looking out for any abnormality or signs of changing cells for pre-cancerous conditions. Asthere is ignorance prevailing about the precancerous conditions and Pap smear testing, many women suffersilently, unaware about all the involvements.The cervix does not play a role in a non-pregnant women but it helps to maintain pregnancy. The cervicalsmear test should be done regularly to detect any changes in the cells before it becomes cancerous.Sometimes, it may take years to detect these changes and women find it an ordeal to cope with the anxiety.Early diagnosis and treatment in precancerous cells can prevent cancer. The test detects early changes inthe squamous cells rather then adenocarcinoma.The treatment of early stage of cancer growth may be treated with surgery or radiotherapy. The cervicalcancer may be diagnosed by a biopsy of the cervix. The internal examination is called a colposcopy. Theseverity also decides the mode of treatment for instance, a radical hysterectomy. There are no definitecauses for cervical cancer but factors like smoking and viral infection of the cervix are said to increase therisk.The procedure for pap smear testing involves insertion of a special instrument known as speculum, foropening the vagina and collecting sample cells to be checked microscopically. The detailed videos of thetest can be seen with the help of top medical videos. It is advisable to start the pap smear tests at the age of21 when sex activity starts. Regular tests should be taken by women between the ages of 18 to 65. 4
  5. 5. Not all abnormal results mean symptoms of cervical cancer. It may just imply some changes in the cells ofthe cervix and this precancerous condition is fully treatable with early diagnosis and action. Theabnormalities in the result may be irritation, inflammation or abnormal cells.With the introduction of smear test, the number of women dying of cervical cancer has decreaseddrastically. It is said that regular Pap smear screening can reduce the cancer incidence by 80% and this onlyspeaks about the importance of regularity of smear test and its follow-up.3. Cervical Cancer Information – Women careThis lethal disease needs awareness as it can be treated if it is detected early. Use of condoms can reducebut does not always prohibit the contraction of this disease. Likewise, skin to skin contact with infectedareas can spread the HPV virus. The best preventive measure is to have regular screenings and have ahealthy body and immune system to fight these infections. Tobacco consumption has carcinogens whichare harmful and smoking doubles the risk of cervical cancer. Avoiding these may decrease the risk orpersistence of this disease.The symptoms of cervical cancer may be pain during intercourse, pelvic pain, frequent urination, vaginalbleeding or unexpected vaginal discharge etc. Although these symptoms do not imply presence of cervicalcancer but mark its possibility. Cervical cancer may be detected by the regular cervical cancer screeningtests. This Pap smear test is not painful and involves sampling of cells from the cervix to examine itmicroscopically. Advent of new technology everyday helps in finding new ways of detecting cervicalcancer in early stages.Cervical cancer treatment is the most effective when it is detected in early stages and it involves surgicalprocedures like removal of uterus, ovaries or fallopian tubes, radiation or chemotherapy. 5
  6. 6. Reference:Pap Smear Test: - 6
  7. 7. Thank you 7